|1.5–1.6 million (1991 census)
Later census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
mjl – Mandeali
kfs – Bilaspuri
cdh – Chambeali
cdj – Churahi
gbk – Gaddi (Bharmauri)
Mandeali is a Western Pahari language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh by the people of the Mandi Valley and particularly in the major city of Mandi. Other spellings for the name are Mandiyali and Mandiali; it is also called Mandalgarhi ~ Mandigyahri. UNESCO reports it is one of the highly endangered languages of India. Speakers of the language have decreased by 21% from 1961 to 2001.
The Bilaspuri, Chambeali, Churahi, and Gaddi varieties are often considered separate languages, but they are 90–95% intelligible with Mandeali proper.
- Mandeali at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Bilaspuri at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Chambeali at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Churahi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
Gaddi (Bharmauri) at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". Unesco.org. Retrieved 25 August 2012.