Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

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This article is about the city in India. For its namesake district, see Mandi district.
Mandi
मण्डू
منڈی
City
Nickname(s): Choti Kashi, Varanasi Of Hills
Mandi is located in Himachal Pradesh
Mandi
Mandi
Coordinates: 31°42′25″N 76°55′54″E / 31.70694°N 76.93167°E / 31.70694; 76.93167Coordinates: 31°42′25″N 76°55′54″E / 31.70694°N 76.93167°E / 31.70694; 76.93167
Country India
State Himachal Pradesh
District Mandi
Municipality Mandi
Established 1527
Founded by Ajbar Sen
Talukas Mandi Sadar
Government
 • Body Municipal Council of Mandi
 • Deputy Commissioner Sh. Sandeep Kadam, IAS
 • Superintendent of police Sh. Abhishek Dular, IPS
Area
 • Total 23 km2 (9 sq mi)
Elevation 1,044 m (3,425 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 9,99,777(2,011)
 • Density 5,446/km2 (14,110/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
 • Regional Mandeali
Ethnicity
 • Ethnic groups Mandyali
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 175 001
Telephone code 91-01905
Vehicle registration HP-33
Nearest city Sunder Nagar
Sex ratio 1000/1013 / (2nd in HP)
Literacy 83.5%
Lok Sabha constituency Mandi (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Planning agency Town and Country Planning Department, Himachal Pradesh, India
Civic agency Municipal Council of Mandi
Present King HH Raja Ashokpal Sen
Climate Cw (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,380 millimetres (54 in)
Avg. annual temperature 23 °C (73 °F)
Avg. summer temperature 29 °C (84 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 17 °C (63 °F)
Website hpmandi.gov.in
 The Mandi Planning area also includes some portions of Mandi District.[1]

Mandi (Listeni/ˈmndi/; [mŋɖɪ]), Mandi, formerly known as Mandav Nagar,[2][3] also known as Sahor (Tibetan: Zahor),[4] is a major city and a municipal council in Mandi District in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It is situated 153 kilometres (95 mi) north of state capital, Shimla.[5] Located in the north-west Himalayas at an average altitude of 1,044 metres (3,425 ft),[6] the city of Mandi, experiences pleasant summers and cold winters. Mandi is connected to the Pathankot through National Highway 20 which is almost 220 km(140 mi) long and to Manali and Chandigarh through National Highway 21 which is 323 km(201 mi) long. Mandi is approximately 184.6 km (114.7 mi) from Chandigarh,[7] the nearest major city, and 440.9 km (273.9 mi) from New Delhi,[8] the national capital. According to the 2011 Indian census, Mandi city has a population of 1,92,370 .[9] It is one of the largest city of Himachal Pradesh with a total area of 23 km2.[1][10] City is currently the 2nd largest economy in the state next to Kangra. Mandi is the third-largest by population in state, next to Shimla and Solan. Mandi, in the state is having second highest sex ratio of 1013 females per thousand males.

It serves as the headquarters of Mandi District and Zonal Headquarters of central zone including Districts namely Kullu, Bilaspur, and Hamirpur.[11] As a tourist place, Mandi is often referred to as "Varanasi of Hills" [12] or "Choti Kashi"[13] or "Kashi of Himachal". People of Mandi proudly boast that while Benaras (Kashi) has 80 temples, Mandi has 81.[14]

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) is a premier institute located in the city.[15] This one time capital of the princely state of Mandi is a fast developing city that still retains much of its original charm and character. The city was established in 1527 by Ajbar Sen,[16] as the seat of the Mandi State, a princely state till 1948. Foundation of the city was laid on the establishment of Himachal Pradesh in early 1948. Today, it is widely known for the International Mandi Shivaratri Fair. The city also has the remains of old palaces and notable examples of ‘colonial’ architecture. The city had one of the oldest buildings of Himachal Pradesh.

Origin of name[edit]

The name "mandi" (and the former name "Mandav Nagar")[17][18][19] has its roots from Great Sage Rishi 'Mandav'[20] who prayed in this area, and the rocks turned black due to the severity of his penance. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the common word mandi[21] which means "market"[22] in Hindi. It may possibly be connected with the Sanskrit root mandaptika,[23][24][25] meaning "an open hall or shed,".[26][27]

While the city's name has always been pronounced "[mŋɖɪ]" in the local language, the anglicized version "Mandav Nagar" was the official name until it was changed to "Mandi".[28] This change is now the most widely used name for the city.[29] Mandi is renowned for its 81 ancient old stone Shaivite temples[30][31] and their enormous range of fine carving. Because of this, it is also often called the "Varanasi of the Hills".[32][33][34]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Mandi

The present District of Mandi was formed with the merger of two princely states, Mandi State and Suket State, on 15 April 1948, when the State of Himachal Pradesh was established.[35] Until the mid 20th century, Mandi was on the trade route between Yarkant County and Ladakh to Hoshiarpur and the Indian plains, served as commercial hub and trade centre.[36]

Flag of Princely State of Mandi
Flag of Princely State of Suket

Historical events[edit]

