Management cybernetics

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Management cybernetics is the field of cybernetics concerned with management and organizations. The notion of cybernetics and management was first introduced by Stafford Beer in the late 1950s. [1]

Organisational cybernetics[edit]

Organizational cybernetics is distinguished from management cybernetics. Both uses many of the same terms but interpret them according to another philosophy of systems thinking. Organizational cybernetics by contrast offers a significant break with the assumption of the hard approach. The full flowering of organizational cybernetics is represented by Beer's Viable System Model.[2]

Organizational Cybernetics (OC) studies organizational design, and the regulation and self-regulation of organizations from a systems theory perspective that also takes the social dimension into consideration. Researchers in economics, public administration and political science focus on the changes in institutions, organisation and mechanisms of social steering at various levels (sub-national, national, European, international) and in different sectors (including the private, semi-private and public sectors; the latter sector is emphasised).[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jonathan Rosenhead (2006) "IFORS' Operational Research Hall of Fame Stafford Beer", in International Transactions in Operational Research Vol 13, nr.6, pp. 577–578.
  2. ^ Michael C. Jackson (1991), Systems Methodology for the Management Sciences.
  3. ^ Organisational Cybernetics, Nijmegen School of Management, The Netherlands.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cwarel Isaf Institute (2002), Methods and Models, Retrieved 26 July 2007 from
  • Stafford Beer (1959), Cybernetics and Management, English University Press. 214pp.
  • Stafford Beer (1966), Decision and Control: The Meaning of Operational Research and Management Cybernetics, 568 pages.
  • Stafford Beer (1972), Brain of the Firm: A Development in Management Cybernetics, Herder and Herder.
  • Stafford Beer (1979), The Heart of Enterprise, John Wiley, London and New York.
  • Stafford Beer (1985), Diagnosing the System for Organizations, John Wiley, ISBN 0471906751
  • Raul Espejo (2006), "What is systemic thinking?", in: System Dynamics Review, Vol 10, Issue 2-3, pp 199–212.
  • Michael C. Jackson (1991), Systems Methodology for the Management Sciences.
  • Michael C. Jackson (2000), Systems Approaches to Management, 465 p.
  • Richard F. Ericson (1969). Organizational cybernetics and human values. Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology. Monograph. George Washington University.
  • Francis Heylighen (2001), "Cybernetics and Second-Order Cybernetics" in: R.A. Meyers (ed.), Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed.), (Academic Press, New York.
  • George E. Lasker and Aleksander Zgrzywa, (Eds.) (2003), Information Systems Research and Management Cybernetics, 65 p.
  • A. Leonard (2002), "Stafford Beer: The Father of Management Cybernetics", in: Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Volume 9, Numbers 3-4, 2002, pp. 133–136(4).
  • P.N. Rastogi (1979), Introduction to Social and Management Cybernetics, New Delhi: Affiliated East West Press.
  • Lars Skyttner (2001), "Multiple perspectives of management cybernetics", in: General Systems Theory: Ideas & Applications, p. 327-336.
  • Stuart A. Umpleby & Eric B. Dent (1999), "The origins and purposes of several traditions in systems theory and cybernetics", in: Cybernetics & Systems, Taylor & Francis
  • Wolfgang Winter & Manuela Thurm (2005), "Second-order cybernetics! In systemic management thinking?", in: Kybernetes, Vol 34 Issue: 3/4 pp. 419–426.

External links[edit]