Manchester (UK Parliament constituency)

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Manchester
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Lancashire
(now Greater Manchester)
Major settlements Manchester
18321885
Number of members 1832–1868: Two
1868–1885: Three
Replaced by Manchester East
Manchester North
Manchester North East
Manchester North West
Manchester South
Manchester South West
Created from Lancashire
1654–1660
Type of constituency Borough constituency

Manchester was a Parliamentary borough constituency in the county of Lancashire which was represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its territory consisted of the city of Manchester.

History[edit]

Manchester had first been represented in Parliament in 1654, when it was granted one seat in the First Protectorate Parliament. However, as with other boroughs enfranchised during the Commonwealth, it was disenfranchised at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

The subsequent growth of Manchester into a major industrial city left its lack of representation a major anomaly, and demands for a seat in Parliament led to a mass public meeting in August 1819. This peaceful rally of 60,000 pro-democracy reformers, men, women and children, was attacked by armed cavalry resulting in 15 deaths and over 600 injuries,[1] and became known as the Peterloo Massacre.

Reform was attempted unsuccessfully by Lord John Russell, whose bills in 1828 and 1830 were rejected by the Commons. The city was finally enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, and at the 1832 general election, Manchester returned two Members of Parliament (MPs). The Reform Act 1867 increased this in 1868 to three Members of Parliament.

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the constituency was abolished with effect from the 1885 general election, when the city was split into six new single-member divisions: East, North, North East, North West, South, and South West.

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1654–1660[edit]

Election 1st Member
1654 Charles Worsley
1656 Richard Radcliffe

MPs 1832–1885[edit]

Election 1st Member[2] 1st Party[3] 2nd Member 2nd Party 3rd Member 3rd Party
1832 Mark Philips Whig Charles Poulett Thomson Whig 2 seats until 1868
3 seats from 1868 to 1885
1839 by-election Robert Hyde Greg Whig
1841 Thomas Milner Gibson Whig
1847 John Bright Radical
1857 John Potter Whig James Aspinall Turner Whig
1858 by-election Thomas Bazley Whig / Liberal
1865 Edward James Liberal
1867 by-election Jacob Bright Liberal
1868 Hugh Birley Conservative
1874 William Romaine Callender Conservative
1876 by-election Jacob Bright Liberal
1880 John Slagg Liberal
1883 by-election William Henry Houldsworth Conservative
1885 Constituency abolished (1885)

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

Manchester by-election, 1883
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Henry Houldsworth 18,188
Liberal Richard Pankhurst 6,216
Majority 11,972
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1880: Manchester (3 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Slagg 24,959
Liberal Jacob Bright 24,789
Conservative Hugh Birley 20,594
Conservative William Henry Houldsworth 20,268
Majority
Turnout
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
Liberal hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

Manchester by-election, 1875
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Jacob Bright 22,535
Conservative S Powell 20,974
Majority 1,561
Turnout
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1874: Manchester (3 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Hugh Birley 19,984
Conservative William Romaine Callender 19,649
Liberal Thomas Bazley 19,325
Liberal Jacob Bright 18,727
Majority
Turnout
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing
Conservative hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

General Election 1868: Manchester (3 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Hugh Birley 15,486
Liberal Thomas Bazley 14,192
Liberal Jacob Bright 13,154
Conservative Joseph Hoare 12,684
Liberal Ernest Jones 10,662
Liberal Henry Mitchell 5,256
Majority
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
Manchester by-election, 1867
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Jacob Bright 8,160
Conservative J M Bennett 6,420
Liberal Henry Mitchell 643
Majority 1,740
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
General Election 1865: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Bazley 7,909
Liberal Edward James 6,698
Liberal Jacob Bright 5,562
Liberal Abel Heywood 4,242
Majority
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1859: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Bazley 7,545
Liberal James Aspinall Turner 7,300
Liberal Abel Heywood 5,448
Conservative Capt. Denman 5,201
Majority
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
Manchester By-Election 17th November 1858

In the 1858 Manchester by-election, Thomas Bazley, Whig was elected unopposed.

General Election 1857: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig John Potter 8,368
Whig James Aspinall Turner 7,884
Whig Thomas Milner Gibson 5,588
Whig John Bright 5,458
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1852: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Rt Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson 5,762
Whig John Bright 5,475
Conservative George Loch 4,364
Conservative Capt. Hon. Joseph Denman 3,969
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General election of 1847

In the 1847 general election, both candidates were elected unopposed:

General Election 1841: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Mark Philips 3,695
Whig Thomas Milner Gibson 3,615
Conservative George Murray 3,115
Conservative Willam Entwistle 2,692
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1830s[edit]

Manchester by-election, 1839
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Robert Hyde Greg 3,096
Conservative George Murray 2,959
Whig Colonel Thomson 93
Majority 137
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1837: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Charles Poulett Thomson 4,158
Whig Mark Philips 3,750
Conservative William Ewart Gladstone 2,281
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
Manchester by-election, 1835
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Charles Poulett Thomson 3,205
Conservative B Braidley 1,839
Majority 1,366
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1835: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Charles Poulett Thomson 3,355
Whig Mark Philips 3,163
Conservative B Braidley 2,535
Whig Charles Wolseley 583
Majority
Turnout
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
General Election 1832: Manchester (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Mark Philips 2,923
Whig Charles Poulett Thomson 2,068
Whig Samuel Jones Loyd 1,832
Tory John Thomas Hope 1,560
Whig William Cobbett 1,305
Majority
Turnout

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ward, David (27 December 2007). "New plaque tells truth of Peterloo killings 188 years on". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Ltd. Retrieved 25 March 2008. 
  2. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  3. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1989) [1977]. British parliamentary election results 1832–1885 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 206. ISBN 0-900178-26-4.