Mangaloreans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mangaloreans
Genelia D'Souza (cropped).jpg
Aishwariya Rai (face).jpg
Freida Pinto 3, 2012.jpg
Shilpa Shetty 2007.jpg
Regions with significant populations
Dakshina Kannada 2,083,625 (2011)[1]
Udupi district 1,177,908 (2011)[2]
Languages
Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, Beary
Religion
Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism

Mangaloreans (Tulu: Kudladakulu; Konkani: Kodialkaar; Kannada: Manglurnavaru; Beary: Maikaaltanga) are generally considered to be a collection of ethnic groups that hail from the areas comprising Tulu Nadu (historical South Canara district) on the south western coast of India. It can also refer to residents of Mangalore.[3]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Tulu Nadu

Historically, Tulu Nadu included the two separate lands of Haiva and Tuluva. The Ballal Kings of Sullia had ruled this area around 1100 years back. The Bunt, Brahmin migration to Tulu Nadu might have happened during the lifetime of the Kadamba king Mayuravarma at 345 AD. During the 13th century, the Hindu philosopher Madhvacharya built the eight Mathas (monasteries) in modern Udupi district.

During the rule of the Vijayanagara dynasty, Tulu Nadu was administered in two parts—Mangaluru Rajya and Barakuru Rajya. Tulu Nadu was the original homeland of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third dynasty of the Vijayanagara monarchy. Tulu Nadu was governed by feudatories of the Vijayanagara Empire until the 17th century. The longest reigning dynasty of Tulu Nadu was the Alupas. They were the feudatories of the prominent dynasties of Karnataka. The Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi was the earliest, under which the Alupas flourished. Later the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Badami, Chalukyas of Kalyani, Hoysalas of Durasamudra and rayas (kings) of Vijayanagara were the overlords. The Alupas, however, were independent and their subordination was nominal at best. They ruled during the Vijaynagara domination of Tulu Nadu from 14th to the 17th centuries. The region became extremely prosperous during Vijayanagara period with Barkur and Mangalore gaining importance. After the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, much of Tulu Nadu came under the control of the Keladi Nayakas of Ikkeri.

A typical red tile-roofed house in Tulu Nadu

Over the following many centuries, more ethnic groups migrated to the area. Various Konkani peoples arrived by sea, as Mangalore was a major port that served not only the Portuguese but also the Arabs for maritime trades. Jains were already a prominent group and even today are uniquely preserved in Tulu Nadu. Though small in number, the Jains left behind indelible reminders of their glory with temples (bastis) in Moodabidri, and monolithic statues of Bahubali and the Gomateshwara in Karkala, Venoor and Dharmasthala. In the 16th century, there was a large influx of Goan Catholics to this region from Goa. They built prominent educational institutions and contributed to the development of education in the region. The Muslim community of Tulu Nadu are basically descended from Arab traders who married local women and settled there. They speak Beary bashe, which is a mix of Tulu and Malayalam.

Demographics[edit]

Majority of Mangaloreans belong to the Tuluva ethnic group. The Tuluvas have historically been concentrated in the coastal areas. The next largest group are the Konkanis, in particular the Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Daivadnya Brahmins as well as the Mangalorean Catholics whose ancestors migrated here from Goa, due to persecution by the Portuguese. Other groups who historically settled in Tulu Nadu, include the Kannadigas and Bearys.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Mangalore

Cuisine[edit]

Neer dosa, a variant of dosa, is native to Mangalore.

Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by the South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the city. Coconut and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean Curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili. Mangalorean Fish Curry is popular dish in Canara. The Tulu community's well-known dishes include Kori Rotti (dry rice flakes dipped in gravy), Bangude Pulimunchi (silver-grey mackerels), Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Neer dosa (lacy rice-crêpes), Boothai Gasi, Kadabu, and Patrode. The Konkani community's specialities include Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, paagila podi, and chana gashi. Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi cuisine, is known and liked throughout the state and region. Since Mangalore is a coastal town, fish forms the staple diet of most people.[4] Mangalorean Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna –idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas –Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel and the Mutton Biryani are well-known dishes. Pickles such as happala, sandige and puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.[5]

Traditions[edit]

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised among Mangaloreans. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore,[6] while Hulivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[7] Karadi Vesha (bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.[5] Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats.[5] The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings).[8] The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each New Year.[5]

World record[edit]

On 26–27 January 2008, a Konkani cultural event, Konkani Nirantari, held in Mangalore by a Mangalorean organization, Mandd Sobhann, entered the Guinness Book of World Records for non-stop singing of Konkani hymns. Mandd Sobhann members sang for 40 hours, surpassing the old record of 36 hours held by a Brazilian musical troupe.[9]

Notable Mangaloreans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/252-dakshina-kannada.html
  2. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/268-udupi.html
  3. ^ Venkatesh Srinivas Kulkarni Journal of South Asian Literature Vol. 25, No. 1, THE CITY IN SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN LITERATURE (Winter, Spring 1990), pp. 55-66 Published by: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, "The Mangaloreans with their roads and their rural electrification felt superior to everyone else. ... Mangaloreans and the people of their district, South Kanara, were Mangaloreans first and Kannadigas third."
  4. ^ "Typically home". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  5. ^ a b c d D'Souza, Stephen. "What's in a Name?". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  6. ^ Prabhu, Ganesh (2004-01-10). "Enduring art". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  7. ^ Pinto, Stanley G (2001-10-26). "Human `tigers' face threat to health". The Times of India. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  8. ^ "Beary Sahitya Academy set up". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  9. ^ "Mangalore: Guinness Adjudicator Hopeful of Certifying Konkani Nirantari". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-02-01.