Princely state of Mandi was founded by Bahu Sen in 1200 AD. But Ajbar Sen was the one who founded historical city of Mandi in 1526 AD. The Chiefs of Mandi State are said to be the descendants of common ancestors of the Chandervanshi line of rajputs of Sen dynasty of Bengal who claim to be the descendants of Pandavas of Mahabharata times. The present District of Mandi was formed with the merger of two princely states Mandi State and Suket (Sundernagar) on the 15 April 1948, when the State of Himachal Pradesh was established. Ajbar Sen assassinated Mandi, it led to beginning of modern period of Mandi history. Old Mandi capital was abandoned and the site of present capital was acquired. Some historians put the selection of present capital in the year 1527 AD. The idol of Madho Rai, the presiding deity of Mandi and incarnation of Lord Vishnu is said to be made by Goldsmith Bhima, in 1648. Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupied Mandi in 1839 but Ranjit Singh died on 27 June 1839. It was beginning of disintegration of Sikh powers in the hills and British power emerged as most powerful. In 1849, Princely states of Mandi, Suket and Chamba were put under the control of Superintendent 'Cis-Satluj States'. Lala Lajpat Rai visited Mandi during 1906 to organize the revolutionary activities. Revolt occurred in Mandi State against the repressive, corrupt and arrogant administration of Raja Bhawani Sen and his Wazir Jiwa Nand Paddha. This revolt was led by Shobha Ram in 1909. A Prominent revolutionary of Mandi, Hardev Ram joined revolutionary band of patriots in 1913. He went to Shanghai, America and Japan where he met Lala Hardayal and Dr. Mathura Singh. Another revolutionary of Mandi Bhai Hirda Ram started participating in revolutionary activities in 1914. He joined Ras Behari Bose,Sant Baba Wasakha Singh Dadehar, Mathura Singh, Kartar Singh Sarba, Bhai Parma Nand and Pingle. In 1915, on the request of Sarla Devi, wife of Bhai Hirda Ram, the Viceroy converted his death sentence into life imprisonment. In the same year, Nagchala Dacoity in Mandi state took place. In Mandi conspiracy case, Mandi revolutionary Sidhu Kharara was sentenced for seven years in 1917. Mandi Legislative Council was constituted in 1933. Swami Purna Nand of Mandi was elected as president of "Himalayan Hill states regional Council" (founded in 1945) & Pt. Padam Dev became its general secretary. The session of "Himalayan Hill states regional Council" was held at Mandi from March 8, 1946 to March 10, 1946. It was also attended by INA activists Dhillon, Sehgal and Shahnawaj. So finally, Mandi came into existence on April 15, 1948. Suraj Sen ruled over Mandi at time of Damdama Mahal of Mandi.[37]

Raja Bijai/Vijay Sen, 16th Raja of Mandi

Before independence[edit]

See also: Mandi State

The Chiefs of Mandi State are said to be the descendants of common ancestors of the Chandervanshi line of rajputs of Sen dynasty of Bengal who claim to be the descendants of Pandavas of Mahabharata times. According to the earlier accounts, Bahu Sen established an independent territory and was recognized as a Rana or local Chief. The Raja Ajber Sen, the nineteenth descendent from Bahu Sen, was considered as an able and benevolent ruler. He founded the present Mandi city around the ‘Bhootnath Temple’ in the early 16th century (1500 AD-1534 AD) and shifted his capital to this place from Purani Mandi. The temple of Trilokinath was also constructed during his reign. He was succeeded by Chhattar Sen who built a fort in Kalar by name Lakargarh. The successive rulers of Mandi were Shyam Sen, Gaur Sen, Sidh Sen, Shamsher Sen, Surma Sen, Ishwari Sen, Jalam Sen, Balbir Sen and Vijay Sen. Many public utility, services and facilities like schools, hospitals and post offices, etc., were started by Raja Vijay Sen during his time. He also built large number of palaces and houses. A Mule road from Baijnath in District Kangra to Sultanpur in adjoining District of Kullu, via Mandi and the Victoria suspension Bridge on river Beas were constructed during his time in the year 1877. Raja Vijay Sen was issue less and left no direct heir. So in 1897, Bhawani Sen was recognized as his successor. During his period the city was considerably damaged in the earthquake of 1905. He was succeeded by Joginder Sen in April 1914 who was, however, vested with full powers of ruling chief in February 1925. During the period of his minority, Mandi remained under the management of a British Officer and a number of departments were overhauled and reorganised. Mandi being one of the oldest city is enjoying urban status since 1901. The Mandi palace popularly known as “Raj Mahal” as it looked in the past. The area where the “Sunken Garden” exists today was once a pond.[38]

Predecessors and short history[edit]

The predecessor state of Siokot was founded in 1527. Formerly part of the Kingdom of Suket in the Punjab Hills, the dynasty traditionally goes back to 765 AD. In about 1100, Vijaya Sen had two sons, Sahu Sen who ruled over Suket and Bahu Sen who ruled over Kullu. Bahu Sen’s descendants emigrated to Kullu until the tenth descendant, Kabakha Sen was killed by the Raja of Kullu and his son had to flee to Siokot, not very far from the present city of Mandi which was founded during Ajbar Sen’s rule. Since 1986, HH Raja Ashokpal has been the ruler.[39]

After independence[edit]

Mandi District was formed by amalgamation of the erstwhile princely states of Mandi and Suket on the formation of Himachal Pradesh on 15 April 1948. Since then, it is serving as the district headquarters of the Mandi District. Mandi district comprises 7 Tehsils namely Joginder Nagar, Sarkaghat, Sunder Nagar, Sadar Mandi, Chachyot, Thunag, Karsog and 9 Sub-Tehsils, i.e., Ladbharol, Padher, Sandhole, Dharmpur, Baldwara, Nihri, Kotli, Aut, Bali Chowki.

Area Covered by Mandi District

For the purpose of development activities, the District has been divided into 10 Blocks. The District has a total population of 9,00,987 persons as per 2001 Census and area of 3,950 km2. and covers 7.10% area of the State. The District has six cities including Pandoh as census city. These are namely Mandi Sunder Nagar, Joginder Nagar, Rewalsar, Sarkaghat and Pandoh. Recently Mandi has become Zonal Headquarters of Central Zone, which covers the Districts of Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kullu and Mandi itself and has gained much importance from administrative point of view.[40]

Municipal Council[edit]

Nagar Parishad Mandi was constituted during 1950. It has 13 wards consisting of 10 Revenue hadbasts. So far as population of Nagar Parishad is concerned, it is the biggest Parishad of the District.[41]

Geography[edit]

The River Beas where it runs through the city of Mandi, Himachal Pradesh(Photo Taken in 2004)

Mandi is built on the banks of the Beas River, at the confluence of the Suketi Khad stream. Sikandar Dhar, Ghugar Dhar and Dhar Kot are some of the prominent hills and mountains found near the city. Mandi is located in 31o72'N latitude and 76o92'E longitude. It has an average elevation of 1044 metres (3,425 feet).[42] It lies on the Midlands of the Himalyan range.[43] There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation. The climate varies from hot and sub-humid tropical in the southern tracts to cold, alpine and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges with more elevation.[44]

Geology[edit]

Mandi is a bowl shaped table land on the banks of river Beas, surrounded by the high hill ranges of Gandharv Hills, Motipur Dhar, Rehra Dhar and Tarna Hill. Two small rivulets, Suketi Khad and Skodhi Khad join River Beas. Besides, the table land on the banks of river/streams, terrain is steep and hilly. Geologically, the city is located in seismic Zone No. IV near a fault line and is prone to earthquakes. As National Highway-20 Pathankot-Mandi, National Highway-21 Chandigarh-Mandi-Manali, National Highway-70 Hoshiarpur-Mandi and State Highway-32 Hoshiarpur-Mandi passes through city, it is well connected with Jogindernagar, Palampur, Pathankot, Kullu, Sundernagar, Bilaspur, Chandigarh, Rewalsar and Una. Though Mandi is an old and fast developing city yet it still retains its original charm and character.[45]

