|Nerve: Mandibular nerve|
The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.
It is made up of two roots:
- a large sensory root proceeding from the inferior angle of the trigeminal ganglion.
- a small motor root (the motor part of the trigeminal), which passes beneath the ganglion, and unites with the sensory root, just after its exit through the foramen ovale.
Immediately in the infratemporal fossa beneath the base of the skull, the nerve gives off two branches from its medial side: a recurrent branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to the medial pterygoid muscle. The mandibular nerve then divides into two trunks, an anterior and a posterior.
The mandibular nerve gives off the following branches:
- From the main trunk of the nerve (before the division)
- From the anterior division
- From the posterior division
To remember the sensory branches of V3
- B - Buccal n. (or long buccal n.; not to be confused with the buccal branch of CN VII)
- A - Auriculotemporal n.
- I - Inferior Alveolar n.
- L - Lingual n.
The mandibular nerve innervates:
- mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric muscle
- mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
- the inside of the cheek (the buccal mucosa)
- teeth and mucoperiosteum of mandibular teeth
- skin of the temporal region
- lower lip, and chin
- Muscles of mastication
- the muscles tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini
- Human Anatomy, Jacobs, Elsevier, 2008, page 196
- Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 181
- MedEd at Loyola GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cnb3.htm
- Anatomy figure: 27:03-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
- cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (V)