Mandore

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For the musical instrument, see Mandore (instrument).
Mandore
ancient town
Mandore is located in Rajasthan
Mandore
Mandore
Location in Rajasthan, India
Coordinates: 26°21′13″N 73°01′59″E / 26.3535°N 73.0331°E / 26.3535; 73.0331Coordinates: 26°21′13″N 73°01′59″E / 26.3535°N 73.0331°E / 26.3535; 73.0331
Country  India
State Rajasthan
District Rajasthan
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 342304
Nearest city Jodhpur
Lok Sabha constituency Jodhpur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Sardarpura

Mandore (Hindi: मंडोर), is a town located 9 km north of Jodhpur city, in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

History[edit]

Mandore is an ancient town, and was the seat of the Mandorva Rajput branch of the Parihar dynasty which ruled the region in the 6th century AD by King Nahar Rao Parihar. In 1395 AD, a Mohil princess of the Parihar rulers of Mandore married Chundaji, scion of the Rathore clan of Rajputs. This was during the era of rapid ascendency of the Rathore clan, and Chundaji received Mandore in dowry. The town remained the seat of the Rathore clan until 1459 AD, when Rao Jodha, a Rathore chief who united the surrounding region under his rule, shifted his capital to the newly founded city of Jodhpur. [1]

While the history of the Imperial Pratiharas is given in the Gwalior inscription of Bhoja, that of the Mandor Parihars is given in Jodhpur inscription of Bauka Pratihara. From these inscriptions it becomes clear that Mandor was the original kingdom of the Pratiharas/Pariharas, and younger members of the line established separate kingdoms in other parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. The senior line of Mandor had to submit to the junior line in the wake of the latter's victory over the Arabs, but reasserted their independence whenever the power of the Imperial Pratiharas was weakened. Both families constructed temples at the important religious center of Osian in west Rajasthan

The town of Osian is built around the Sachiyamata hill, which is crowned by the Sachiyamata temple. The present construction dates to the 12th century and later, but the original temple is dated to the 8th century. Worship continues at this temple to this day, as it does at the Mahavira Jain temple, which was built by Vatsaraja of the Imperial Pratihara line. It is believed that of all the ancient temples at Osian, the Vishnu and Surya temples were constructed by the Imperial Pratiharas while the Saiva and Sakti temples were built by the Mandor Pratiharas. The latter increasingly after the 9th century when the Imperial line's power was centered more and more around Kannauj and Gwalior.

The line of Imperial Pratiharas at Kannauj, which rose to power in the wake of the Arab invasion, was finally extinguished 300 years later during the Turk invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni. But the wider clan of Pratihara Rajputs, and their other bases like Mandor and Gwalior, continued to survive till a much later period. Over the centuries the clan name Pratihara evolved into Parihar and variants like Purihar and Padhiar.

After a revival in the 10th century, the old line of Mandor Pratiharas saw a decline in their power, and became feudatory to the newer powers like the Paramars from Malwa, and later to the Chauhans of Nadol and Ajmer. The Mandor Pratihars were part of the Rajput confederacy under the Chauhans of Ajmer which was ended by the death of Prithviraja on the fatal field of Tarain in 1192. But it took another 100 years of constant warfare before the Delhi sultanate could project its power on Rajputana; in 1292 Mandor was conquered by Jalaluddin Khalji. The Parihar ruler and his family eluded captivity and found refuge in the neighboring Bhati Rajput kingdom of Jaisalmer. As per the 1879 Rajputana gazetteer, Purihar Rajputs were still to be found in that desert region. Mandor itself was under Muslim rule for the next 100 years; but it seems that only the city was occupied by the Turk governors and their soldiers while the remaining land was held by the Parihar Rajputs. The full story of this period is not before us; but we can assume that time and again the Parihars tried to overthrow the interlopers and were unsuccessful

What saved the Parihars from annihilation was the underlying strength of the Rajput clan system, described earlier, in that newer clans were always emerging to take on the mantle of resistance against the invaders. Guerrilla warfare by these Rajput clans led to the liberation of Rajputana in the late 14th century, while some nearby parts of India remained under the Turks. In the case of Mandor, the Rathor Rajputs had emerged from the district of Kher to become the dominant power in the Marwar region, the Parihars were assimilated under the Rathors as feudatories and numbers of them are to be found in Jodhpur. Some of them joined in the Rathor expansion further north; Rao Bika the founder of Bikaner had a prominent general named Bela Parihar and not surprisingly Parihar Rajputs are to be found in that part of Rajasthan as well.

