The Manchus[note 1] (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are members of an indigenous people of Manchuria also known as red tasseled Manchus (Manchu: ᡶᡠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: fulgiyan sorson manju; 红缨满洲) because of their traditional hat ornaments. Manchus are the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are chiefly distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group and the third largest ethnic minority group in that country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. It is also the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing has over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning province and one-fifth in Hebei province. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen[note 2] and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Origins and early history 
The Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) in China but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen, a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of North East Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Shun and later to Zhou. The cognates Sushen or Jichen (稷真) again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far Northeast. In the 10th century AD the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the ethnic-Goguryeo state of Balhae.
Following the fall of Balhae the Jurchens were vassals of the Liao dynasty. In the year of 1114, Wanyan Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and established the Jin dynasty. His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai destroyed Liao and Northern Song and established the Jin Dynasty. During the Jin Dynasty, first Jurchen scripts came into use in 1120s. It was mainly derived from Khitan script.
In 1206, the Mongols were rapidly forming an Empire in Mongolia after the fall of its fellow Mongolian Kingdom the Khitan Khanate. Their leader, Genghis Khan, led the Mongol troops to fight against Jurchens. The Jin dynasty could not withstand the Mongols' attack and was finally defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234. Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were mainly divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han); but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically. From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese, while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized. They adopted Mongolian customs, names[note 3] and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script.
The Mongol domination of China was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. In 1387, the Ming defeated the Nahacu's Mongol resisting forces who settled in Haixi area and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute At the time, some Jurchen tribes were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai. Their elites served in Korean royal bodyguard. However, their relationship discontinued by Ming, because Ming was planning to make Jurchens their protection of border. Korea had to allow it since itself was in Ming's tribute system. In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to Yongle Emperor of Ming. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of Odoli, went to tribute from Korea, too. Yi Seong-gye, the Taejo of Joseon requested Ming to send Möngke Temür back but rejected. Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to Ming in succession. They were divided in 384 guards by Ming.
In 1449, Mongol taishi Esen assaulted Ming Dynasty and captured Zhengtong Emperor in Tumu. Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action, but more were also attacked by the Mongol invasion. A large number of Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates which had been granted by the Ming. They had to present tribute as secretariats (中书舍人) with much less award from Ming court than they were heads of guards which was not joyful to the them. Since then, more and more Jurchens started to find out Ming's declining power from Esen's invasion, especially Zhengtong Emperor's capture which directly caused Jurchen guards gradually went out of control. Some tribal leaders even publicly plundered Ming's area, such as Cungšan[note 4] and Wang Gao. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned. More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese.
Manchu reign of China 
A century after the chaos started in Jurchen's land, Nurhaci, a chieftain of Jianzhou Left Guard, started his ambition as a revenge of Ming's manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583. He reunified Jurchen tribes, established a military system called "Eight Banners" to organized Jurchen soldiers as "Bannermen" and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) by referencing traditional Mongolian alphabet.
In 1603, Nurhaci was recognized as Sure Kundulen Khan (Manchu: ᠰᡠᡵᡝ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: sure kundulen han, "wise and respected khan") by his Khalkha Mongol allies. 13 years later (1616), he publically throned and proclaimed himself Genggiyen Khan (Manchu: ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ
ᡥᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: genggiyen han, "bright khan") of Later Jin Dynasty (Manchu: ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: amaga aisin gurun[note 5], 后金) and then eventually launched his attack on Ming Dynasty. Nurhaci moved the capital to Mukden after his conquest of Liaodong. In 1635, his son and successor Hong Taiji changed the ethnic group Jurchen (Manchu: ᠵᡠᡧᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: jušen) to Manchu. A year later, Hong Taiji proclaimed himself the emperor of Qing Dynasty (Manchu: ᡩᠠᡳᠴᡳᠩ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: daicing gurun[note 6]). With general Wu Sangui's support, Qing Empire made a breakthrough to mainland China in 1644. After defeated Li Zicheng, they moved the capital to Beijing (Manchu: ᠪᡝᡤᡳᠩ; Möllendorff: beging) in the same year.
As a result of the conquest, almost all the Manchus followed regent prince Dorgon (ᡩᠣᡵᡤᠣᠨ) and Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and mainly settled down there. Few of them were sent to other places such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet as garrisons. There were only 1524 Banner soldiers left in Manchuria at the time. After the border conflicts with Russians, Qing's emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back to where they originally came from. However, during the period of Qing, Beijing was always the only focal point of Manchus in political, economic and cultural aspects like Yongzheng Emperor said, "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland."
While the Manchu ruling elite at the Beijing imperial court and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Chinese culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime. The emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various tribal people) in the central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means, in particular, restricting the migration of Chinese colonists to the region. This ideal, however, had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with skilled work force, and running trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Chinese convicts, workers, and merchants to the north-east.
