Mandarese people

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Mandarese
Mandar people
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Dochters van vorsten en adelijken uit Mandar Sulawesi TMnr 10001325.jpg
Young girls of Mandar aristocracy at the time of the Netherlands Indies.
Total population
Approximately 1 million
Regions with significant populations
West Sulawesi (565,225), South Sulawesi (489,986), South Kalimantan (49,322), East Kalimantan (33,000)
Languages
Mandar language, Mamasa language, Mamuju language
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Bugis people, Makassar people, Toraja

The Mandarese are an ethnic group in the Indonesian province of West Sulawesi in Sulawesi. The Mandar language belongs to the Northern subgroup of the South Sulawesi languages group of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. The closest language to Mandar is the Toraja-Sa'dan language.[1] Before there was a regional expansion, the Mandarese along with the Bugis people, Makassar people and Toraja people formed a cultural diversity in South Sulawesi. Although politically West Sulawesi and South Sulawesi are divided by a border, the Mandarese are historically and culturally close knitted to their cognate relatives in South Sulawesi. The term "Mandar" is actually a unified name among the seven coastal kingdoms (Pitu Ba’ba’na Binanga) and seven mountain kingdoms (Pitu Ulunna Salu). In terms of ethnicity, the Pitu Ulunna Salu or commonly known as Kondosapata are classified as a part of the Toraja group (Mamasa Regency and part of Mamuju Regency), while at Pitu Ba’ba’na Binanga itself there are a variety of dialects and languages. The strength of these fourteen kingdoms complement each other and the term Sipamandar (meaning, strengthen) as one people through a covenant that was sworn by their ancestors at Allewuang Batu in Luyo.

The traditional house of the Mandarese is called boyang.[2] Customary festivals such as Sayyang Pattu'du (Dancing horse), Passandeq (Sailing on a outrigger canoe) are practiced by the Mandarese. In South Pulau Laut District, Kota Baru Regency, the Mandarese practice the Mappando'esasi (Sea bathing) ceremony. Traditional food such as Jepa, Pandeangang Peapi, Banggulung Tapa and so on are Mandarese specialty.

The Mandarese are made up of seventeen kingdoms. Seven upstream kingdoms which are called Pitu Ulunna Salu, seven estuary kingdoms that are known as Pitu Ba'bana Binanga and three kingdoms that are called Kakarunna Tiparittiqna Uhai.[3]

The seven kingdoms that merged in the Pitu Ulunna Salu Alliance region are:-

  • Rante Bulahang Kingdom
  • Aralle Kingdom
  • Tabulahang Kingdom
  • Mambi Kingdom
  • Matangnga Kingdom
  • Tabang Kingdom
  • Bambang Kingdom

The seven kingdoms that merged in the Pitu Baqbana Binanga Alliance region are:-[4]

  • Balanipa Kingdom
  • Sendana Kingdom
  • Banggae Kingdom
  • Pamboang Kingdom
  • Tapalang Kingdom
  • Mamuju Kingdom
  • Benuang Kingdom

The three kingdoms that called Kakaruanna Tiparittiqna Uhai in the Lembang Mapi region are:-

  • Alu Kingdom
  • Tuqbi Kingdom
  • Taramanuq Kingdom

The upstream kingdoms are well versed with the conditions of the mountains while the estuary kingdoms are experienced with the conditions of the ocean. With the boundaries on the south which borders Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, on the eastern side borders with Tana Toraja Regency, South Sulawesi, on the north part borders with Palu, Central Sulawesi, and on the west coast border is Straits of Makassar.

Throughout the history of Mandar kingdoms, many notable freedom fighters had arose against Dutch East Indies such as Imaga Daeng Rioso, Puatta I Sa'adawang, Maradia Banggae, Ammana Iwewang, Andi Depu, Mara'dia Batulaya and so forth, although later regions occupied by the Mandarese was successfully captured by the Dutch East Indies. From the zeal of the Mandarese which is referred as "the spirit of Assimandarang" until later in 2004 the Mandar region became recognized as a province in Indonesia as West Sulawesi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toby Alice Volkman (1990). Sulawesi: Island Crossroads of Indonesia. Passport Books. ISBN 0-8442-9906-5. 
  2. ^ Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal (2005). Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Volume 161. M. Nijhoff. 
  3. ^ Muhammad Ridwan Alimuddin (2005). Orang Mandar Orang Laut: Kebudayaan Bahari Mandar Mengarungi Gelombang Perubahan Zaman. Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 9-7991-0027-5. 
  4. ^ Charles F. Keyes (2006). On The Margins of Asia:Diversity In Asian States. Association for Asian Studies. p. 242. ISBN 0-9243-0448-0.