Mandombe script

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Mandombe
Mandombe in Mandombe.svg
Type
Alphabet organized into syllabic blocks
Languages Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba, Swahili
Creator Wabeladio Payi
Time period
1978–present
Parent systems
A Mandombe book.

Mandombe or Mandombé, is a script proposed in 1978 in Mbanza-Ngungu in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo by Wabeladio Payi, who related that it was revealed to him by Simon Kimbangu, the prophet of the Kimbanguist Church, in a dream. It is based on the sacred shapes 5 and ㄹ, and intended for writing African languages such as the four national languages of the Congo, Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba and Swahili, though it does not have enough vowels to write Lingala fully. It is believed[by whom?] that research into the script will result in scientific discoveries.[1] It is taught in Kimbanguist church schools in Angola, the Republic of the Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is also promoted by the Kimbanguist Centre de l’Écriture Négro-Africaine (CENA). The Mandombe Academy at CENA is currently working on transcribing other African languages in the script.[2] It has been classified as the third most viable indigenous script of recent indigenous African scripts, behind only the Vai syllabary and the N'Ko alphabet.[3]

A preliminary proposal has been made to include this script in the combined character encoding ISO 10646 /Unicode.[4]

Structure[edit]

Mandombe has consonant letters and vowel letters which are combined into syllabic blocks, rather like hangul. All letters are based on a square S or 5 shape. The six vowels are distinguished by numerals added to the right of the 5-shape. The consonants fall into four 'groups', or shapes, which are distinguished by adding a short stroke to the 5-shape for three of the groups; and into four 'families', or orientations, which are distinguished by reflecting and rotating the letter shapes. The four families of consonants are attached to the same corner of the vowel, which is reflected or rotated to match the consonant, so that the consonant resides in a different corner of the syllabic block depending on its orientation. Unlike Pitman shorthand, which also distinguishes consonants by rotation, in Mandombe the groups and families do not form natural classes, apart from a fifth group of fricatives and affricates made by inverting one of the four basic groups. Vowel sequences and nasal vowels are created with diacritics, prenasalized consonants by prefixing n (the basic 5-shape), and consonant clusters by infixing a consonant between the two parts of the vowel (between the 5-shape and the additional strokes).

Vowels[edit]

Vowel letters are composed of two parts: the basic 5-shape of the Mandombe script plus a numeral, or—in the case of the French u vowel—by modifying the basic u vowel letter. Vowel 1 is i, vowel 2 u, vowel 3 e, vowel 4 o, and vowel 5 a.

A vowel can be written individually and form a syllable on its own. In a vowel sequence or diphthong, however, a diacritic is used for the second vowel or part of the vowel. That is, lio (two syllables) is written li plus the diacritic for o, while mwa (one syllable) is written mu plus the diacritic for a. Diacritics come at the end of the last stroke of the vowel. While there is a diacritic for u, sequences ending in u are instead generally written as two full syllables, the second being wu. This strategy is apparently also employed in some other cases rather than using diacritics.[citation needed]

Latin script Mandombe Composition Diacritic
i Mandombe i.svg Mandombe groupe1.svg Mandombe digit 1.svg Mandombe diac i.svg
u Mandombe u.svg Mandombe groupe1.svg Mandombe digit 2.svg ?
e Mandombe e.svg Mandombe groupe1.svg Mandombe digit 3.svg Mandombe diac e.svg
o Mandombe o.svg Mandombe groupe1.svg Mandombe digit 4.svg Mandombe diac o.svg
a Mandombe a.svg Mandombe groupe1.svg Mandombe digit 5.svg Mandombe diac a.svg

Ü (French u) is Mandombe IPA y.svg. It has no diacritic.

Consonants groups and families[edit]

There are four basic consonant shapes. Each shape (base character) can be reflected horizontally, vertically, or both to represent a different consonant; the four consonants thus formed are considered to be a group, and consonants reflected in the same way are considered to be a family. These consonants are combined with vowels, which are similarly reflected, to create syllables.

