Management information system
Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them. This definition, given by Mays Business School, relates specifically to MIS as a course of study. In other words, MIS is commonly used in business schools to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Many business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and may award degrees (at undergraduate, master, and doctoral levels) in MIS.
A good definition of MIS in practice has been given in a journal article: "Establishing and Managing Management Information Systems in Developing Countries" by Dr. Chris Prince Udochukwu Njoku. Dr. Njoku gave the comprehensive definition after a critical assessment of many definitions, some of which he cited, and described them as inadequate.
MIS professionals help organizations--big, medium and small--realize maximum benefit from investments in personnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is people-oriented, with an emphasis on service. Although today it is increasingly built on computer hardware, software and networks, it does not necessarily have to be computer-based. In asserting this truth, E. Oz, in his Management Information Systems (3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: Course Technology, 2002, p.2), wrote: “…information system does not have to include electronic equipment.”
There are different areas of concentration with different duties and responsibilities in information system managers starting from the Chief information officer(CIOs),Chief technology officer(CTOs),IT directors and IT security managers. Chief information officer (CIOs) are responsible for the overall technology stately of their organizations. Basically they are more of the decision makers and action takers when it comes down determining the technology or information goals an organization and making sure the necessary planning to implement those goals are being met .
Chief technology officer (CTOs) are responsible for evaluating how new technology can help their organization. They usually recommend technological solutions to support the policies issued by the CIO. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/computer-and-information-systems-managers.htm#tab-2
IT directors including MIS directors are in charge of both their organizations Information technology departments and the supervision of there of. They are also in charge of implementing the policies that have been chosen by the other top branches (CIOs,CTOs). It is their role to ensure the availability of data and network services by coordinating IT activities
IT Security Managers oversee the network and security data as the title implies. They develop programs to offer information and awareness to their employees about security threats. This team is very important because they must keep up to date on It security measures in order to be successful in their organization. Any security violations need to be investigated and supervised by this specific team.
Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of Management Information System evolution corresponding to the five phases in the development of computing technology: 1) mainframe and minicomputer computing, 2) personal computers, 3) client/server networks, 4) enterprise computing, and 5) cloud computing.
The first era (mainframe and minicomputer) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers; these computers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them — IBM supplied the hardware and the software. As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle greater capacities and therefore reduce their cost. Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run their own computing centers in-house.
The second era (personal computer) began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices. In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to personal computers and relatively low cost computers were becoming mass market commodities, allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have cost tens of thousands of dollars. This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet. (NOTE that the first microprocessor - a four-bit device intended for a programmable calculator - was introduced in 1971, and microprocessor-based systems were not readily available for several years. The MITS Altair 8800 was the first commonly-known microprocessor-based system, followed closely by the Apple I and II. It is arguable that the microprocessor-based system did not make significant inroads into minicomputer use until 1979, when VisiCalc prompted record sales of the Apple II on which it ran. The IBM PC introduced in 1981 was more broadly palatable to business, but its limitations gated its ability to challenge minicomputer systems until perhaps the late 1980s.)
As technological complexity increased and costs decreased, the need to share information within an enterprise also grew—giving rise to the third era (client/server), in which computers on a common network access shared information on a server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access data simultaneously. The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high speed networks, tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure.Every computer is utilized.
The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest and employs networking technology to deliver applications as well as data storage independent of the configuration, location or nature of the hardware. This, along with high speed cellphone and wifi networks, has led to new levels of mobility in which managers may access the MIS remotely with laptop, tablet computers and smartphones.
Types and terminology
The terms management information system (MIS), information system, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and information technology management are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns the operation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose.
- Management information systems, produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems.
- Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle and higher management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. A DSS is used mostly for semi-structured and unstructured decision problems.
- Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations.
- Marketing Information Systems are Management Information Systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business.
- Office automation systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating workflow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management.
- School Information management systems (SIMS) cover school administration,and often including teaching and learning materials.
- Enterprise resource planning facilitates the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained using MISs.
- Companies are able to identify their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees' performance record etc. Identifying these aspects can help a company improve its business processes and operations.
- Giving an overall picture of the company.
- Acting as a communication and planning tool.
- The availability of customer data and feedback can help the company to align its business processes according to the needs of its customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities.
- MISs can help a company gain a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a firm’s ability to do something better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely, when compared with rival firms in the market.
- Enterprise systems—also known as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems—provide integrated software modules and a unified database that personnel use to plan, manage, and control core business processes across multiple locations. Modules of ERP systems may include finance, accounting, marketing, human resources, production, inventory management, and distribution.
- Supply chain management (SCM) systems enable more efficient management of the supply chain by integrating the links in a supply chain. This may include suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and final customers.
- Customer relationship management (CRM) systems help businesses manage relationships with potential and current customers and business partners across marketing, sales, and service.
- Knowledge management system (KMS) helps organizations facilitate the collection, recording, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of knowledge. This may include documents, accounting records, unrecorded procedures, practices, and skills. Knowledge management (KM) as a system covers the process of knowledge creation and acquisition from internal processes and the external world. The collected knowledge is incorporated in organizational policies and procedures, and then disseminated to the stakeholders.
"The actions that are taken to create an information system that solves an organizational problem are called system development". These include system analysis, system design, computer programming/implementation, testing, conversion, production and finally maintenance.
Conversion is the process of changing or converting the old system into the new. This can be done in three basic ways, though newer methods (prototyping, Extreme Programming, JAD, etc.) are replacing these traditional conversion methods in many cases:
- Direct cut – The new system replaces the old at an appointed time.
- Pilot study -– Introducing the new system to a small portion of the operation to see how it fares. If good then the new system expands to the rest of the company.
- Enterprise Information System
- Bachelor of Computer Information Systems
- Business intelligence
- Business performance management
- Business rule
- Corporate governance of information technology
- Data mining
- Enterprise architecture
- Enterprise planning system
- Management by objectives
- Online analytical processing
- Online office suite
- Real-time Marketing
- O’Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems – Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-112373-3.
- Laudon, Kenneth C.; Laudon, Jane P. (2009). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11 ed.). Prentice Hall/CourseSmart. p. 164.
- Transaction processing systems (TPS) collect and record the routine transactions of an organization. Examples of such systems are sales order entry, hotel reservations, payroll, employee record keeping, and shipping.
- Bidgoli, Hossein, (2004). The Internet Encyclopedia, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 707.
- Pant, S., Hsu, C., (1995), Strategic Information Systems Planning: A Review, Information Resources Management Association International Conference, May 21–24, Atlanta.
- Taylor, Victoria. "Supply Chain Management: The Next Big Thing?". Sept. 12, 2011. Business Week. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Lynn, Samara. "What is CRM?". PC Mag. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Joshi, Girdhar (2013). Management Information Systems. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 328. ISBN 9780198080992.
- Laudon, K.,&Laudon, J. (2010). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm. (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Management information system