Climate[edit]

Mandi features a subtropical highland climate under the Köppen climate classification. The climate of Mandi is composite having hot summers and cold winters. Mandi generally experiences rainfalls during end of summer season. Mandi city falls in the lower most climatic zone of the Himalayas. These regions enjoys a Wet-sub temperate climate of the foot hills (450-900m) as against the Dry-cold alpine climate with snow fall at higher altitudes (2400- 4800mts). Temperatures typically range from 6.7 °C (44.06 °F) to 39.6 °C (103.28 °F) over the course of a year. The average temperature during summer is between 18.9 °C (66.02 °F) and 39.6 °C (103.28 °F), and between 6.7 °C (44.06 °F) and 26.2 °C (79.16 °F) in winter. Monthly precipitation varies between 25.4 millimetres (1 in) in November to 228.6 millimetres (9 in) in August. It is typically around 58.3 millimetres (2.29 in) per month during winter and spring and around 101.6 millimetres (4 in) in June as the monsoon approaches. The average total annual precipitation is 832 millimetres (32.76 in).

Climate data for Mandi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
16.6
(61.9)
21
(70)
27.6
(81.7)
26.6
(79.9)
27.7
(81.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.3
(77.5)
23.1
(73.6)
21.6
(70.9)
17.4
(63.3)
22.9
(73.24)
Average low °C (°F) 4
(39)
4.1
(39.4)
7.2
(45)
10.5
(50.9)
14.7
(58.5)
15.2
(59.4)
12.7
(54.9)
12.3
(54.1)
11.7
(53.1)
10
(50)
6.4
(43.5)
3.8
(38.8)
9.38
(48.88)
Rainfall mm (inches) 30
(1.18)
30
(1.18)
22
(0.87)
15
(0.59)
15
(0.59)
85
(3.35)
240
(9.45)
220
(8.66)
130
(5.12)
25
(0.98)
10
(0.39)
10
(0.39)
832
(32.75)
Source #1: Meoweather[46]
Source #2: International Scholarly Research Network[47]

Economy[edit]

Mandi is the most fastest developing city of Himachal Pradesh with the 2nd largest economy in the state and the most important major city of central part of Himachal, located on cross junction of National Highway-20, 21 and 70. It acts as a gateway to Kullu, Lahaul, Leh Ladakh, area of Jammu & Kashmir. Being District headquarters and Zonal headquarters, the entire District and state depends upon the city for trade & commerce, services and civil administration. The economy of the region is predominately agrarian as around 79% of the total population is dependent on agriculture and activities allied to it, for earning their livelihood.[48]

Vegetable Market

Balh Valley is known for producing quality wheat, paddy, and vegetable crop where the water drainage system and sprinkle system of irrigation have been adopted. The crops of corn maize, wheat, rice and vegetables are grown in other parts of the district, which cater to the demand of sizeable population. A milk processing plant run by H.P. State Co-Operation-Milk- Federation at Chakkar is 8 kilometres from Mandi. It has intake of 9000 liters milk per day. It produces pure Ghee, butter and flavour milk and its sales are 5000 to 6000 liters of milk per day.[49]

The people of Mandi follow an agrarian economy and cultivate rice, pulses, millets, tea, sesame seed, groundnut, sunflower oil and herbal products. Himachal Pradesh Town and Planning Department works for Mandi Planning area(MPA). More than 9,000 farmers are directly involved in cocoon cultivation for producing Silk in lower hills of Mandi District. Mandi District is also facing tough competition from China, which is marketing raw silk at much lower rates in the market.[50]

Many Hectares of land in Mandi is also under Apple production. Apple are generally planted during December every year.[51] The area under fruit in Mandi is about 15 per cent of the total area under fruits in Himachal Pradesh. Mandi raw silk has acquired wide fame but the salt mines at Drang and Guma are the special features of the economy. With abundant deposit of salt and limestone, possibilities are being investigated for the existence of magnasite coal and china-clay. Mandi also has fish markets where brown trout is one of the most demanded fish species. In Mandi, a farmer gets around Rs.200 a kg for Brown Trout.[52]

Government and politics[edit]

Established in 15 April 1948, the Mandi municipal council is an elected body nominated by the government of Himachal Pradesh. Municipal Council of Mandi was constituted during 1950. It has 13 wards consisting of 10 Revenue Hadbasts. So far as population of Nagar Parishad is concerned, it is the biggest Council of the District.[53] As of the 2009 general election, the two major political parties are the Indian National Congress (INC) (in power) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (in opposition). The administrative head of the council is the Municipal commissioner who is appointed by the state government.

The city contributes one seat to the lower house of parliament (Lok Sabha). Law and order in the city is collectively maintained by the Police Department, Vigilance Department, Enforcement directorate, Forensics, Fire department, department of prisons, and Home Guard department. The Superintendent of Police of Mandi,[54] Mr. Abhishek Dular, heads the police department. The Deputy Commissioner of Mandi,[55] Mr. Devesh Kumar, is the head of District. There is one District court in the City including other courts in other towns of the district.