However, this policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the north-east from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of the Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the Heilongjiang province - which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang - contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of which merely 10-20% survived). Those few who returned were demoralized and often exposed to opium addiction. In 1860, in the aftermath of the loss of the "Outer Manchuria", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement; within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts.
Modern days 
As the end of the Qing Dynasty approached, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers. This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.
By the early years of the Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun (Manchu: ᠠᡳᡥᡡᠨ; Möllendorff: aihūn) District and the Qiqihar (Manchu: ᠴᡳᠴᡳᡤᠠᡵ; Möllendorff: cicigar) District of Heilongjiang Province.
Until 1924, the government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen; however, many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names in shame to avoid persecution. The official total of Manchu fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit to their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders. On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign of Manchuria, a much better treatment than the situation of Manchus in mainland China was reported. There were not any particular persecution towards Manchus. Even the mausoleums of Qing's emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen like it was in the past. In this case, many Manchus joined Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia who was a member of Qing's imperial clan.
As a follow-up action of Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by Imperial Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Emperor Puyi in 1932. Although the nation's name was related to Manchus, it was actually a complete new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria which had a majority Han population and was opposed by many Manchus like other ethnicities who fought against Japan in World War II, too.
In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities in 1952. In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu. The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule thus became more comfortable to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s (in contrast to his earlier works which had none). However during the Cultural Revolution, he was eventually persecuted. Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority. In fact, however, this growth was not due to natural increase, but instead people formerly registered as Han applying for official recognition as Manchu.
Eight-Banner system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people. So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic community which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen. However, the ones who were mostly considered as Manchu bannermen in Qing Dynasty, such as Solon, Xibe and Nanai people, were separated as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government.
Since 1980s, the reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements. It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese.
Etymology of the ethnic name 
The actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to Qing Dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī. Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even made few poems about it.
Meng Sen, a famous scholar of Qing study, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" is also related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of Jianzhou Jurchen. It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind.
Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" (ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ) which means strong and "ju" (ᠵᡠ) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".
There are other hypothesis, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.
Mainland China 
Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585 Which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population. Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces, Liaoning and Hebei, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents. Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites. Manchu is the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and Beijing; 2nd largest in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui,.
Manchu autonomous regions 
Other areas 
Manchu people can be found living outside mainland China. There are approximately 12,000 Manchus now in Taiwan. Most of them moved to Taiwan with the ROC government in 1949. Puru, a famous painter, calligrapher and also the founder of the Manchu Association of Republic of China, was a typical example. There are also Manchus who settled in the United States and Japan, such as John Fugh, Garry Guan and Fukunaga Kosē.
Language and alphabet 
- Standard Manchu： Standard Manchu originates from the accent of Jianzhou Jurchens. It was standardized by the Qianlong Emperor under his reign. During the Qing period, Manchus at court were required to speak Standard Manchu or face the emperor's reprimand. This applied equally to the palace presbyter of shamanic fete when performing sacrifice.。
- Beijing dialect： The Manchus who lived in Beijing were not only Jianzhou Jurchens, but also Haixi Jurchens and Yeren Jurchens. Over time, the mingling of their accents produced Beijing dialect (京语). Beijing dialect is very close to Standard Manchu。
- Mukden-South Manchurian dialect：Mukden-South Manchurian dialect (盛京南满语), aka, "Mukden-Girin dialect" (盛京吉林语) was originally spoken by the Manchus who lived in Liaoning and the western and southern areas of Jilin, having an accent very close to the Xibe language spoken by the Xibes living in Qapqal.
There are also Ningguta, Alcuka dialects, etc., of Manchu which have their own particular characteristics.
Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchu, had created Jurchen script in the Jin Dynasty. After Jin collapsed, Jurchen script was gradually lost. In the Ming period, 60%-70% of Jurchens used Mongolian script to write letters and 30%-40% of Jurchens used Chinese characters. This persisted until Nurhaci revolted against the Ming reign. Nurhaci considered it a major impediment that his people lacked a script of their own, so he commanded his scholars, Gagai and Eldeni, to create Manchu characters by reference to Mongolian scripts. They dutifully complied with the Khan's order and created Manchu script, which is called "script without dots and circles" (Manchu: ᡨᠣᠩᡴᡳ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ; Möllendorff: tongki fuka akū hergen; 无圈点满文) or "old Manchu script" (老满文). Due to its hurried creation, the script has its defects. Some vowels and consonants were difficult to distinguish. Shortly afterwards, their successor Dahai used dots and circles to distinguish vowels, aspirated and non-aspirated consonants and thus completed the script. His achievement is called "script with dots and circles" or "new Manchu script".
