Mandi Bahauddin District

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Mandi-Bahauddin District
ضلع منڈی بہاؤالدین
District
Map of Punjab with Mandi-Bahauddin District highlighted
Map of Punjab with Mandi-Bahauddin District highlighted
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Headquarters Mandi Bahauddin
Area
 • Total 7,623 km2 (2,943 sq mi)
Population (1998)
 • Total 1,160,552
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Number of Tehsils 3

Mandi Bahauddin (also spelled Mandi Baha ud Din) (Urdu: ضلع منڈی بہاؤالدین ‎) is a district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located at 32°34'60N 73°30'0E[1] and is bordered on the northwest by the Jhelum River, on the southeast by the Chenab River, which separates it from Gujranwala District and Gujrat District, and on the southwest by Sargodha District. The district has an area of 2673 km².

Administration[edit]

Mandi Bahauddin is subdivided into three tehsils and 65 Union Councils:[2]

Name of Tehsil Number of Union Councils
Malakwal 17
Mandi Bahauddin 27
Phalia 21
Total 65

History[edit]

The Battle of the Hydaspes River, between Alexander the Great and the Raja Porus of India, took place to the west of Mandi Bahauddin in 326 BCE. Raja Porus was staying nearby, in a portion of ancient India now part of Pakistan. This was the last major war fought by Alexander. Harry Roy, the son of Raja Porus, and Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse, both died on the first day of this battle. After the death of his son, Raja Porus, who had been stationed at Nazampur, brought elephants and fought Alexander the Great himself. As a result of this battle, Alexander founded two cities, Nicaea ("Victory") at the site of modern-day Mong, and Bucephala at the site (possibly) of Phalia in Pakistan.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid Empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul, followed by conquest of the Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim as a result of the influence of missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of the Punjab.

In 1506, Hazrat Bahauddin, a Sufi Darvesh, migrated to this area from Pindi Shah Jahanian and established a settlement named Pindi Bahauddin, which was later named Mandi Bahauddin.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied Mandi Bahauddin District. Bhangi Misl was the first of many Sikh bands to invade and plunder the Mughal Lahore and other cities in Punjab. Many visitors to Lahore during this era noted that much of the city was in disrepair and many of its Muslim monuments and Mosques were pillaged and desecrated by the Sikhs.

The land, palaces and houses of Muslim nobility were confiscated by the Sikhs Sardars. Marbles and precious stones were pillaged from Muslim buildings, including Shalimar Gardens, and homes by the Sikhs to build Golden Temple in Amritsar and the other Sikh holy places. Syed Ahmad Barelvi a Muslim nationalist received desperate pleas of help from the persecuted Muslims of the Punjab region.

The Muslims were prohibited to call Azan and lands belonging to the waqf endowments which provided financial support to Muslim institutions were confiscated by the Sikhs. Syed Ahmad Barelvi in 1821 with many supporters and spent two years organizing popular and material support for his Punjab campaign. He carefully developed a network of people through the length and breadth of India to collect funds and encourage volunteers, traveling widely throughout India attracting a following among pious Muslims. In December 1826 Sayyid Ahmad and his followers clashed with Sikh troops at Okara but with no decisive result.

In a major battle near the town of Balakot in 1831, Sayyid Ahmad and Shah Ismail Shaheed with volunteer Muslims were defeated and martyred by the professional Sikh Army. The Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1849 took place nearby;[where?] Lord Guff led the British forces against the Khalsa Sikh Army at Chillianwala. A graveyard at Rakh Minar near Chillianwala has its own Ancient Memorandum, (memorial?) where many British Army soldiers and officers were buried. During the period of British rule, the Mandi Bahauddin district increased in population and importance. The British established public services such as canals and irrigation facilities, and also the North-Western Railway to facilitate the northern defence of their empire. It was at this time that the Mandi Bahauddin Railway Station was built.

In 1920, the town name became official, and in 1924 Pindi-Bahauddin Railway Station was officially granted its name. In 1937, the town of Mandi-Bahauddin was granted permission to form a town committee, which became a municipal committee in 1941. In the 1923 master reconstruction plan,[further explanation needed] all the streets and roads were straightened and widened. In 1946, in response to local riots, the nine gates and the wall surrounding the town were completed.[clarification needed].

The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in the Mandi Bahauddin District. In 1960, Phalia was granted the status of a Sub-Division of the District of Gujrat and Mandi Bahauddin was named as its headquarters.

In 1963, the Rasul Barrage and Rasul-Qadirabad link canal project was created as a component of the Indus Basin irrigation project. The project was managed by WAPDA, and a colony for government employees and foreign contractors was constructed a few kilometres from Mandi Bahauddin. The canal project was completed in 1968 by engineer Riazur Rahman Shariff, enhancing the commercial power of the community.

In 1993, Mian Manzoor Ahmed Wattoo, the Chief Minister of Punjab, declared this city the Headquarters of the new district of Mandi Bahauddin.

Geography[edit]

The district forms a central portion of the Chaj Doab lying between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers. It lies from 30° 8' to 32° 40' N and 73° 36' to 73° 37' E. The tehsil headquarters towns of Phalia and Malikwal are 22.5 and 28.5 kilometres from Mandi Bahauddin, respectively. It is bounded on the north by the Jhelum river, which separates it from Jehlam district; on the west by Sargodha district; on the south by the river Chenab (which separates it from the Gujranwala and Hafizabad districts); and on the east by Gujrat district. The total area of the district is 2,673 square kilometres. The district comprises the Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia, and Malikwal tehsils.

Demography and language[edit]

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of the district was 1,160,552, of which 14.93% lived in urban environments.[3]

Punjabi is the most spoken language, and Urdu is also widely spoken.

Climate[edit]

This district has a moderate climate, hot in summer and cold in winter. During the peak of summer the temperature may rise to 45°C during the day, but in the winter months the minimum temperature may fall below 2°C. The average rainfall in the district is 50 mm.[4]

Education[edit]

Mandi Bahauddin is one of the best educated districts of Punjab; it has the highest number of civil judges in the whole province of Punjab, and possibly the largest number of Law graduates also.

Notable personalities[edit]

Tribes and Clans[edit]

The main tribes and clans living in the district are Gondal, Gujjar, Baloch, Janjua, Ranjha, Mekan, Bhaun, Tarar,{dhuddy},

Jutt, Gujjar, Butt, Malik, Bhatti, Mughal, Dewan, Ghouri, Sayyed, Warraich, and Awan (Alvi).

Statistics[edit]

  • Forest area: 13,377 (40,879 acres)[citation needed]
  • Metalled roads: 655 km
  • Grid stations: 3
  • Telephone exchanges: 40
  • Industrial units: 897

References[edit]

Coordinates: 32°35′0″N 73°30′0″E / 32.58333°N 73.50000°E / 32.58333; 73.50000