Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary
|Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
View of Mangalavanam
|Location||Ernakulam, Kerala, India|
|Area||0.0274 square kilometres (0.0106 sq mi)|
Mangalavanam is an ecologically sensitive area situated at the centre of the Indian city of Kochi. It is situated behind the Kerala High Court building. It is a nesting ground for a large variety of migratory birds and supports many types of mangroves. The Managalavanam is often regarded as the "green lung of Kochi", considering its role in keeping the city's air pollution under check. The area is a roosting place for many kinds of resident and migratory birds.
Recently the high-rise buildings in the nearby area are curtailing the movement of birds in the sanctuary. The buildings close to the sanctuary interrupt proper orientation, take-off and landings of the birds. They also cause hurdles in the regular movements of the nesting birds in transporting nesting materials. It is also likely to hinder the movement of birds while bringing food materials to the chicks and fledglings. The administrative control of the sanctuary is with the Assistant Conservator of Forest and Wildlife Warden Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary of Nature Study Centre Kalady and then to the Range Officer Research Range Kodanad.
Flora and fauna 
The true mangrove and mangrove associate species that exist in the sanctuary are Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, Acanthus ilicifolius and Acrostichum aureum — the species of conservation importance. Of the recorded species Acanthus ilicifolius is considered to be Endangered and Rhizophora mucranata as Vulnerable according to IUCN.
In a recent study revealed six species of mammals Indian flying-fox, painted bat, three-striped palm squirrel/dusky palm squirrel, house rat/black rat, bandicota, and Eurasian otter. Two species of amphibians Limnonectes limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus, and seven species of fishes Anabas testudineus, Striped panchax, Orange chromide, Etroplus suratensis, Malabar swamp eel, Blackline rasbora and Sarotherodon mossambica were found.
Mangalavanam is primarily a bird refuge. A bird survey conducted in May 2006 found that there were 194 birds belonging to 32 species. The total number of bird species recorded so far from the area is 72.
During a study conducted in 2006, 17 species of butterflies were recorded in this area. 51 species of spiders belonging to 40 Genus and 16 families were recorded here. This represented 27% of the total families reported from India.
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