Current situation 
After the 1800s, most Manchus had perfected Standard Chinese and the number who knew Manchu was dwindling. Although the Qing emperors emphasized the importance of Manchu language again and again, the tide could not be turned. After the Qing collapsed, the Manchu language lost its status as a national language and its use officially in education ended. Manchus today generally speak Standard Chinese. The remaining skilled native Manchu speakers number less than 100, most of whom are to be found in Sanjiazi (Manchu: ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᠪᠣᠣ; Möllendorff: ilan boo), Heilongjiang Province. Since 1980s, there has been a resurgence of Manchu language among the government, scholars and social activities. In recent years, with the help of the governments in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, many schools started to have Manchu classes. There are also Manchu volunteers in many places of China who freely teach Manchu in the desire to rescue of the language. Thousands of non-Manchu speakers have learned the language through these measures.
Names and naming practices 
Family names 
The history of Manchu family names is quite long. Fundamentally, it succeeds the Jurchen family name of the Jin Dynasty. However, after the Mongols extinguished the Jurchen empire, Manchus started to adopt Mongol culture, including their custom of using only their given name till the end of the Qing Dynasty, a practice confounding non-Manchus, leading them to conclude, erroneously, that they simply don't have family names.
A Manchu family name usually has two portions: the first is "Mukūn" (ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ) which literally means "branch name"; the second, "Hala" (ᡥᠠᠯᠠ), represents the name of a person's clan. According to the Book of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans (八旗滿洲氏族通譜), there are 1,114 Manchu family names. Gūwalgiya, Niohuru, Šumulu, Tatara, Gioro, Nara are considered as "famous clans" (著姓) among Manchus.
Given names 
Manchus given names are distinctive. Generally, there are several forms, as below:
- bearing suffixes such as "-ngga", "-ngge" or "-nggo", meaning "having the quality of";
- bearing the suffixes "-tai" or "-tu", meaning "having";
- bearing the suffix, "-ju", "-boo";
- numerals, such as Nadanju,[note 7] Susai,[note 8] Liošici[note 9] and Bašinu;[note 10]
- animal names, e.g. Dorgon.
Current status 
Nowadays, Manchus primarily use Chinese family and given names, but some still use a Manchu family name and Chinese given name,[note 11] a Chinese family name and Manchu given name[note 12] or both Manchu family and given names.[note 13]
Traditional garments 
- Hats: Wearing hats is a part of Manchu traditional culture. Conventionally, especially different from Han Chinese culture of "Starting to wear hats in 20 year-old" (二十始冠), Manchu people wear hats in all ages and seasons. Manchu hats has formal and casual ones. Formal hats also have two different styles. One is straw hats wearing in spring and summer; another is warm hat wearing in fall and winter. Manchu casual hat is more known as "Mandarin hat" in English.
- Robe: Sijigiyan(ᠰᡳᠵᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ), the Manchu robe, is the most representative clothing of the Manchu people. Modern Chinese female suit Cheongsam deverted from Manchu robe.
- Surcoat: Manchu surcoat (马褂) was a military uniform of Eight banners army. Since Kangxi period, surcoat got popular in third estate. The Chinese suit "Tangzhuang" is directly deverted from it.
Manchus have many distinctive traditional accessories. Women traditionally wear 3 earrings in each ear, a tradition that is maintained by many older Manchu women. Manchu men also traditionally wear piercings, but they tend to only have one earring in their youth and do not continue to wear it as adults.
The Manchu people also have traditional jewelry which evokes their past as hunters. The fergetun (ᡶᡝᡵᡤᡝᡨᡠᠨ), a thumb ring traditionally made out of reindeer bone, was worn to protect the thumbs of archers. After the Manchu conquest of China in 1644, the fergetun gradually became simply a form of jewelry, with the most valuable ones made in jade and ivory.
Traditional activities 
Riding and archery 
Riding and archery (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠮᠨᡳᠶᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: niyamniyan) is significant to the Manchu. They were well-trained horsemen from their teenage years. Hong Taiji, the Qing Taizong emperor, said, "Riding and Archery is the most important martial art of our country". Every generation of the Qing dynasty treasured Riding and Archery the most. Every spring and fall, from ordinary Manchus to aristocrats, all had to take a riding and archery test. Their test results could even affect their rank in the nobility. The Manchus of the early Qing had excellent shooting skills and their arrows were reputed to be capable of penetrating two people.
From the middle period of Qing, archery became more a form of entertainment, in the form of games such as, hunting swans, shooting fabric or silk target. The most difficult is shooting a candle hanging in the air at night. Gambling was banned in the Qing reign but there was no limitation on Manchus engaging in shooting skill contests. It was common to see Manchus putting signs in front of their houses to invite challenges. After the Qianlong period, Manchus gradually neglected the practice of riding and archery, even though their rulers tried their best to encourage Manchus to continue their riding and archery traditions, but the tradition is still kept among some Manchus even nowadays.