INC had been the most dominating party in Mandi. Sukh Ram and Virbhadra Singh from Indian National Congress had been the most successful contestants from the Mandi Parliamentary Constituency and Maheshwar Singh from the Bharatiya Janata Party. But the Scenario of mandi is now changed and more people are turning away from Congress and moving towards BJP. According to general elections, 2009 in state, 3 out of 4 seats are captured by BJP itself and the remaining one is won by Virbhadra Singh[56] from Mandi Parliamentary Constituency. However, it is expected that BJP will overpower INC in next Indian general election, 2014 in Mandi Parliamentary Constituency. Sukh Ram, former union telecom minister in P V Narasimha Rao's cabinet is himself a resident of Mandi City. The Central Bureau of Investigation in 1996 seized Rs. 3.6 lakh in cash concealed in bags and suitcases from Sukh Ram's official residence. The cash was allegedly collected by him committing irregularities in awarding a telecom contract. He was convicted and sentenced to three years rigorous imprisonment by a Delhi court in 2002 but he appealed in higher courts. On 18 November 2011 he was again sentenced to five years in jail by a Delhi court but he was finally granted bail by Delhi High Court keeping in view his old age and various ailments.[57] Communist Party of India (Marxist) had also organised rallys in the city to promote party in the city.[58]

General Election, 2009: Mandi
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
INC Virbhadra Singh 3,40,973 47.82 -5.59
BJP Maheshwar Singh 3,26,976 45.85 +2.38
BSP Lala Ram 10,131 1.42 +0.12
CPI(M) Dr. Onkar Shad 20,664 2.89
RWS Hookam Chand Shastri 7,877 1.10
Independent Shan Mohammad 6,405 0.89
Majority
Turnout 7,13,026 64.09 +1.18
INC gain from BJP Swing
General Election, 2013: Mandi
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
INC Pratibha Singh 3,53,492 62.82 +5.59
BJP Jairam Thakur 2,16,768 34.85 -2.38
Majority
Turnout 7,13,026 64.09 +1.18
INC hold Swing
Indian general elections, 2014: Mandi
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJP Ram Swaroop Sharma 362,824 49.97 +4.11
INC Pratibha Singh 322,968 44.48 -3.34
AAP Jai Chand Thakur 9,359 1.29 +1.29
BSP LALA RAM 5,167 0.71 +0.71
CPI(M) Kushal Bhardwaj 13,965 1.92 -0.98
NOTA None of the above 6,191 0.85 ---
Majority 39,856 5.49 3.53
Turnout 726,094
BJP gain from INC Swing

[56]

Transport[edit]

Mandi City National Highways Road Network

Local transport in Mandi is generally by auto-rikshaw, bus or private vehicles. Tourist taxis are also an option. The taxi station is located right in front of Seri Stage. Auto-rikshaws are the main means of transport in Mandi and are available almost 24 hours.

AutoRichshaw are the main source of tourist transportation in Mandi

The nearest airport to Mandi is the Bhuntar Airport, about 75 km from Mandi city. Mandi is connected to Pathankot through National Highway 20 which is almost 220 km (140 mi) long and to Manali and Chandigarh through National Highway 21 which is 323 km (201 mi) long.

Munish Resorts, Visco Resorts and Regent Palms Hotel are the most famous resorts in Mandi. Some other hotels are Raj Mahal, Amar Atithi, Ashoka Holiday Inn, Hotel Evening Plaza, Mandav Hotel(HPTDC), Surbhi Hotel, Hotel Yamini. Most people come to Mandi through Delhi or Chandigarh.[59]

From Delhi The distance between Delhi and Mandi is about 475 km. This distance can be covered in approximately 12 hrs by bus.

The alternative to reach Mandi from Delhi is to travel by train up to Kiratpur Sahib by Delhi-Una Himachal express (4553). From Kiratpur, there is a bus. All the buses going from Delhi and Chandigarh to Mandi have to pass through Kiratpur.[60]

From Chandigarh From Chandigarh there are buses to Mandi and Manali. The buses from Delhi pass through Chandigarh and some buses start from Chandigarh itself. The distance between Chandigarh and Mandi is 200 km. This distance can be covered in approximately 6 hrs by bus. By taxi, it may take around 5 hrs.[61]

By Air The nearest airport to Mandi is the Kullu Airport at Bhuntar, about 75 km from Mandi city. This is a small domestic airport; only small aircraft fly to Kullu. Flights to Kullu are restricted only from Delhi, and Shimla. From Delhi, flights to Kullu take about 90 minutes by Indian Airlines or Kingfisher Airlines.[62]

By Rail There is currently no railway, but one is proposed. There is a proposal to extend the Kangra Valley Railway to Mandi, and connect it to a new Bilaspur-Mandi-Leh Railway. The nearest railway station currently is the Jogindernagar Railway Station almost 50 km from the city; this is the current terminus of the Kangra Valley Railway.

Demographics[edit]

Mandi city consists of the municipal council and Mandi planning areas (MPA) under the Himachal Pradesh Town and Country Planning Act 1977. As of 2001 India census,[63] City had a population of 60,387. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Mandi has an average literacy rate of 83.5%, higher than the national average of 65.38% & almost equal to state's literacy rate(83.57%): male literacy is 92%, and female literacy is 75%.[64] In Mandi, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mandi had a very high sex ratio – 1013 girls for every 1000 boys in 2011. Population Density in the city is 5446 Persons/square kilometres. Mandi has a mixed population of Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists and Christians.

As of Census of India 2001[65]

Key Points Value
Number of Households 10,251
Average Household Size(per Household) 4 Persons
Population-Total 60,387
Population-Urban 60,387
Proportion of Urban Population (%) 100
Population-Rural 0
Sex Ratio 1013
Population(0-6Years) 7595
Sex Ratio(0-6 Year) 874
SC Population 7820
Sex Ratio (SC) 914
Proportion of SC (%) 18.0
ST Population 162
Sex Ratio (ST) 905
Proportion of ST (%) 1.0
Literates 50,476
Illiterates 6,397
Literacy Rate (%) 93.0
Religion in Mandi
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
95%
Others
  
5%

[66]

The majority of Mandi's population consists of natives of Himachal Pradesh. English, Mandeali, Hindi, and Punjabi are the main languages. The major religion is Hinduism (95%), followed by Sikhism (3%) and small minorities of Christians, Tibetan Buddhists and Muslims.[67]

Culture[edit]

Paintings(mid-18th century) of Mandi showing Vasudeva Carrying Krishna over the Yamuna River.
Painting(1740-1770) showing Shiva and Devi.