Family 1
The consonant with the basic orientation is attached to the lower left of the vowel
Family 2
The consonant-plus-vowel is reflected both horizontally and vertically (rotated 180°)
Family 3
The consonant-plus-vowel is reflected horizontally
Family 4
The consonant-plus-vowel is reflected vertically

Vowel diacritics are reflected along with the main vowel.

The use of geometric transformation is also present in Pitman shorthand and Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, though Mandombe consonants in the same group do not seem to have any phonological relationship (except the fifth group named mazita ma zindinga, in which all consonants are affricates and fricatives).

Examples[edit]

Consonant Family 1 Family 2 Family 3 Family 4
Mandombe groupe1.svg
Group 1
Mandombe na connect.svg
na
Mandombe va connect.svg
va
Mandombe sa connect.svg
sa
Mandombe ta connect.svg
ta
Mandombe groupe2.svg
Group 2
Mandombe be connect.svg
be
Mandombe de connect.svg
de
Mandombe fe connect.svg
fe
Mandombe ge connect.svg
ge
Mandombe groupe3.svg
Group 3
Mandombe ko connect.svg
ko
Mandombe mo connect.svg
mo
Mandombe lo connect.svg
lo
Mandombe po connect.svg
po
Mandombe groupe4.svg
Group 4
Mandombe groupe4fam1i connect.svg
wi
Mandombe groupe4fam2i connect.svg
ri
Mandombe zi connect.svg
zi
Mandombe yi connect.svg
yi
Mazita ma zindinga Mandombe shu.svg
shu
Mandombe dju.svg
dju
Mandombe tshu.svg
tshu
Mandombe ju.svg
ju

Complex Characters[edit]

  • Prenasalisation of consonants is indicated with a variation on Mandombe groupe1.svg (n) disconnected from the vowel. This always joins the consonant body, else certain signs could be read in more than one way.
  • Nasalisation of the vowel is marked by an attached diacritic: Mandombe diac nas.svg.
  • If Mandombe groupe1.svg is placed between the two separable parts of the vowel glyph, it represents an intervening /r/.

Examples of Complex Syllables[edit]

Modification Mandombe Latin script
Vowel sequence Mandombe bie connect.svg bie
Diphthong/semivowel Mandombe mwa connect.svg mwa
Nasal vowel or final nasal consonant Mandombe ken connect.svg ken
Prenasalized consonant Mandombe mbu connect.svg mbu
Consonant clusters Mandombe pro connect.svg pro
Mandombe plo connect.svg plo

Digits[edit]

The digit for 1 resembles the Hindu-Arabic 1, and 2–5 are based on this shape. 6 and 9 are square versions of Hindu-Arabic 6 and 9, and 7–8 are formed by reflecting them.

digit Mandombe
0 Mandombe digit 0.svg
1 Mandombe digit 1.svg
2 Mandombe digit 2.svg
3 Mandombe digit 3.svg
4 Mandombe digit 4.svg
5 Mandombe digit 5.svg
6 Mandombe digit 6.svg
7 Mandombe digit 7.svg
8 Mandombe digit 8.svg
9 Mandombe digit 9.svg

Punctuation[edit]

A period is used as a word divider to separate words.

The punctuation corresponds to that of the Roman alphabet. A comma has the form of a short line, ı, a period as a turned vee, ʌ, like the diacritic for o, and a colon and semicolon combinations of these (semicolon î, colon double ʌ). The exclamation mark is like a lambda, λ, and the question mark is

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Definition: Mandombe, Negro-African script.
  2. ^ Pasch, Helma. 2008. Competing scripts: the introduction of the Roman alphabet in Africa. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 191:65-109.
  3. ^ Unseth, Peter. 2011. Invention of Scripts in West Africa for Ethnic Revitalization. In The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia García, pp. 23-32. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ [1] in French