Manchu wrestling 
Manchu wrestling (Manchu: ᠪᡠᡴᡠ; Möllendorff: buku)  is also an important martial art of the Manchu people. Buku, meaning "wrestling" or "man of unusual strength" in Manchu, was originally from a Mongolian word, “bökh”. The history of Manchu wrestling can be traced back to Jurchen wrestling in the Jin Dynasty which was originally from Khitan wrestling; it was very similar to Mongolian wrestling. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Jurchens who lived in northeast China adopted Mongol culture including wrestling, bökh. In the latter Jin and early Qing period, rulers encouraged the populace, including aristocrats, to practise buku as a feature of military training. At the time, Mongol wrestlers were the most famous and powerful. By the Chongde period, Manchus had developed their own well-trained wrestlers and, a century later, in the Qianlong period, they surpassed Mongol wreslers. The Qing court established the "Shan Pu Battalion" and chose 200 fine wrestlers divided into three levels. Manchu wrestling moves can be found in today's Chinese wrestling, Shuai jiao, which is its most important part. Among many branches, Beijing wrestling adopted most Manchu wrestling moves.
As a result of their hunting ancestry, Manchus are traditionally interested in falconry. Gyrfalcon (Manchu: ᡧᠣᠩᡴᠣᡵᠣ; Möllendorff: šongkoro) is the most highly valued discipline in the Manchu falconry social circle. In the Qing period, giving a gyrfalcon to the royal court in tribute could be met with a considerable reward. There were professional falconers in Ningguta area.[note 14] It was a big base of falconry. Beijing's Manchus also like falconry. Compared to the falconry of Manchuria, it is more like an entertainment. Imperial Household Department of Beijing had professional falconers, too. They provided outstanding falcons to the emperor when he went to hunt every fall. Even today, Manchu traditional falconry is well practised in some regions.
Ice skating 
Ice skating (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠰᡠᠮᡝ
ᡝᡶᡳᠨ; Möllendorff: nisume efime efin) is another Manchu pastime. Emperor Qianlong called it “national custom”. It is one of the most important winter events of the Qing royal household, performed by "Eight Banner Ice Skating Battalion" (八旗冰鞋营) which was a special force trained to do battle on icy terrain. The battalion consisted of 1600 soldiers. In the Jiaqing period, it was reduced to 500 soldiers and transferred to the Jing Jie Battalion (精捷营) originally, literally meaning "chosen agile battalion"</ref>。
In 1930s-1940s, there was a famous Manchu skater in Beijing whose name was Wu Tongxuan, from the Uya clan and one of the royal household skaters in Empress Dowager Cixi's reign. He frequently appeared in many of Beijing's skating rinks. Nowadays, there are still Manchu figure skaters of which world champions Zhao Hongbo and Tong Jian are the pre-eminent examples.
The Tale of the Nisan Shaman (Manchu: ᠨᡳᡧᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ; Möllendorff: nišan saman i bithe; 尼山萨满传) is the most important literature of Manchus. It primarily tells the process of how Nisan Shaman helps a young hunter revives. The story spreads not long among Manchus, but also in Xibe, Nanai, Daur, Oroqen, Evenk and other Tungusic peoples. It basically has for versions: the handwriting version from Qiqihar; two different handwriting versions from Aigun; the one which was wrote by a Manchu writer Dekdengge in Vladivostok (Manchu: ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: haišenwei). The pilot of four versions are similar, but the version of Haišenwei has the most complete content. It is already translated in Russian, Chinese, English and other languages.
Folk art 
Eight-corner drum 
Eight-corner drum is a type of Manchu folk art that was very popular among bannermen, especially in Beijing. It is said that Eight-corner drum originated with the snare drum of the Eight-banner military and the melody was made by the banner soldiers who were on the way back home from victory in the battle of Jinchuan. The drum is composed of wood surrounded by bells. The drumhead is made by wyrmhide with tassels at the bottom. The colors of the tassels are yellow, white, red, and blue, which represent the four colors of Eight Banners. When artists perform, they use their fingers to hit the drumhead and shake the drum to ring the bells. Traditionally, Eight-corner drum is performed by three people. One is the harpist; one is the clown who is responsible for harlequinade; and the third is the singer.
"Zidishu" is the main libretto of Eight-corner drum and can be traced back to a type of traditional folk music called "Manchu Rhythm". Although Zidishu was not created by Chinese people, it still contains many themes from Chinese stories, such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dream of the Red Chamber, Romance of the West Chamber, Legend of the White Snake and Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. Additionally, there are many works that depict the lives of Bannermen. Aisin Gioro Yigeng, who was pen named "Helü" and wrote the sigh of old imperial bodyguard, is the representative author. Zidishu involves two acts of singing, which are called dongcheng and xicheng.
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the influence of the Eight-corner drum gradually reduced. However, the Chinese monochord and crosstalk which derived from Eight-corner are still popular in Chinese society. Many famous Chinese monochord performers and crosstalkers were the artists of Eight-corner drum. Such as De shoushan and Zhang Sanlu.