The people of Mandi are informally called Mandyalis. Mandeali language[68] is generally used at local level for communication. Sepu Wadi is the official and main cuisine of Mandi. Dham(Lunch)[69] is generally organised in local marriages, functions and parties. Himachal Darshan Photo Gallery [70] is situated at about 4 km from Mandi near Sauli Khad on the Chandigarh-Manali National highway. This art gallery contains a beautiful collection of photographs of exotic locations of the entire state and reflects the social & cultural heritage of the people of Himachal Pradesh.The Himachal Darshan Photo Gallery established on 24 April 1997 is a symbol of undaunted and unparalleled entrepreneurship shown by Birbal Sharma,[71] a professional Photographer cum journalist. District Library is located in Emerson House(District Court).[72] Clothing in Mandi was Kurta-Pyjama for Boys and Sari-Suits for girls but with the Western Culture arriving to India, Mandi's youth have started wearing Western styles. However, there are still large numbers of people who wear the traditional clothing of Himachal Pradesh.[73] Banthra is the main folk dance performed in theatrical shows in Mandi and is the official folk dance of the District.[74][75][76][77]

Mandi is also famous for the Mandi Shivaratri Fair, a fair held for seven days in the month of March every year. The celebration of Shivratri of Mandi is said to have started in the year 1526 to commemorate the foundation of present-day Mandi. Before this, the capital of Mandi was on the right bank of the river Beas, which is now known as Old Mandi(Purani Mandi). Mandi hosts a half marathon every year.[78][78][79][80]

Once when the tenth guru of the Sikhs was on a visit to Mandi, the king of Mandi invited him to stay at the royal palace. The guru accepted the invitation to stay in Mandi but not with the king. He put up outside the town in a secluded place, which had once been the hermitage of a rishi (Indian sage). The guru was touched by the king’s devotion and prophesized that Mandi would ever remain safe and if any enemy tries to harm it, bolts from heaven would crush the invader. He considered Mandi the safest place on the planet.[81] V.G.C. mandi hp Youth festival group 4 (one act play, skit, mime and mimicary)

Education[edit]

The city has anganwadis, primary schools as well as high schools. Some of the popular schools in the city are DAV Centenary Public School,[82] Kendriya Vidyalaya,[83] Mandi Public School, Indus World School, Vijay Government Senior Secondary School,[84] Government Senior Secondary School(Girls),[85] Sarswati Vidya Mandir,[86] Sai Public School,[87] St. Xavier Residential School,[88] DAV Sr. Secondary School,[89] Anglo Sanskrit Model School.[90] The medical institutes in Mandi is Himachal Dental College.[91] Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College,[92] and Vallabh Bhai Government College[93] are also located in the city. The Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, is an autonomous and top university of the state for Graduation in B.Tech/M.Tech offering many courses. The Abhilashi University[94] is also based in Mandi is having several branches offering engineering and technology, pharmacy, management studies, vocal training institute. There are many private institutions. Mandi has one of the largest District library at District Court area, also a heritage building. Other institutes of higher education and research located in Mandi are the M.G.Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sirda Institute of Engineering and Emerging Technology for Women, Noble College of Education and Centre for Computer Education & Software Development.

Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi

Indian Institute of Technology Mandi (भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान मंडी, IIT Mandi) is an autonomous university located in Mandi. It is the youngest Indian Institute of Technology in India, established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, in 2009. It is mentored by IIT Roorkee, which hosted the first batch of students. Presently, IIT Mandi functions from transit campus at Mandi City in Himachal Pradesh. Permanent campus (about 12 km from historic city of Mandi) is under construction along Uhl River (a tributary of River Beas) at Kamand, Mandi. The institute admits students into various B.Tech., M.S, and Ph.D. programs (as of 2010). Timothy A. Gonsalves joined as Director of IIT Mandi on 15 January 2010.

Universities

Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College
Name Type Location
Indian Institute of Technology Mandi Institute of National Importance Mandi
Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College Government College Sunder Nagar
M.G.Institute of Engineering and Technology Government College Bodhoo
Dhauladhar Hills University Private university 50th Milestone, Mandi
Vallabh Bhai Government College State University Mandi
Noble College of Education Government Engineering College Sunder Nagar
Himachal Dental College Government College Sunder Nagar
Abhilashi College of Pharmacy Tanda
Dreams College of Pharmacy Mandi
Shanti Niketan College of Pharmacy Mandi
Abhilashi Institute of Management Studies Ner Chowk Abhilashi Vocational Training Institute (SCVT) Tanda
Centre for Computer Education & Software Development Mandi
Abhilashi P.G College of Education Ner Chowk
Gayatri College of Education Private College Mandi
Vijay Memorial College of Education Bhangrotu, Ner Chowk
Industrial Training Institute Government College Mandi

Schools

DAV Centenary Public School, NH-20
Name Affiliation Location
DAV Centenary Public School CBSE Jawahar Nagar, Mandi
Vijay Government Senior Secondary School HPSEB NH-70 School Bazar, Mandi
Indus World School CBSE Mandi St. Xavier's Residential School CBSE Mandi Kendriya Vidyalaya CBSE Jawahar Nagar, Mandi Anglo Sanskrit Modal School HPBSE

Media[edit]

Mandi has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. The top Hindi language newspapers are Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Punjab Kesari, Hindghosh. Popular magazines are Outlook, Champak. Popular English language newspapers sold in Mandi include the Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, Indian Express, The Tribune.

Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mandi through the local cable television provider. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides many channels like DD Shimla, DD National, DD Sports, DD Sports HD.[95]

The wide range of cable channels available includes news channels such as Aaj Tak, Lokmat IBN, Zee News, Star News, NDTV 24X7, sports channels like Ten Sports, ESPN, Star Sports, Neo Sports, Neo Cricket, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and STAR Plus. Local News channels include Himachal News,samidha channel, Kanwal Communications(K Channel)[96] , S-TV[97] , Wireless Communication System & GMC NETWORK NER CHOWK. Satellite television (DTH) are very rarely used. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mandi include Dish TV, TATA Sky, Videocon TV, Reliance Big TV. There are two radio stations in Mandi. People generally use CRT, LCD, LED Televisions.[98]

In addition to print and electronic media the social media is also reporting the events of Mandi District through "Mandi News Services" and Court reporting through "Legal News Services" pages on social networking site Facebook.

Sports[edit]

Mandi is home to Bandy Federation of India which is a member of the IOC recognized Federation of International Bandy. Bandy Federation of India is Headquartered in Mandi. India has a bandy team. Bandy Federation of India takes care of Bandy in India. India is one of 7 countries in Asia and in total 29 to be a member of Federation of International Bandy. BFI planned to send a team to the tournament in Astana-Almaty 2011.[99] That would have been the first time India participated in a bandy competition, but ultimately the team didn't come. The international debut of Indian National Bandy Team will possibly take place at the first Asian Bandy Championships to be held in Almaty in December 2012.[1]

Cricket and football are one of the most popular sports played in the city. Shaheed Krishan Chand Memorial Stadium[100][101] in Mandi helds List A cricket matches.[102] It is also known as Paddal ground. It has also held All India Ranji Matches.[103] Badminton courts are made in Town Hall as well as in Paddal. Open Swimming pool is also situated near Bhiuli. There are many Snooker Pools and Table Tennis halls in city at different places. Rishi Dhawan[104] is one of the most famous cricketer from Mandi who Plays for Kings XI Punjab in Indian Premier League.

