Manado

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Manado
City
Skyline of Manado
Official seal of Manado
Seal
Motto: Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou
(Men live to help others live)
Manado is located in Sulawesi
Manado
Manado
Location of Manado in Sulawesi
Manado is located in Indonesia
Manado
Manado
Location of Manado in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°29′35″N 124°50′29″E / 1.49306°N 124.84139°E / 1.49306; 124.84139
Country Indonesia
Province North Sulawesi
Founded 1623
Government
 • Mayor G. S. Vicky Lumentut
 • Vice Mayor Harley Mangindaan
Area[1]
 • Total 166.87 km2 (64.43 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2014)[2]
 • Total 430,790
 • Density 2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
Website kotamanado.go.id

Coordinates: 1°29′35″N 124°50′28.54″E / 1.49306°N 124.8412611°E / 1.49306; 124.8412611

Manado (pronounced [məˈnadu][citation needed]) is the capital city of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. Manado is located at the Bay of Manado,[3] and is surrounded by a mountainous area. The city had 408,354 inhabitants at the 2010 Census,[4] making it the second-largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar. The latest official estimate (for january 2014) is 430,790.

Etymology[edit]

The name Manado comes from manadou or wanazou meaning "on the far coast" or "in the distance," which derived from Minahasan Language, and originally referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua ("Old Manado").[5] The name for Manado in Sangir language is Manaro.

History[edit]

The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by cartographer Nicolas Desliens, where it showed the island Manarow (today's Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived to North Sulawesi the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced the Muslim religion among some of its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, taking possession of the Minahasa and established a factory in Wenang.

Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[6] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo.[7]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[8] Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.

Fort Nieuw Amsterdam in the 1920s

The Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658. As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianization by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk (Old church) which still stands and is now called Gereja Sentrum. The Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. The English biologist Alfred Wallace visited Manado in 1859, and praised the town for its beauty.

In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted as the Diocese of Manado.

The Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942.[9] The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II.

In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado. When Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

Administration[edit]

The city is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan). The table below lists population totals from the 2010 Census. It does not include the districts of Bunaken Kepulauan and Paal 2, which were established in 2012.

Name Population
Census 2010[10]
Malalayang 54,959
Sario 23,198
Wanea 56,962
Wenang 32,796
Tikala 69,734
Mapanget 53,194
Singkil 46,721
Tuminting 52,089
Bunaken 20,828

Transportation[edit]

Sam Ratulangi International Airport of Manado is one of the main entry ports to Indonesia. In 2005, no less than 15,000 international passengers entered Indonesia via the city's airport. Other public transportation in Manado are:

  1. Trans Kawanua
  2. Mikrolet/Angkutan Umum
  3. Bus serving Tomohon to Manado

Main sights[edit]

Manado is home to some of the biggest and most influential churches in the province, with many of them located along the iconic Sam Ratulangi Street.[11]

Ban Hin Kiong Temple is another popular tourism spot in the city, especially during the Chinese new year celebration.

Other places of interest include nearby Lake Tondano, Lake Linow,[12] Lokon Volcano, Klabat Volcano and Mahawu Volcano, Bukit Kasih ( Hill of Love ) and Watu Pinabetengan

Citraland, a wealthy suburb of Manado, is home to Asia's 2nd tallest and the world's 4th tallest statue of Christ (Christ Blessing Statue), and perhaps the world's first statue in the flying posture.

[13]

Tourism[edit]

Scuba diving and snorkeling are practiced in the nearby Bunaken National Park, including the island of Bunaken.[14][15][16]

Local food tinutuan, or bubur manado, is sold in Wakeke Street, declared by the local government to be an area of culinary tourism.[17]

Manado Boulevard Carnaval (MBC) is a Fashion Carnival at every 16 July inline with Manado City Birthday.[18]

Climate[edit]

Manado features a tropical rainforest climate (Af)[19] under the Köppen climate classification. The city averages roughly 2,850 mm (112 in) of rain annually. Manado has a noticeably rainier season that spans from November through June and a drier season that covers the remaining four months. However, Manado does not have a true dry season where monthly precipitation figures falls below 60 mm (2.4 in). As with many other cities with this climate, average temperatures remain constant throughout the year, with average high temperatures at around 30 °C (86 °F) and average low temperatures at around 24 °C (75 °F).

The highest record temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on August 30, 1988, while the lowest record temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) on December 21, 1993.[20]

Climate data for Manado
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 42
(108)
42
(108)
38
(100)
39
(102)
38
(100)
37
(99)
35
(95)
45
(113)
38
(100)
39
(102)
38
(100)
40
(104)
45
(113)
Average high °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
29.4
(84.9)
29.6
(85.3)
30.7
(87.3)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
31.6
(88.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.7
(89.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30
(86)
30.63
(87.14)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.9
(78.6)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79)
26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.6
(79.9)
27
(81)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.55
(79.82)
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73)
22.49
(72.48)
Record low °C (°F) 18
(64)
11
(52)
11
(52)
11
(52)
11
(52)
10
(50)
10
(50)
11
(52)
12
(54)
16
(61)
12
(54)
8
(46)
8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 452
(17.8)
353
(13.9)
304
(11.97)
218
(8.58)
179
(7.05)
176
(6.93)
133
(5.24)
111
(4.37)
106
(4.17)
141
(5.55)
243
(9.57)
264
(10.39)
2,680
(105.52)
Avg. rainy days 22 19 16 14 15 15 11 11 10 11 15 20 179
Mean daily sunshine hours 6 6 6 7 6 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 6
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 12m)[19] Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine[21]
Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures,[20] World Climates[22]
Manado mean sea temperature[21]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 29 °C (84 °F)

Sister cities[edit]

Language[edit]

The local language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area is a creole of the Malay language called Manado Malay.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ North Sulawesi in Figures 2013. Badan Pusat Statistik Sulawesi Utara, 2013, p. 52.
  2. ^ North Sulawesi in Figures 2013. Badan Pusat Statistik Sulawesi Utara, 2013, p. 52.
  3. ^ In the shadows of volcanoes: Manado Bay and its harbour
  4. ^ http://www.datastatistik-indonesia.com/component/option,com_tabel/task,/Itemid,165/
  5. ^ Willem H. Makaliwe, 1981, A preliminary note on genealogy and intermarriage in the Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 137, p. 245
  6. ^ Wahr, C.R. Minahasa (history) Website
  7. ^ Wahr, C. R. Minahasa (history) Website
  8. ^ Milburn, William (1813). Oriental commerce: containing a geographical description of the principal places in the East Indies, China, and Japan, with their produce, manufactures, and trade. New York: Black, Parry & Co. p. 406. 
  9. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Fall of Menado, January 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. 
  10. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  11. ^ Great Churches of Manado
  12. ^ The lakes of Sulut: Danau Tondano and Linow
  13. ^ Christ Blessing and the Waruga
  14. ^ Off to Bunaken
  15. ^ Livin’ la vida Bunaken’s way
  16. ^ Bunaken’s blue, blue seas
  17. ^ (Indonesian)"Makan Pagi Tinutuan di Wakeke". www.kompas.com. 2 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  18. ^ http://www.mediaindonesia.com/mediatravelista/index.php/read/2011/07/18/2900/1/Manado-Boulevard-Carnaval-Digelar-Rutin
  19. ^ a b "Climate: Manado - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Manado, Indonesia". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  21. ^ a b "Manado Climate and Weather Averages, Indonesia". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "Climate of Manado Indonesia". World Climates. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 

External links[edit]

  • Manado travel guide from Wikivoyage