Ulabun (ᡠᠯᠠᠪᡠᠨ) is a Manchu storytelling entertainment which is performed in Manchu language. Different from Eight-corner drum, ulabun is popular among the Manchu people who lives in Manchuria. It has two main categories. One is popular folk literature such as the Tale of the Nisan Shaman; Another classification is from folk music which is informative and has independent pilot, complete structure. Song Xidong aka. Akšan (ᠠᡴᡧᠠᠨ) is a famous artist in performing ulabun.
The religions of the Manchus are diverse. Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Shamanists. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, Manchus came into contact with Chinese culture. They were markedly influenced by Chinese folk religion and retained only some Shamanic customs. Buddhism and Christianity also had their impacts. Manchus are today mostly irreligious.
Shamanism has a long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. John Keay states in A History Of China, shaman is the single loan-word from Manchurian into the English language. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, although Manchus widely adopted Chinese folk religion, Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists. Since the Qing rulers considered religion as a method of controlling other powers such as Mongolians and Tibetans, there was no privilege for Shamanism, their native religion. Apart from the Shamanic temples in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing. Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperor helped Lamaists to persecute Shamanists which led to their considerable frustration and dissatisfaction.
Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus, were influenced by the Buddhism of Balhae, Goryeo, Khitan and Song in the 10-13th centuries, so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16-17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled "Buddha". They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism and had high attainments. However, Buddhism was used by rulers to control Mongolians and Tibetans; it was of little relevance to ordinary Manchus in the Qing Dynasty.
Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing Dynasty. Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese. Guan Yu worship is a typical example. He was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus. They called him "Lord Guan" (关老爷). Uttering his name was taboo. In addition, Manchus worshipped Cai Shen and The Kitchen god just as the Han Chinese did. The worship of Mongolian and Tibetan gods has also been reported.
There were Manchu Christians in the Qing Dynasty. In Yongzheng and Qianlong's era, Depei, the Hošo Jiyan Prince, was a Catholic whose baptismal name was "Joseph". His wife was also baptised and named “Maria”. At the same time, the sons of Doro Beile Sunu were devout Catholics, too. In the Jiaqing period, Tong Hengšan and Tong Lan were Catholic Manchu Bannermen. These Manchu Christians were proselytized and persecuted by Qing emperors but they steadfastly refused to convert. There were Manchu Christians in modern times, too, such as Ying Lianzhi, Lao She and Philip Fugh.
Traditional holidays 
- Food Extermination Day (绝粮日)：On every August 26 of lunar calendar. It is said that once Nurhaci and his troops were in a battle with enemies and almost running out of food. The villagers who lived near the battlefield heard the emergency and came to help. There was no tableware on the battlefield. They had to use perilla leaves to wrap the rice. Afterwards, they won the battle. So later generations could remember this hardship, Nurhaci made this day the "Food Extermination Day". Traditionally on this day, Manchu people usually eat perilla or cabbage wraps with rice, scrambled eggs, beef or pork.。
- Banjin Inenggi (ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠨ
ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ): the anniversary of the name creation of Manchu in October 13 of lunar calendar. This day in 1635, Qing Taizong Emperor, Hong Taiji, changed the ethnic name from Jurchen to Manchu.
See also 
- Also known as Man, Bannermen, Banner people, Tartars, red tasseled Mongols (红缨蒙古), the Mongols of wearing red tassels (戴红缨的蒙古人) and the Tartars of wearing red tassels (戴红缨达子)
- Fengcheng and Beizhen are cities but treated as Manchu autonomous counties.
- e.g. Möngke Temür, Qing's emperors' ancestor
- Cungšan was considered as Nurhaci's direct ancestor by some viewpoints, but disagreements also exist.
- Aka. Manchu State (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Möllendorff: manju gurun)
- The meaning of "daicing" is debatable. It has been reported that the word was imported from Mongolian means "fighting country"
- 70 in Manchu
- 5 in Manchu
- 67, a Mandarin homophone
- 85, a Mandarin homophone
- e.g. Aisin Gioro Qixiang, a famous Chinese calligrapher.
- e.g. Ying Batu, Ying Bayan, the sons of a famous Manchu director, Ying Da.
- e.g. Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, a famous scholar of Khitan and Manchu lingustic studies.
- Today's Heilongjiang province and the northern part of Jilin province.
- 中国2010年人口普查资料 上中下 (the Data of 2010 China Population Census). China Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 9787503765070.
