Manaus

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Coordinates: 03°06′00″S 60°01′00″W / 3.10000°S 60.01667°W / -3.10000; -60.01667

Manaus
Municipality
Municipality of Manaus
Manaus center, From top left: Amazonas Theater, Top right: View of Manaus from Cidade Nova, Middleof left: Manaus Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro, Middle right: A sightseeing boats in Meeting of Water, 3rd left: Sunset in Rio Negro's resort site, 3rd right: San Sebastian Cathedral in Manaus, Bottom: View of Nossa Senhora das Gracas area
Manaus center, From top left: Amazonas Theater, Top right: View of Manaus from Cidade Nova, Middleof left: Manaus Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro, Middle right: A sightseeing boats in Meeting of Water, 3rd left: Sunset in Rio Negro's resort site, 3rd right: San Sebastian Cathedral in Manaus, Bottom: View of Nossa Senhora das Gracas area
Flag of Manaus
Flag
Official seal of Manaus
Seal
Nickname(s): "A Paris dos Trópicos" ("The Paris of the Tropics")
Location of Manaus
Coordinates: 03°06′0″S 60°01′0″W / 3.10000°S 60.01667°W / -3.10000; -60.01667
Founded October 24, 1669
Government
 • Mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
Area
 • Municipality 11,401.06 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Municipality 1,982,179 (7th)
 • Density 173,86/km2 (45,030/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,316,173 (11th)
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) DST no longer used (UTC-4)
Postal Code 69000-000
Area code(s) (+55) 92
Website Manaus, Amazonas

Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈnaws] or [mɐˈnawʃ]), or Manáos before 1939, or (formerly) Lugar de Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in northern Brazil. It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. It is the most populous city of Amazonas, according to the statistics of IBGE.[1]

The city was founded in 1693-94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of Black River". Only on September 4, 1856, did it revert to its current name.[2]

Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily through boat or aeroplane. This isolation helped preserve both the nature as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main entrance to visit the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the World afford such a variety of plants, trees, birds, insects, fishes, etc.[3]

It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest".[4] Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Pool of Manaus, the famous Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.[5]

The city's population is 1.5 million people in 2013, is the most populous in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country.[6] Located on the north bank of the Negro River, 11 miles (18 km) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, Manaus is 900 miles (1,450 km) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It's the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.[7]

Solimões and Negro rivers meet in Manaus and join together to form the Amazon River. Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love of sophisticated European art, architecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged needed development in the region.[8]

The city will be one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Manaus is the only host city in Amazon rainforest and Northern Brazil.

History[edit]

Manaus in 1865.
Public Library of the Amazon.

Early settlement[edit]

The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1693-94 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by Portugal in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains.[9] It continued to function for more than 114 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.[9]

The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city.[10] The Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the capitancy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but the governor, Lobo D'Almada, fearing Spanish invasions, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, with Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".[11]

Cabanagem[edit]

The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Indians and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[12] The entry of the High Amazonas (Manaus today, which was the cradle of the city in the Western Amazon) in Cabanagem was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the period of revolution, the Cabanos of the High Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population's spontaneously joining their ranks and there was a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people surrounding thus forming the state, thanks to Cabanagem.[13]

Rubber boom[edit]

Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world"[14] One historian has written, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne."[15] The decadence extended to a grand opera house, vast domes and gilded balconies, and marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars, but its foolhardiness was demonstrated by the death by yellow fever of half the members of one visiting opera troupe.[16] The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, still exists today; it has been restored, was used in the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo, and after a type of interlude lasting almost 90 years, presents operas once again.[17]

When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region,[Note 1] Brazil lost its monopoly on the product and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had brought electricity to the city before it arrived in many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run, and the city lost artificial lighting for years.[18]

The declaration of a duty-free zone in Manaus added to the economic prosperity of the city.[19]

Geography[edit]

The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401.06 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 144.4 inhabitants/km². It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara, Amazonas and Novo Airão.

