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Manado Malay is a language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area. The local name of the language is Bahasa Manado, and the name Minahasa Malay is also used, after the main ethnic group speaking the language. Since Manado Malay is used only for spoken communication, there is no standard orthography.
Manado Malay is actually a creole of the Malay language. It differs from Malay in having a large number of Portuguese and Dutch loan words and in traits like for example its use of "kita" as a first person singular pronoun, while "kita" is a first person inclusive plural pronoun in Malay.
Most words have stress on the pre-final syllable:
- words in from Bahasah Manado in the mixture of Portuguese and Dutch
But there are also many words with final stress:
|buTUL||'right, correct, true'|
|Standard Indonesian||Manado Malay|
|First plural||kami / kita||torang|
Possessives are built by adding "pe" to the personal pronoun or name or noun, then followed by the 'possessed' noun. Thus "pe" has the function similar to English "'s" as in "the doctor's uniform".
|My friend||kita pe tamang / ta pe tamang|
|Your (sing.) friend||ngana pe tamang / nga pe tamang|
|His/her book||dia pe buku / de pe buku|
|This book is yours (pl.)||ini ngana pe buku|
Why = KYApa?
Where = di MAna?
Who = SApa?
Which one(s) = tu MAna?
Ada ('to be') can be used in Manadonese Malay to indicate the perfective aspect e.g. :
- Dorang ada turun pigi Wenang = "They already went down to Wenang"
- Torang so makan = "We ate already", or "We have eaten already".
- kita- me, myself, i or we, us
- torang- we, us
- makang (Indonesian makan) = "to eat",
- jalang (Indonesian jalan) = "to walk",
- sirang (Indonesian siram) = "to shower" etc.
The ber prefix in Indonesian, which serves a function similar to the English -ing, is modified into ba in Manado Malay. E.g.: bajalang (berjalan, walking), batobo (berenang, swimming), batolor (bertelur, laying eggs)
The me prefix in standard Indonesian, which also serves a function to make a verb active, is modified into ma in Manado Malay. E.g.: mangael (mengail, hooking fish), manari (menari, dancing), mancari (mencari, searching), mamasa (memasak, cooking), manangis (menangis, crying).
Several words in standard Indonesian is shortened in Manado Malay. For example:
pi (standard Indonesian: pergi, to go)
- mo pi mana ngoni? (where are you people going?)
co (standard Indonesian: coba, to try)
- co lia ini oto (try have a look at this car)
so (standard Indonesian: sudah, have/has done)
- so klar? (have you finished?), "so maleleh?" (has it molten?), so kanyang?" (are your stomachs full yet?)
ta (standard Indonesian: awalan ter, passive prefix)
- tasono? (fallen asleep) , tajatung? (fallen), tagoso (being rubbed)
Indonesian loanwards from Manado Malay
Several words in Manado Malay is loaned to the standard Indonesian:
- baku (which indicates reciprocality) e.g. : baku hantam (to punch each other), baku ajar (to hit each other), baku veto (to debate one another), baku sedu (to laugh oneselves off), baku dapa (to meet each other).
Manado Malay loanwords from other languages
|Standard Indonesian||Manado Malay loanword||Language of Origin||English meaning|
|topi||capeo||Portuguese (chapéu)||cap, hat|
|jagung||milu||Portuguese (milho)||corn, maize|
|dahi||testa||Portuguese (testa)||forehead, temple|
|kebun||kintal||Portuguese (quintal)||(agricultural) field or garden|