- 《我所认识的香港民族问题》，刊载于《民族团结》1996年第8期 (The Problem of the Ethnicities of Hong Kong I Acknowledged, Ethnic Unity, the 8 Edition, 1996)
- Manchusoc：The Origins of Manchu People in Taiwan (traditional Chinese)
- the Gospel Need of Manchu People (simplified Chinese)
- Manchu (people) on Encyclopædia Britannica
- Elliott 2001, pp. 13–15
- ZDIC：The Meaning of 旗人 (Bannerman) in Dictionary (simplified Chinese)
- Elliott 2001, p. 15
- Elliott 2001, p. 98
- Various authors 2008, p. 258 (Shizu period)
- Uyun Bilig: The Files of Chahar and Ligdan Khan in Ming Dynasty (simplified Chinese)
- Merriam-Webster, Inc 2003, p. 754
- Zheng 2009, p. 79
- Vollmer 2002, p. 76
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 207
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, pp. 206–207
- Li & Guan 2003, p. 2
- Tong 2009, p. 5
- Huang, P.: "New Light on the Origins of the Manchu", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 50, no.1 (1990): 239-82. Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006
- Agui 1988, p. 1
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 7
- Li & Guan 2003, p. 1
- Association for Asian Studies 1987, p. 767
- Anonymous 1879, p. 151
- Meng 2006, pp. 7, 9
- Wikisource: 《逸周书•王会》 (Yi Zhou Shu)
- Toqto'a 1975, pp. 19–46
- Toqto'a 1975, pp. 47–67
- Zheng 2009, pp. 18
- Zheng 2009, pp. 39
- Jin 2006, p. 107
- Peterson 2006, p. 11
- Meng 2006, p. 21
- Meng 2006, pp. 97, 120
- Peterson 2006, p. 15
- Meng 2006, p. 120
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 185
- Meng 2006, p. 19
- Meng 2006, p. 130
- Meng 2006, pp. 19, 21
- Peterson 2006, p. 28
- Jin 2006, p. 120
- Fuge 1984, p. 152
- Zhao 1998, p. 2
- Yan 2006, pp. 71, 88, 116, 137
- Elliott 2001, p. 56
- Various authors 2008, p. 283 (Manchu Veritable Records)
- Yan 2006, p. 282
- Various authors 2008, pp. 330–331 (Taizong period)
- A Tentative Discussion about Its Origin and Meaning of Daicing as a Name of a State (simplified Chinese)
- Du 1997, p. 15
- Hu 1994, p. 113
- Du 1997, pp. 19–20
- Zhang & Zhang 2005, p. 134
- Liu, Zhao & Zhao 1997, p. 1 (Preface)
- Zhang & Zhang 2005, p. 18
- Ortai 1985, p. 1326
- Lee 1970, pp. 182–184
- Lee 1970, pp. 20–23,78–90,112–115
- Lee 1970, p. 117
- Lee 1970, pp. 124–125
- Lee 1970, p. 103,sq
- Rhoads 2000, p. 265
- Rhoads 2000, p. 275
- Shirokogorov 1924, pp. i,3–4
- Rhoads 2000, p. 270
- Rhoads 2000, pp. 270, 283
- Jin 2009, p. 157
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 153
- Puyi 2007, pp. 223–224
- Jin 2009, p. 160
- Rhoads 2000, p. 277
- Rhoads 2000, p. 276
- Rhoads 2000, p. 280
- Rhoads 2000, p. 282
- Rhoads 2000, p. 283
- Elliott 2001, p. 43
- Du 2008, p. 46
- Li 2006, p. 121
- Zhang 2008, pp. 230, 233, 248
- Jin 2009, p. 5 (Preface)
- Rhoads 2000, p. 295
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, pp. 209, 215, 218–228
- "Eras Journal - Tighe, J: Review of "The Manchus", Pamela Kyle Crossley". Retrieved 2011-04-27.
- Yan 2008, p. 49
- Agui 1988, p. 2
- Meng 2006, p. 6
- Meng 2006, pp. 4–5
- Meng 2006, p. 5
- 《族称Manju词源探析》，长山，刊载于《满语研究》2009年第01期 (Changshan (2009), The Research of Ethnic Name "Manju"'s Origin, Manchu Language Research, the 1st edition)
- 《满洲名称之种种推测》，冯家升，《东方杂志》30卷第17号 (Feng, Jiasheng, Many Kinds of Conjecture of the Name "Manju", Dongfang Magazine, Vol.30, NO.17)
- 《满洲名称考述》，滕绍箴，《民族研究》1996年04月，70-77页 (Teng, Shaojian (1996), Textual Research of the Name "Manju", Ethnic Research, P70-77)
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 246
- Tong 2009, p. 40
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 247
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 248
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 319
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 264
- Jiang 1980, p. 4
- Liu, Zhao & Zhao 1997, p. 3 (Preface)
- Ortai 1985, pp. 5324–5327
- Tong 2009, pp. 11–17
- Dahai & First Historical Archives of China 1990, pp. 1196–1197
- Tong 2009, p. 33
- People.com.cn: Less Than 100 Born Speakers Among 10 million Manchu population (simplified Chinese)
- People Daily: "Ilan Boo", the Living Fossil of Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History 2009, p. 218
- Liaoning News: 29 Manchu Teachers of Huanren, Benxi Are Now On Duty (simplified Chinese)
- China News: A High School Opens Manchu Class in Liaoning (simplified Chinese)
- Sina Education: Manchu Class Comes Into A Middle School Class of Jilin For the First Time (simplified Chinese)
- China Nationality Newspaper: the Rescue of Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
- iFeng: Jin Biao's 10-Year Dream of Manchu Language (traditional Chinese)