Climate[edit]

Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate. Rain is somewhat seasonal, with one half of the year being half as rainy as the other. Manaus technically has a dry season, August, where less than 60mm of precipitation falls. Because of this dry season month, the city's climate falls under the tropical monsoon climate category instead of the tropical rainforest climate category, with more or less consistent temperatures all year round.http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm

Climate data for Manaus, Brazil (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37
(99)
37
(99)
36
(97)
37
(99)
36
(97)
35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.42
(88.54)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
26.0
(78.8)
26.1
(79)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
27.9
(82.2)
27.3
(81.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.68
(80.01)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.26
(73.87)
Record low °C (°F) 18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17
(63)
17
(63)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17
(63)
Rainfall mm (inches) 260.1
(10.24)
288.3
(11.35)
313.5
(12.343)
300.1
(11.815)
256.3
(10.091)
113.6
(4.472)
87.5
(3.445)
57.9
(2.28)
83.3
(3.28)
125.7
(4.949)
183.0
(7.205)
216.9
(8.539)
2,286.2
(90.009)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 21 20 21 20 19 12 10 7 9 11 12 18 180
 % humidity 85 86 86 87 86 83 80 79 79 79 81 85 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.7 86.8 99.2 111.0 148.8 186.0 213.9 226.3 156.0 170.5 141.0 130.2 1,784.4
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization.,[20] Hong Kong Observatory,[21]
Source #2: Weatherbase (record highs and lows, humidity)[22]

Vegetation[edit]

Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus.

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[23] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[24]

Green areas[edit]

Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus has few green areas. The city's stock has been frequent in recent years. The largest green areas of the city:

  • Park of Mindu: Located in the Center-South of the city, the district Park 10, the Park of Mindú is now one of the largest and most visited parks of the city Amazon. It was created in 1989, through a popular manifesto initiated by the residents of the neighborhood Park on November 10.
  • Park of Bilhares: Established in 2005-06, the Park of Bilhares is located in south-central region of Manaus, in the neighborhood of Plateau in the direction neighborhood-Center. The park is one of the attractions of the city.
  • Area of the green hill of Aleixo: Created in the 1980s, the green area of the Hill Aleixo is located in the east of the city and is one of the largest urban green areas. It is not open to visits by constant invasions of landless.
  • Park Sumaúma: It is a state park located in the north of Manaus, in the district New Town. It is the smallest state park of the Amazon.
  • The Adolfo Ducke Forest Reserve is nearby.

Demographics[edit]

Amazonas Theatre.
Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra.

According to the IBGE of 2012, there were 1,861,906 people residing in the city, and 2,283,906 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 149.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (388 /sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% Mixed race, 31.88% White, 2.43% Black, 0.87% Asian or Amerindian.[25]

The population of Manaus is 1,861,838 inhabitants (as performed by counting IBGE in 2012), making it the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital of the country. Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 inhabitants in 1970. Hence by 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km ².

Religion[edit]

Although it has been developed along a predominantly Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration - even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic, one can find dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city, as well as the practice of Judaism, Candomblé, Islam and spiritualism, among others.[9] The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Episcopal Anglican Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. A LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.[26]

Districts and regions[edit]

Satellite view of the city.

Metropolitan region[edit]

The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM), which has 2,283,906 inhabitants (counting the population IBGE in 2012) is a metropolitan area of Brazil that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.

Regions[edit]

Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).[27] The northern region of the city that has the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the New Town. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.[28]

Neighborhoods[edit]

The first neighborhood established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began receiving human occupation, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood New Town (Cidade Nova), which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. The New Town is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.[29]

With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

Economy[edit]

Downtown Manaus at night.
Rio Negro Bridge.

Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, timber and Brazil-nuts make up important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives have turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).

Manaus sprawls, but the center of town, the Centro where most of the hotels and attractions are located, rises above the river on a slight hill. As the largest city and a major port on the river, Manaus is commercial. Local industries include brewing, shipbuilding, soap manufacturing, the production of chemicals, computers, motorcycles and petroleum refining of oil brought in by barge and tourism.[30][31]

The mobile phone companies Nokia, Siemens, Sagem, Gradiente and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.[32][33] Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus.[34] Two airlines, Rico Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds of Eduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.[35][36]

The GDP for the city was R$ 31,916,257,000 (2006).[37]

The per capita income for the city was R$ 18,902 (2006) or about US$10,661.[38]

Free Economic Zone[edit]

The Free Economic Zone of Manaus (Portuguese: Zona Franca de Manaus - ZFN) is located in the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil. The initial idea, a Free Trade Port in Manaus, came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951 under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurcio Jopper, engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.

For the first ten years the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castello Branco signed whose draft accompanied the Exposition of Motives. Decree-Law No. 288 amended the provisions of Law No. 3.173/57 and redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10,000 km (6,200 mi) with an industrial centre as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.

In August 28, 1967, was created the Manaus Free Trade Zone Superintendence, SUFRAMA, an autarchy with its own legal status and assets and having financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUFRAMA and SUDAM.

Education[edit]

Educational Institute of the Amazon.