Adventure tourism in Mandi has gained importance in the recent years due to its thick forest cover, picturesque hills and the splashing waters of the river Beas. Mandi offers an ideal location for all kinds of adventure sports. One such place for adventure Tourism in Mandi is Sundernagar, a small place at the edge of the valley. It is located at a height of over one thousand metres and has some of the tallest trees found in the state. The climate is colder and the tree cover makes this an ideal spot for adventure lovers to go on a nature trail. Many species of birds are seen and the walk through the trees is an amazing adventure, since walking through the dense forest and rappelling down the rocky cliff is very challenging.[105]

Janjehli, located about two hours journey from Mandi, offers treks up to 3000 metres. As the entire road is not motorable, the last part of the journey has to be covered on foot through a thick forest. Another trek from Janjheli takes you through these forests to the temple of the Shikari Devi. This temple devoted to the goddess is said to have been built at the time of the Pandavas and is roofless.[106] .

The Himalyan Trout House is about five hours from Mandi, at the Tirthan valley. There is good trout fishing option in the river bed here. Here, brown trout is one of the most demanded fish species. In Mandi, a farmer gets around Rs.200 a kg for catching Brown Trout.[52] The hydroelectric power station at Jogindernagar can be accessed via a trolley up the rocky cliff to a height of about 2500 metres. The trolley then drops down to the other side to Barot, where the reservoir is located.

Places of worship[edit]

Temples

Tarna Temple
Princess Mandarava statue in Mata Kua Rani Temple
Bhimakali Temple

Mandi has more than 300 old and new temples. Because of the large number of temples and its location along River Beas, Mandi is also known as 'Chhoti (Small) Kashi'. Most of the temples are dedicated to Lord Shiva and the Goddess Kali. There are many classical temples which the Archaeological Survey of India has declared 'protected monuments' due to their historical significance, the primary ones being: the 'Panchvaktra Temple', situated at the confluence of River Bea and Suketi Khad, 'Ardhnareshwar Temple', which is one of very few temples of its kind in India. 'Triloknath Temple' is located on the right bank of the Beas River. The Mata Kuan Rani Temple, consisting of a slate-roofed temple over a deep well which is dedicated to the 'Princess of the Well' and celebrates the time when, according to legend, Mandarava, the Princess of Sahor (Mandi), became a consort of Padmasambhava. The king became angry and condemned them both to death in a fire which raged for seven days. After the smoke cleared there was a lake with a lotus in it, 'Rewalsar' or Tso Pema (Tibetan: 'Lotus Lake').[107]

Gurudwara

The Gurudwara at Mandi

Mandi has an historical Gurudwara in honour of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru, who spent some time in Mandi. The people and the ruler welcomed him with great warmth and supported the Guru in his war against the tyrannical rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb; it is said that the city has the Guru's blessings. The Gurdwara is also unofficially referred to as Gurudwara Palang Sahab, because the Guru's Bed 'Palang' is still preserved here.

Places of interest[edit]

View of Mandi City
  • Sunken Garden (Indira Market)
  • Tarna Temple, also called Shyama Kali temple
  • Bhima Kali Temple
  • Panchvaktra Temple
  • Kamlah-Fort
  • Vishvakarma temple

Rewalsar Lake It is famous for its floating islands of reed. It is believed that all seven of them can be moved by prayer or breeze. There are three shrines here, a Buddhist Monastery, where elaborate rituals are performed, a Sikh Gurudwara and a Hindu Temple. It was from this place that the sage Padma Sambhava, a zealous teacher of Buddhism, left as a missionary to preach the doctrine of "the enlightened" in Tibet. Lying in a mountain hollow, the lake is held sacred to all three communities, boating facilities are available. Sundernagar Famous for its temples, at a height of 1,174 metres on the raised edge of a fertile valley, the town of Sundernagar is known for its shady walks amidst towering trees. On top of a hill, is the Sukhdev Vatika and temple of Mahamaya. The biggest hydro-electric project in all Asia, the Beas-Sutlej project, irrigating nearly one-fourth of the northern plains of India, has brought unprecedented prosperity to Sudernagar. The Beas-Sutlej link colony is the biggest colony in Himachal Pradesh. Bhootnath Temple Practically synonymous with Mandi and located in its very heart, this is as old as the city itself, and dates back to the 1520s. In March, the festival of Shivratri is a major event and the Bhootnath temple is its focus. For and entire week the city celebrates the arrival of hundreds of local deities on elaborately decorated palanquins. Syamakall Temple Also called the temple of Tarna Devi situated 2–3 km from centre of city, this is high on Tarna Hill which rises above the city. In the 17th century this was built by Raja Syama Sen, after a particularly trying time, when the goddess gave him success. Other Temples in Mandi Within the city is a veritable roll-call of shrines. Apart from the emotions they evoke, they also have a wealth of classical architecture and ornate sculpture. Many of these are devoted to Lord Shiva, at the Triloknath temple he is depicted as the lord of the three worlds, at the Panchvaktra he has five faces, expressing his five aspects. At the Ardhanarisvara temple, Lord Shiva appears in a composite form with the right half as male and the left half as female - symbolising the male and female principles of cosmic evolution. There are several exquisite temples along the College Road, and the banks of the Beas are lined with many more. At the Gyarah Rudra temple, the day the famous 'Amarnath darshan' takes place, the temple is decorated to resemble the Amarnath cave. Aut Tunnel

Photograph of Aut Tunnel, Mandi(3 km) which is the longest road tunnel of India but Rohtang Tunnel(8 km under construction) situated in same state is expected to become longest road tunnel of India by 2015.

Aut Tunnel is located in Mandi District on National Highway 21 (India). It is the longest road tunnel in India with length of about 3 km.

Victoria Suspension Bridge It was built in 1877 A.D. which separates Jawahar Nagar (Khaliar), Old Mandi (Purani Mandi) from Main City.