- Shenyang Daily: Young Man Teaches Manchu For Free To Rescue the Language (simplified Chinese)
- Beijing Evening News: the Worry of Manchu language (simplified Chinese)
- Northeastern News: Don't let Manchu language and scripts become a sealed book (simplified Chinese)
- Beijing Evening News: 1980s Generation's Rescue Plan of Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
- Jin 2009, p. 109
- Jin 2009, p. 107
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 969
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 973
- Hungjeo 2002, pp. 31, 100, 115, 167, 181, 280
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 979
- Elliott 2001, p. 243
- Aisin Gioro 2004, p. 978
- Wang 1985, p. 27
- Wang 1985, p. 28
- Wang 1985, p. 17
- Wang 1985, p. 30
- Wang 1985, p. 31
- Zeng 2010, pp. 106–107
- Liaoning People's PCC: The Origin of Banner Robe and Manchu Culture of Hairstyle (simplified Chinese)
- Jin 2009, p. 20
- Xinhua: Small Fergetun with A High Price (simplified Chinese)
- Yi 1978, p. 44
- Jiang 1980, p. 46
- Various authors 2008, p. 446 (Taizong period)
- Liu 2008, p. 92
- Liu 2008, p. 93
- Liu 2008, p. 94
- Liu 2008, p. 95
- Manchu Archery in Heritage Day (simplified Chinese)
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 118
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 142
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 120
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 119
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 121
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 123
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 137
- Jin & Kaihe 2006, p. 153
- Qingdao Evening News: Different Branches of Shuaijiao (simplified Chinese)
- Liu 2008, p. 106
- Liu 2008, p. 107
- Xinhua: First Falconry Cultural Day in Yulou Villiage (simplified Chinese)
- Xinhua: How Did Chinese Emperors Award Athletes? (simplified Chinese)
- China News：Qianlong Emperor made Ice Skating a National Custom (simplified Chinese)
- Manchu Old Man Skaters in Beijing (simplified Chinese)
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 03
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. preface
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 1
- Dekdengge, Zhang & Guang 2007, p. 07
- Jin 2009, p. 147
- Liu 2008, p. 124
- Liu 2008, p. 112
- Jin 2009, p. 148
- Liu 2008, p. 116
- Jin 2009, p. 149
- Liaoning TV: Chinese Crosstalk (Xiangsheng) show by Guo Degang and his students, 1:30-1:45 (Chinese Mandarin)
- Liu 2008, p. 113
- Fu, Yuguang, Research of "Ulabun", a Manchu Traditional Story-telling Art, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Ethnic Culture Branch (simplified Chinese)
- Wen Wei Po： Singer tries to succeed the endangered arts (traditional Chinese)
- Jin 2009, pp. 98–106
- Jin 2009, p. 95
- The Relation of Manchu Emperors and Buddhism (simplified Chinese)
- Liu 2008, p. 184
- National Qing History Compilatory Committee: Sunu Research (simplified Chinese)
- Manchu Spring Festival
- Manchu Duanwu Festival
- The Day of Running Out of Food (simplified Chinese)
- the Origin of Banjin Inenggi (simplified Chinese)
In Chinese 
- An, Shuangcheng (1993). 满汉大词典 (A Comprehensive Dictionary of Manchu-Chinese). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787805273785.
- Agui (1988). 满洲源流考 (Researches on Manchu Origins). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787805270609.
- Aisin Gioro, Yingsheng (2004). 满语杂识 (Divers Knowledges of Manchu language). Wenyuan Publishing House. ISBN 7-80060-008-4.
- Anonymous (1879). 竹书纪年校正, 光绪五年刻本 (Zhu Shu Ji Nian, 1879 Edition).
- Dahai; First Historical Archives of China (1990). 满文老档 译著(Old Manchu Archive, Translated Version). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101005875.
- Du, Jiaji (2008). 八旗与清朝政治论稿 (Eight Banner and Qing Dynasty's Political Paper Drafts). Renmin Publishing House. ISBN 9787010067537.
- Du, Jiaji (1997). 清朝简史 (Brief History of Qing Dynasty). Fujian People's Publishing House. ISBN 9787211027163.
- Fuge (1984). 听雨丛谈 (Miscellaneous Discussions Whilst Listening To The Rain). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 978-7-101-01698-7.
- Gao, Hehong (2011). 满族说部传承研究 (The Research of Manchu Ulabun). China Social Sciences Pres. ISBN 9787500497127.
- Hu, Zengyi (1994). 新满汉大词典 (A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary). Xinjiang People's Publishing House. ISBN 9787228024049.
- Hungjeo (2002). 八旗满洲氏族通谱 (Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans' Book). Liaohai Publishing House. ISBN 9787806691892.