The city has several universities:

  • Federal University of Amazonas - Universidade Federal do Amazonas;
  • University of the State of Amazonas - Universidade do Estado do Amazonas;
  • Federal Center of Technological Education - Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica;
  • Centro Universitário do Norte - UNINORTE;
  • Lutheran University of Brazil - Universidade Luterana do Brasil;
  • Centro de Educação Integrada Martha Falcão;
  • Centro de Ensino Superior Nilton Lins;
  • Centro Universitário de Educação Superior do Amazonas - CIESA;
  • Escola Superior Batista do Amazonas;
  • Faculdade Boas Novas;
  • Faculdade Metropolitana de Manaus;
  • Universidade Paulista.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,[39] handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated their own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which boasts to be their largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other routes include North America and Europe.

The passenger terminal is undergoing reforms, and will be expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which will have some venues held in Manaus. The airport currently operates daily international flights to Miami, United States, by American Airlines and TAM. And to Panama city, by Copa Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.

Manaus Air Force Base, a base of the Brazilian Air Force is at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.

Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.

Highways[edit]

There are two federal highways connecting the city to the rest of the country. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, the access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and River Amazon, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 km (62 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and can not be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far. The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the River Amazon, and is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new bridge spanning the Rio Negro at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.

Port[edit]

Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown. Lying on the banks of the Negro River, it is 1,450 kilometers (900 mi) inland in the heart of the Amazon rain forest. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the Port of Manaus, and other major electronics manufacturers have plants there. Major exports include Brazil nuts, chemicals, petroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products, and eco-tourism is an increasingly important source of income for the city. The recent discovery of petroleum in the area brings great promise of further wealth and commerce to the Port of Manaus.[40]

Today, the Port of Manaus is an important commercial centre for ocean-going vessels travelling the Amazon. In fact, it is the main transport hub for the entire upper Amazon Basin. It imports beef from the hinterlands and exports hides and leather. Important industries in the Port of Manaus include manufacturing of soap, chemicals, electronics equipment as well as shipbuilding, brewing, and petroleum refining. With so much industry and commerce, the Port of Manaus has become a sophisticated cosmopolitan center. Located next to the Amazon rain forest, it also attracts crowds of tourists who find a variety of land and boat trips into the jungle. Wildlife is plentiful, even within the city, and it is home to the Pied Tamarin, one of Brazil's most endangered primates. Tour boats take visitors to see the point where the black waters of the Rio Negro meet the Solimões River's brown waters, flowing together without mixing for nine kilometers (5.6 miles).[41]

Events and holidays[edit]

View of Tropical Hotel.

The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February/early March, the Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month, each of which are extremely popular events in their own right. Staged at the famous Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. Festival Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, which has grown to become a major event in Manaus. Expect a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when literally hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.

October 24 is another date to add to your calendar, since it was on this day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party or two, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. Those in the city during November may like to check out a screening or two at the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecology, ethnology and human relationships.[42]

  • February – Amazonas Carnival – samba schools parade at the "sambódromo" in the Convention Center
  • May – Ponta Negra’s Music Festival
  • May - Amazonas Opera Festival
  • June – Amazonas Folklore Festival
  • July - Amazonas Jazz Festival
  • June 29 – São Pedro Fluvial Procession
  • September 5 - Elevation of Amazonas to the category of Brazilian Province
  • October 24 – Anniversary of Manaus
  • November - Amazonas Film Festival
  • December 31 – Ponta Negra's New Year's Eve Party

Sights and attractions[edit]

Amazonas Theatre.

Because of Manaus' location next to the Amazon rain forest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the Pied tamarin.

Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes or simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.

About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area. A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.

The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.[43] Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.

Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909 and is the oldest federal university of Brazil.

The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.

Amazonas Opera House[edit]

Amazonas Opera House.

The Amazonas Opera House has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from Europe, French glass and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The Theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances and more.[44]

Parks[edit]

Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport and Leisure Park

Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attctions. It also has an amphitheater with capacity for 15.000 people.

Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden

The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.[45]

Ponta Negra district.

Municipal Park of Mindú

It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the sauim-de-coleira, a species of monkey that only exists in the Manaus region and is threatened with extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, orchid nursery, aerial trails and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.[46]

Public swimming areas[edit]

The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.

Meeting of the Waters[edit]

The natural phenomenon of the confluence of the Rio Negro's water and the Solimões River's water.

This natural phenomenon is caused by the confluence of the Negro River's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi), both rivers waters run side by side, without mixing. This phenomenon is caused by the great difference between the water temperatures, acidity, and current speeds. The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).[47]

CIGS Zoo[edit]

The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.[48]

Beaches and waterfalls[edit]

For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.

Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).

Sports[edit]

Internal view of arena.

Football[edit]

The largest stadium of Manaus was the Vivaldão, which was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian National Team in their last game in the country before they headed to the World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 43,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[49]

The leader club in Manaus is the Nacional Football Club, founded on January 13, 1913, and called "Leão da Vila". Participant of the serie A (first division) for several times between 1970 and 1990. Nacional is 40-times state champion, the great state champion in Amazon state, and one of the greatest state champion in Brazil, and is the best amazonian football club ranked in the CBF ranking, the official Brazilian football entity.

Other club is the Athletic Club Rio Negro, called "Galo da Praça da Saudade" (Remembrance Square Rooster) or "Barriga Preta" club (Black Belly), also founded in 1913, but in November, which is the second largest holder of state titles, and the National Fast Club, the Tricolor of the Boulevard" or "roll", founded in the early 40 years from a dissident's National Football Club, which has won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champion and North-Northeast Championship runner-up in 1970.

There is also San Raimundo Sports Club – the Typhoon Hill (Tufão da Colina), founded on November 18, 1918, participant of the Series B (2nd division) of the Brazilian Championship until 2006, when it was demoted. It is a 7-times states champion, 3-times North Cup champion. It participated in a Conmebol Cup and thus its name is remembered outside the country.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu[edit]

Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson Paixao, Wallid Ismail, Saulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre Ribeiro, Ronaldo Souza, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). Jose Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is the current UFC World Featherweight Champion and a black-belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his title against Urijah Faber, Manvel Gamburyan, Mark Hominick and Kenny Florian.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Manaus is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an account, see The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, by Joe Jackson.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dados do Amazonas (Portuguese)
  2. ^ About Manaus (English)
  3. ^ Manaus Guide (English)
  4. ^ Heart of The Amazon and City of the Forest (English)
  5. ^ Manaus - The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2013 (English)
  6. ^ Manaus tem população estimada em 1,9 milhão de habitantes, diz IBGE (Portuguese)
  7. ^ Manaus Go South America (English)
  8. ^ Manaus, Brazil - Amazon River (English)
  9. ^ a b c About Manaus (English)
  10. ^ History of Manaus
  11. ^ Manaus History (English)
  12. ^ Renato Cancian. "Cabanagem (1835–1840): Uma das mais sangrentas rebeliões do período regencial". Universo Online Liçao de Casa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2007. 
  13. ^ Cabanagem History
  14. ^ David Grann. The Lost City of Z. Random House. New York: 2009. Page 87.
  15. ^ Robin Furneaux. The Amazon: the Story of a Great River. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. Page 153.
  16. ^ Grann 87.
  17. ^ Christina Lamb, "A night at the opera - and 14 days on the Amazon to get there", The Sunday Telegraph, London, 17th June 2001
  18. ^ Lamb, "A night at the opera."
  19. ^ "Google Nieuws". News.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  20. ^ Climate Information for Manaus, World Weather Information Service, Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  21. ^ "Climatological Information for Manaus, Brazil". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Manaus". Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  23. ^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  24. ^ Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals
  25. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  26. ^ [http://www.mission.net/brazil/manaus/messages.php " "Brazil Manaus Mission - 6 Mormon church in Brazil will be in Manaus"]. Brazil Manaus Mission. January 24, 2009. 
  27. ^ East zone of Manaus
  28. ^ Center-South region of Manaus
  29. ^ Amazonas City Populations, Retrieved on June 20, 2012
  30. ^ "Manaus, Brazil". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 2012-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  31. ^ Terry Wade of Reuters (2006-09-30). "Jets collide, 155 feared dead". Courier Mail. Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  32. ^ Nokia in Manaus
  33. ^ Siemens
  34. ^ Industries in Manaus
  35. ^ Home page. Rico Linhas Aéreas. Retrieved on February 9, 2010.
  36. ^ "Fale Conosco." Manaus Aerotáxi. Retrieved on October 13, 2009.
  37. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  38. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  39. ^ Cargo movement in International Airport of Manaus
  40. ^ Port of Manaus (English)
  41. ^ Port of Manaus
  42. ^ Events in Manaus (English)
  43. ^ Manaus (English)
  44. ^ Facts - Amazon Theatre
  45. ^ Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden
  46. ^ About Mindú Park
  47. ^ Natural phenomenon of confluence
  48. ^ Zoo of Manaus
  49. ^ Vivaldão Stadium (English)

External links[edit]