Janjehli At a distance of 80 km from Mandi City, Janjehli is a paradise for hikers, offering treks up to a height of 3,300 metres. After covering 32 km by a motorable road up to Gohar and rest of the journey is on foot. In the midst of thick forest, forests (15 km from Gohar) is Bajahi. There is a beautiful and well furnished rest house to stay overnight, from here Janjehli is a scant 20 km away through bridle path. Chindi and Karsog are also nice places for meditation. Janlehli is also popular for adventure activities like-trekking, night safari, mountneering, skiing etc. At the distance of 10 km from janjehli the Shikari Mata temple is situated. The temple is all about Goddess "Shikari Devi" and people visits here in masses to accolades for their well being. Its a beautiful and scenariatic place with mountains seems to avoiding each other but the clouds more often use to get them in touch.

Prashar Lake Prashar Lake lies 49 km north of Mandi, with a three storied pagoda-like temple dedicated to the sage Prashar. The Lake is located at a height of 2730 m above sea level. With deep blue waters, the lake is held sacred to the sage Prashar and he is regarded to have meditated there. Surrounded by snow-capped peaks and looking down on the fast flowing river Beas, the lake can be approached via Drang.

Prashar Lake, Mandi

Notable residents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b =Mandi Planning Area in Hectares. 
  2. ^ Gazetteer of the Mandi State. p. 21. 
  3. ^ All About the Mandi City. 
  4. ^ "Tibetan People used to call Mandi earlier "Sahor(Zahor)"". 
  5. ^ "Distance of Shimla from Mandi by Road". 
  6. ^ "Geography of Mandi". 
  7. ^ "Distance of Chandigarh from Mandi". 
  8. ^ "Distance of New Delhi from Mandi". 
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  10. ^ "Area of Mandi City". 
  11. ^ "Mandi becomes recently the Zonal Headquarters of Kullu, Bilaspur and Hamirpur". 
  12. ^ "Mandi Popular Names". 
  13. ^ "Mandi Popular Names". 
  14. ^ "Mandi Temples". 
  15. ^ "Indian Institute of Technology(IIT) Mandi". 
  16. ^ Imperial, p. 152
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  27. ^ "Mandaptika". 
  28. ^ "Mandaptika". 
  29. ^ "81 Old temples". 
  30. ^ Singh, p. 347
  31. ^ "81 Old temples". 
  32. ^ "81 Old temples". 
  33. ^ "81 Old temples". 
  34. ^ "81 Old temples". 
  35. ^ "History of Mandi". 
  36. ^ Emerson (1920), p. 21.
  37. ^ Sarla Publications Presents General Knowledge of Himachal Pradesh (1st Edition, 2011) ISBN 81-901192-0-6. 
  38. ^ "Mandi Before Independence". 
  39. ^ "History of Rulers of Mandi". 
  40. ^ "Mandi After Independence". 
  41. ^ "Municipal Council of Mandi". 
  42. ^ "Geography of Mandi". 
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  44. ^ "Geography of Mandi according to Gazetteer of Mandi State". 
  45. ^ "Geology of Mandi according to the Gazetteer of Mandi State". 
  46. ^ "Mandi Average Weather by Month". Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  47. ^ "Solar Potential in the Himalayan Landscape". Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  48. ^ "Agrarian Economy". 
  49. ^ "Processing Plants in Mandi". 
  50. ^ "Agrarian Economy". 
  51. ^ "Apple Production in Mandi". 
  52. ^ a b "Fish Markets in Mandi". 
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  54. ^ "Superintendent of Police of Mandi". 
  55. ^ "Deputy Commissioner of Mandi". 
  56. ^ a b "Mandi Lok Sabha Parliamentary Constituency Elections 2009 Results". 
  57. ^ "Mandi's Sukhram sentenced imprisonment by Delhi High court". 
  58. ^ "Communist Party of India (Marxist) to organise Rally in Mandi". 
  59. ^ "Hotels and Inns in Mandi". 
  60. ^ "How to reach from Delhi". 
  61. ^ "How to reach from Chandigarh". 
  62. ^ "How to reach by air". 
  63. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  64. ^ "Himachal Census". Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  65. ^ "Census of India". 
  66. ^ "Religion wise distribution in Percentage in Mandi". 
  67. ^ "Religion wise distribution in Mandi". 
  68. ^ "Local Language of People of Mandi". 
  69. ^ "Lunch organised in Local Traditional Marriages". 
  70. ^ "Himachal Darshan Photo Gallery, Mandi". 
  71. ^ "WAAH HIMACHAL". 
  72. ^ "Law and Order: Emerson House, District Court". 
  73. ^ "Traditional Clothing of Himachal Pradesh". 
  74. ^ "Official Folk Dance in Mandi". 
  75. ^ "Folk Dances in Mandi". 
  76. ^ "Folk Dances in Himachal Pradesh". 
  77. ^ "Folk Daces of Himachal Pradesh". 
  78. ^ a b "The International Festival". Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  79. ^ "The Mysticism of Mandi’s Mahashivratri". Himavani: A voice of Himachal Citizen initiative. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  80. ^ "Mandi -The Seventh Heaven". Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  81. ^ "Guru Gobind Singh Visit to Mandi". 
  82. ^ "D.A.V. Centenary Public School Mandi". 
  83. ^ "Kendriya Vidyalaya". 
  84. ^ "History of Bijai Senior Secondary Government School". 
  85. ^ "Government Girls Senior Secondary School, Mandi". 
  86. ^ "Sarswati Vidya Mandir, Mandi". 
  87. ^ "Sai Public School, Bhiuli, Mandi". 
  88. ^ "St. Xavier's Residential School, Mandi". 
  89. ^ "D.A.V. Senior Secondary School Mandi". 
  90. ^ "Anglo Sanskrit Model Senior Secondary School, Mandi". 
  91. ^ "Himachal Dental College, Mandi". 
  92. ^ "Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College, Sunder Nagar, Mandi". 
  93. ^ "Vallabh Bhai Government Engineering College, the First University in Himachal Pradesh". 
  94. ^ "Abhilashi Group of Instituitions, Mandi". 
  95. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Cable Operators Entertainment, Mandi". 
  96. ^ "Kanwal Communications, Mandi". 
  97. ^ "S-TV News Channel". 
  98. ^ "Media in Himachal Pradesh". 
  99. ^ "Translation result for http://www.bandynet.ru/node/6643". Babelfish.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  100. ^ "Shaheed Krishan Chand Memorial Stadium". 
  101. ^ "Shaheed Krishan Chand Memorial Stadium". 
  102. ^ "List A Matches played on Shaheed Krishan Chand Memorial Stadium". CricketArchive. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  103. ^ "First-class Matches played on Shaheed Krishan Chand Memorial Stadium". CricketArchive. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  104. ^ "Rishi Dhawan - Famous Cricketer from Mandi(Kings XI Punjab)". 
  105. ^ "Adventure Tourism in Mandi". 
  106. ^ "Janjehli, Mandi". 
  107. ^ Stott and Dare (2009), p. 530.