Mandore is Marwar's most historic city. Today in ruins, it was the capital of many a great dynasty. Legend has it that Ravana, the Demon King of Lanka who defied Lord Rama himself, married a princess of Mandore, his favourite queen Mandodri. In 1292 the Mandorva Parihar Rajputs lost Mandore to the Khilji Sultans of Delhi and after that the city remained with the Sultans of Delhi till 1395. In that year their Governor in Mandore, Aibak Khan, demanded fodder as well as the tax on grain, and this eventually proved to be his undoing. The Parihars, tired of this autocratic man, hatched a plan, which, in ingenuity matched the famous Trojan Horse, and in bravery far surpassed it. Five hundred Parihars smuggled themselves into the fortified city in a hundred cart-loads of grass. These carts were checked randomly and prodded with spears. Some men were pierced but they uttered not a sound and, in fact, even managed to wipe the blood off the spears as they were withdrawn. Then the Parihars fell upon the Muslims. Within an hour Mandore was once again in their hands but the victors realised that defending her was going to be an entirely different problem. It was then that someone suggested a marital alliance be arranged with the young Chunda. Thus did Mandore, the capital of Marwar, come to the Rathores in a dowry.

When the storm had passed the Mandorva Rajput community which had now been cut adrift from the main Rajput group, thought of devising ways and means of ensuring their purity of blood and guard against any vices that may creep in by adoption of new fold. Accordingly, they assembled on at Ajmer on Magh Shudi 7, and passed a resolution that was to hold good for all time. The resolution was embodied in a "Parwana" and handed over to a Bhat (genealogist) who was a descendant of Mahakvai Chand Bardai.[3] The resolution reads as follows: "When these people in order to get rid of danger to their life and property settled in cities and towns, and got an experience of this new fold, about its social status and condition after living with them for 3 or 4 years, they felt necessity of framing new social rules after reviewing their past and present condition. They would not tolerate many evils which they had found in that new fold in which they and their descendants were to spend their lives as they had their origin of pure Rajput blood, they assembled in Pushkar (Ajmer) under the presidentship of Mahadeo, son of Kushma Ajmera Chauhan on Magh Sudi 7th and framed some social rules and regulations for their fold and handed over that document to their Bhat in order to act accordingly."

The Parihar Rajputs in Marwar still had the numbers and resources to impact the polity centuries later. In the 17th century Mughal emperor Aurangzeb invaded the Rathor kingdom of Marwar and Jadunath Sarkar writes: "A strong force was sent into Marwar under Sarbuland Khan, and a fortnight later the emperor himself started for Ajmer to direct the conquest of the state. Anarchy and slaughter were let loose on the doomed province. The nationalist party was threatened by a host of enemies. The Parihars — the dispossessed ancient lords of the land and the hereditary enemies of the Rathor interlopers — tried to revive their historic kingdom of Gurjara-Pratihara by seizing Mandor, the ancient capital, 5 miles north of Jodhpur."

Monuments[edit]

The Royal Cenotaph (Deval) At Mandore Garden. Photo by Dr. Chetan S. Parihar, July 2005.

The historic town boasts several monuments. The now ruined Mandore fort, with its thick walls and substantial size, was built in several stages and was once a fine piece of architecture. A huge, now ruined temple is a highlight of the fort. The outer wall of the temple depicts finely carved botanical designs, birds, animals and planets.

The Ek Thamba Mahal At Mandore Garden. Photo by Dr. Chetan S. Parihar, July 2005.

Higher up on the plateau are ruins of Mandore, the antique city of Parihars. The Mandore fort was built in stages. A study of the Mandore fort, its thick walls and huge ruins showed that the fort was a fine piece of architecture. Many statues and etchings on stone and rock found at Mandore now adorn Mandore museum. The 'Mandore gardens', with its charming collection of temples and memorials, and its high rock terraces, is another major attraction. The gardens house the Chhatris (cenotaphs) of many rulers of the erstwhile princely state of Marwar. Prominent among them is the chhatri of Maharaja Ajit Singh, built in 1793.

The Mandore Gardens also house a government museum, a 'Hall of Heroes' and a temple to 33 crore Gods. Various artefacts and statues found in the area are housed at the museum. The 'Hall of Heroes' commemorates popular folk heroes of the region. It contains 16 figures carved out of a single rock. Next door is a larger hall called "The temple of 33 crore Gods" which houses images of various Hindu Gods.