- Jiang, Liangqi (1980). 东华录 (Donghua Record). Zhonghua Book Compary.
- Jin, Qicong (2009). 金启孮谈北京的满族 (Jin Qicong Talks About Beijing Manchus). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7101068561.
- Jin, Qicong; Kaihe (2006). 中国摔跤史 (the Wrestling History of China). Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House. ISBN 7204088093.
- Jooliyan (1980). 啸亭杂录 (Xiaoting Various Records). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101017519.
- Li, Lin (2006). 满族宗谱研究 (Research of Manchu Genealogy). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787807221715.
- Li, Yanguang; Guan, Jie (2009). 满族通史 (General History of Manchus). National Publishing House. ISBN 9787805271965.
- Liu, Jingxian; Zhao, Aping; Zhao, Jinchun (1997). 满语研究通论 (General Theory of Manchu Language Research). Heilongjiang Korean Nationalty Publishing House. ISBN 9787538907650.
- Liu, Xiaomeng (2008). 清代八旗子弟 (the Bannermen in Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-80722-563-8.
- Meng, Sen (2006). 满洲开国史讲义 (the Lectrue Note of Early Manchu History). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7101050301.
- National Census Bureau of Chinese State Concil (2012). 中国2010年人口普查资料（上中下） (the Data of 2010 China Population Census). China Statistics Press. ISBN 9787503765070.
- Ortai (1985). 八旗通志初集 (Comprehensive History of the Eight Banners, First Edition). Northeast Normal University Press.
- Puyi (2007). 我的前半生 全本 (First Half of My Life, Full Edition). Qunzhong Publishing House. ISBN 9787501435579.
- Song, Lian (1976). 元史 (History of Yuan). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101003260.
- Tong, Yonggong (2009). 满语文与满文档案研究 (the Research of Manchu language and files). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 7805070431.
- Toqto'a (1975). 金史 (History of Jin). Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101003253.
- Wang, Yunying (1985). 清代满族服饰 (Manchu Traditional Clothes of Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House.
- Writing Group of Manchu Brief History (2009). 满族简史 (Brief History of Manchus). National Publishing House. ISBN 9787105087259.
- Yan, Chongnian (2006). 努尔哈赤传 (the Biography of Nurhaci). Beijing Publishing House. ISBN 9787200016598.
- Yan, Chongnian (2008). 明亡清兴六十年 彩图珍藏版 (60 Years History of the Perishing Ming and Rising Qing, Valuable Colored Picture Edition). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101059472.
- Yi, Min-hwan (1978). 清初史料丛刊第八、九种：栅中日录校释、建州见闻录校释 (The Collection of Early Qing's Historical Sources, Vol.8 & 9: Records in the Fence; Witness Records of Jianzhou). History Department of Liaoning University.
- Zeng, Hui (2010). 满族服饰文化研究 (The Research of Manchu Clothing Culture). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787807229711.
- Zhao, Erxun (2009). 清史稿 (Draft History of Qing). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101007503.
- 八旗十论 (Ten Papers of Eight Banners). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. 2008. ISBN 9787807226093.
- Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Danhui (2005). 清代东北边疆的满族 (The Manchus of Manchurian Frontier Region in Qing Dynasty). Liaoning Nationality Publishing House. ISBN 9787806448656.
- Zhang, Tingyu (1974). 明史 (History of Ming). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101003277.
- Zheng, Tianting (2010). 探微集 (Collection of Minor Research). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101069853.
- Zheng, Tianting (2009). 郑天挺元史讲义 (Zheng Tianting's Lectrue Note of Yuan Dynasty History). Zhonghua Book Compary. ISBN 9787101070132.
In English 
- Association for Asian Studies (1987). The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 46. Cambridge University Press.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). The Manchus (The People of Asia Series). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23591-4.
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2.
- Lee, Robert H. G. (1970). The Manchurian Frontier in Chʼing History. Harvard University Press. ISBN 674-54775-6 Check
- Merriam-Webster, Inc (2003). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-807-1.
- Peterson, Willard J. (2002). the Cambridge History of China, the Ch'ing dynasty to 1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24334-3.
- Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98040-0.
- Shirokogorov, Sergei Mikhailovich (1924). Social Organization of the Manchus: A study of the Manchu Clan Organization. Royal Asiatic Society.
- Vollmer, John E. (2002). Ruling from the Dragon Throne: Costume of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Asian Art Series. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-307-2.
In Manchu 
- Dekdengge; Zhang, Huake; Guang, Dingyuan (2007). ᠨᡳᡧᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ (Full Edition of Tale of the Nisan Shaman). Yingyu Cultural Publishing House. ISBN 9789868212428.
Further reading 
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23424-3.
- Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1991). Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00877-9.
- Rawski, Evelyn S. (2001). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22837-5.
- Shao, Dan (2011). Remote Homeland, Recovered Borderland: Manchus, Manchoukuo, and Manchuria, 1907-1985. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824834456.
|Look up Manchu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|