Further reading[edit]

  • The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford at Clarendon Press, London. 1909. 
  • Emerson (1920): Gazetteer of the Mandi State. 1920. Reprint 1996: Indus Publishing Company, Delhi. ISBN 81-7387-054-3.
  • Singh, Sarina (2009). India (Lonely Planet Country Guide) (Paperback). 13th Updated edition. ISBN 978-1-74179-151-8.
  • Stott, David and Annie Dare (2009). India Handbook 2009: Tread Your Own Path. 16th Edition. Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 978-1-906098-38-4.
  • Hutchinson, J. & J. PH Vogel (1933). History of the Panjab Hill States, Vol. II. 1st edition: Government Printing, Pujab, Lahore, 1933. Reprint 2000. Department of Language and Culture, Himachal Pradesh. Chapter IX Mandi State"", pp. 373–412.
  • Mandi: a project in a mountainous region of India, Published in 1974 by Authors Zeuner, H. Stiegler, pp. 0–70.
  • Gazetteer of the Mandi State, The Present Edition Of The Mandi State Gazetteer Was Compiled By Mr. Emerson, I.C.S., Late Settlement Officer And Superintendent, A. Emerson, G.C.L Howell, H.L. Wright are the ditors and the book is published by Indus Publishing, 1996. ISBN 81-7387-054-3, ISBN 978-81-7387-054-5 0-205.
  • Rough guide to India by David Abram, Edition 5, illustrated ; published by Rough Guides, 2003. ISBN 1-84353-089-9, ISBN 978-1-84353-089-3 523-525.
  • Mandi area planning: principles of planning for unit areas by Institute of Regional Development Planning from University of California Digitized on Feb 20, 2009 0-74.
  • Punjab State Gazetteers: pt. A-B. Mandi and Sukut States, Volume 12, Part 1 of Punjab State Gazetteers, Punjab (India) by Superintendent, Government Printing, 1920 from the University of Michigan Digitized on Sep 2, 2008.
  • Punjab State Gazetteers: pt. B. Mandi State, Volume 36, Part 2 of Punjab State Gazetteers, Punjab (India) by Superintendent, Government Printing, 1936 from the University of Michigan Digitized on Sep 2, 2008.
  • Punjab district gazetteers, Volume 17, Part 2, Punjab District Gazetteers, Punjab (India) by Superintendent, Government Printing, 1936 from the University of Michigan Digitized on Sep 2, 2008.
  • Punjab district gazetteers, Volume 9, Gazetteer of India, Punjab District Gazetteers, Punjab (India) by Controller of Print. and Stationery, 1987.
  • Pahari paintings and Sikh portraits in the Lahore Museum by Authors F. S. Aijazuddin, Lahore Museum (Pakistan), published by Sotheby Parke Bernet, 1977 from the University of Michigan Digitized on Dec 2, 2009. ISBN 0-85667-029-4, ISBN 978-0-85667-029-9 64-95.
  • The rajas of the Punjab: being the history of the principal states in the Punjab and their political relations with the British government by Sir Lepel Henry Griffin, Edition 2 published by Trübner & Co., 1873 from Oxford University, Digitized on Nov 14, 2007 567-579.
  • Journal of the Panjab Historical Society, Volume 7, Part 1 by Panjab Historical Society, published by Baptist Mission Press, 1918 from the University of Michigan digitized on Jul 28, 2007 1-15.
  • Spilites and spilitic rocks

International Union of Geological Sciences Series a Issue 4 of Series A Volume 4 of Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften Volume 471 of Illus. bibliographie- pp. Volume 4 of Unión Internacional de Ciencias Geológicas / Trondheim, Noruega by Gerhardt Christian Amstutz, illustrated published by Springer, 1974 from the University of Michigan, digitized on Feb 23, 2010. ISBN 0-387-06448-6, ISBN 978-0-387-06448-2 175-184.

  • Journal of scientific and industrial research, Volume 9 by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India), 1950 from the University of Michigan digitized on May 18, 2009 119-122.
  • Inventory of monuments and sites of national importance, Volume 1, Part 2 by Jagat Pati Joshi, Archaeological Survey of India,1998 from the University of Michigan digitized on Sep 3, 2008 117-120.
  • Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Volume 38, Pub. by order of the Governor-General of India, 1981 from the University of Michigan digitized on Oct 19, 2006 44-53.
  • Monthly commentary on Indian economic conditions, Volume 9 by Indian Institute of Public Opinion., 1967 from the University of Michigan digitized on Apr 8, 2011 7-13.
  • Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Volume 1

Volume 38; Volume 50 of Archæological survey of India New imperial series Archaeological survey of India. [Reports] new imperial series, Archaeological Survey of India Antiquities of Indian Tibet, August Hermann Francke Volume 38 of Reports: New imperial series, Archaeological Survey of India published by Superintendent government printing, India, 1914 122-123.

  • District Handbook, Himachal Pradesh: Mandi

Volume 2 of District Handbook, Himachal Pradesh, India. Superintendent of Census Operations, Himachal Pradesh by India. Superintendent of Census Operations, Himachal Pradesh from the University of Michigan digitized on Jun 9, 2011.

  • Mandi State, statistical tables by The Mufid-i-'am Press, 1913 0-43.
  • Mandi state by The "Civil and Military Gazette" Press, 1908 0-88.
  • Himalayan geology, Volume 11 by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology., 1983 from the University of Michigan digitized on Apr 14, 2010 93-100.
  • Himalayan art

SAMP early 20th-century Indian books project by Joseph Charles French published by Oxford university press, 1931 from Indiana University digitized on Jul 22, 2009 18-23.

  • Mandi and Suket States 1912

Punjab District Gazetteers Volume 12 of Statistical tables published in 1913

External links[edit]