Fairs and festivals[edit]

  • The Rao (Ghair) Festival - one of the most prominent festivals celebrated on the day of Holi since many centuries in order to remember and celebrate the festivities of Holi where huge numbers of the Mandorva Rajputs-Sainik Kshatriyas of the nearby vicinity of entire Mandore Jagir gather in remembrance of the last Rao (Mandorva King) of Mandore & singing and celebrating as well about the valour of the Rajputs of Marwar.The huge pocession of the Rao Ghair takes place starting from inside the gates of Mandore to the hilltop.
  • Hariyali Amavasya
  • Naag Panchami
  • Veerpuri Mela
  • BhogiShell Parikrama

Notable people (Mandorva Rajputs - Sainik Kshatriyas) from Mandore[edit]

  • Gora Dha- 17th Century...[circa 1781] ''The Sacrifice of Gora Dha'' - Fearing the worst, the infant Maharaja Ajit Singh was smuggled out of the Rathore haveli in Delhi in a basket by Gora Dha (Dha Ma) of the Mandorva Rajput branch of Mandore. A Brahmin named Jaidev and a Rajput of the loyal Khichi clan, Mukund Das, who disguised himself as a snake charmer, accompanied her. Gora Dha left behind her own child so that the Emperor Aurangzeb's spies would continue to hear the wail of a baby in the haveli. It was sacrifices like this that made Rajputana a sacred land. Gora Dha has not been forgotten. In the land of the Rathores where the fair sex is not exactlyequal, her name, the only woman's, embellishes their anthem Dhoonso Baje. Her memorial in Jodhpur stands, a trifle bewildered, on the busy street connecting the Sojati and Mertia Pols. (Excerpt from 'The House of Marwar'. Roli Books 1994)
Memorial of Gora Dha (Mandorva Rajput lady).jpg
Late Thakur Raghunath Singh Ji (Gahlot Sirdar - Rawla Mandore) ..........circa 1921 .jpg] ...........courtesy: Roli books......1994
The Mandoreva Rajput, Late Thakur Shri Sher Singh ji Gehlot. Photo inserted by Madhav Singh Parihar.
  • Late Hon'ble Justice Shri Kan Singh Parihar (August 30, 1913 – October 28, 2011) [1] - was the Judge of Rajasthan High Court and Vice-Chancellor of Jodhpur University. He got his law (LL.B.) degree in 1936 from Banaras Hindu University. He joined Marwar State Judicial Service in 1944 as Hakim (Administrator) & subsequently he was appointed as Legal Remembrancer in the Marwar State’s Law Department at Jodhpur. While working on this position he drafted Marwar Tenancy Act. 1949 and Marwar Land Revenue Act. 1949. In August 1964, he was elevated to the bench of the Rajasthan High Court where he served as Justice for 11 years until his retirement in August 1975 and in 1979 he was appointed Vice-Chancellor of Jodhpur University (now Jai Narain Vyas University). In August 1989 Parihar was bestowed with a title of “Vidhi Ratnaker” (The Jewel of Law) and a commemoration volume was published in his honor......... (for more detials.......please refer "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kan_Singh_Parihar"
Late Hon'ble Justice Kan Singh Ji Parihar (August 30, 1913 – October 28, 2011)
  • Padma Shri Kailash Sankhala (The Tiger Man) [2] (1925–1994) - was a renowned naturalist and conservationist of India. He was the Director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan & was best known for his work in preserving tigers. He was well known around the globe as the Tiger Man, and was involved in the formation of Project Tiger, the world's largest wildlife conservation programme set up in India in 1973. Kailash Sankhala [1] successfully managed Sariska, Bharatpur, Banvihar and Ranthambhor Wildlife Sanctuaries and the forest divisions of Rajasthan until 1964, and in 1965 was appointed Director of the Delhi Zoological Park. Then in 1972 he was appointed head of 'Project Tiger', a worldwide attempt to save the Indian tiger from extinction. He was conferred with Padma Shri in 1982. In 1965, the government of Rajasthan bestowed on him the Merit Award for outstanding contribution in wildlife conservation. Mr. Sankhala received another Merit Award in 1982 for his book on the tiger......(for more detials.......please refer "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kailash_Sankhala"
Padma Shri Kailash Sankhla popularly known as known as the Tiger Man of India
Retd. Wing Commander K. S. Parihar being awarded (Shaurya Chakra) in 1978

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mandore PinCode". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-03-09. 

External links[edit]