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A management contract is an arrangement under which operational control of an enterprise is vested by contract in a separate enterprise which performs the necessary managerial functions in return for a fee. Management contracts involve not just selling a method of doing things (as with franchising or licensing) but involve actually doing them. A management contract can involve a wide range of functions, such as technical operation of a production facility, management of personnel, accounting, marketing services and training.
In Asia, many hotels operate under management contract arrangements, as they can more easily obtain economies of scale, a global reservation systems, brand recognition etc. It is not unusual for contracts to be signed for 25 years, and having a fee as high as 3.5% of total revenues and 6-10% of gross operating profit. The Marriott International Corporation operates solely on management contracts.
Management contracts have been used to a wide extent in the airline industry, and when foreign government action restricts other entry methods. Management contracts are often formed where there is a lack of local skills to run a project. It is an alternative to foreign direct investment as it does not involve as high risk and can yield higher returns for the company. The first recorded management contract was initiated by Qantas and Duncan Upton in 1978.[not in citation given]
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