Manhattan

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For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 40°47′25″N 73°57′35″W / 40.79028°N 73.95972°W / 40.79028; -73.95972

Manhattan
Manhattan, New York
Borough of New York City
New York County
Manhattan at dusk in 2014
Manhattan at dusk in 2014
Flag of Manhattan
Flag
Official seal of Manhattan
Seal
Borough of Manhattan shown in orange.
Borough of Manhattan shown in orange.
Coordinates: 40°43′42″N 73°59′39″W / 40.72833°N 73.99417°W / 40.72833; -73.99417
Country  United States of America
State  New York
County New York
City New York City
Settled 1624
Government
 • Type Borough (New York City)
 • Borough President Gale Brewer (D)
(Borough of Manhattan)
 • District Attorney Cyrus Vance, Jr.
(New York County)
Area
 • Total 33.77 sq mi (87.5 km2)
 • Land 22.96 sq mi (59.5 km2)
 • Water 10.81 sq mi (28.0 km2)
Population (2013)
 • Total 1,626,159[1]
 • Density 70,825.6/sq mi (27,345.9/km2)
 • Demonym Manhattanite
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Website Manhattan Borough President

Manhattan /mænˈhætən/ is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the mainland. Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States[2][3][4] and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters.[5] Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world,[6][7][8][9] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States,[10] but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality.[11] Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough.

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city.[12] It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159[1] living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million,[13] or around 170,000 people per square mile. It is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010.[14] Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.[15]

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors.[16][17][18] Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World"[19][20][21][22][23] and "The Center of the Universe",[24][25][26] is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District,[27] one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections,[28][29] and a major center of the world's entertainment industry.[30] The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers,[31] and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[32][33][34][35] The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village served as the catalyst for the modern gay rights movement.[36][37] Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan,[38] including Columbia University, New York University, Cooper Union and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 50 in the world.[39] The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government[40] and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[41][42][43]

In the very early part of the 21st century, various areas suffered significant destruction, especially in Lower Manhattan, and were being renovated and rebuilt. During the September 11 attacks in 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and the towers collapsed, killing over 2,600 people.[44][45] Surrounding buildings in the World Trade Center area were also severely damaged or destroyed. In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, while ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan.[46]

New York's five boroughs overview
Jurisdiction Population Land area
Borough County 1 July 2013
Estimates
square
miles
square
km
Manhattan New York 1,626,159 23 59
The Bronx Bronx 1,418,733 42 109
Brooklyn Kings 2,592,149 71 183
Queens Queens 2,296,175 109 283
Staten Island Richmond 472,621 58 151
8,405,837 303 786
19,651,127 47,214 122,284
Source: United States Census Bureau[47][48][49]

Names[edit]

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon).[50] A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.[51]

New York County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state in which they are located. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".[52]

History[edit]

Colonial area[edit]

Peter Minuit, early 1600s.
The Castello Plan showing the Dutch colonial city of New Amsterdam in 1660 – then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan Island.

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.[53][54]

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped.[55] Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.[56]

J.Q.A. Ward's statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall on Wall Street, on the site where Washington was inaugurated as the first U.S. President in 1789.[57]

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam).[58][59] Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City.[60] According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around $1,050 in 2014.[61]

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony.[62] New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653.[63] In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II.[64] The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.[65][66]

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster,[67] in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.[68]

American Revolution and the early United States[edit]

A prelude to organized colonial opposition to British rule, the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies was held in New York City in 1765. The Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances,[69] the first document by a representative body of multiple colonies to assert the concept popularly known as "no taxation without representation". It was also the first time the colonies cooperated for a unified political aim, laying the foundation for the Continental Congresses that followed years later.[citation needed]

The Sons of Liberty developed in Manhattan in the days following the Stamp Act protests. The organization participated in a long-term confrontation with British authorities over liberty poles that were alternately raised by the Sons of Liberty and cut down by British authorities. The skirmishes ended when the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress took power in 1775.[citation needed]

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.[70] Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.[71]

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall.[72] Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time,[73] the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified,[74] and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.[75]

19th century[edit]

The "Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York", commonly known as the Viele Map, was created by Egbert Ludovicus Viele in 1865
Bird's eye panorama of Manhattan in 1873. The Brooklyn Bridge was under construction from 1870 until 1883.

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.[76][77] By 1810 New York City, then confined to Manhattan, surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.[78]

Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped park in an American city and the nation's first public park.[79][80]

During the American Civil War, New York City likely had the most complex relationship to the war, of any northern city that did not border a southern city. The city's strong commercial ties to the American South,[81] its growing immigrant population (prior to then largely from Germany and Ireland; beginning in the late 1850s waves of Italian; and Central, and Eastern European Jews began flowing in en-masse), anger about conscription sizzled and resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service, led to resentment against Lincoln's war policies, plus the racial element, fomented paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrant's jobs,[82] culminated in the three-day long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred.[83]

The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France.[84][85] The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city was a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization.

In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection across the East River. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed.[86] In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. On January 1, 1914, the New York state legislature created Bronx County, and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.[87]

20th century[edit]

Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900

The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s, Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century.[88] Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990.[89]

On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers. The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.[90]

Victory over Japan Day in Times Square, 1945

The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance.[91] As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline today, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the GE Building.

Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, including Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947.[92] In 1951, the UN relocated from its first headquarters near Queens, to the East Side of Manhattan.[93]

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[94][95]

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[96] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[97]

The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease.

By the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeting to 537 by 2008, and the crack epidemic and its associated drug-related violence under greater control.[98] The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market.[99] Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in Manhattan's economy.

The newly completed Singer Building towering above the city, 1909 
A construction worker on top of the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. To the right, is the Chrysler Building
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated National Historic Landmark as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Riots.[36] 

21st century[edit]

United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the first World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
Flooding on Avenue C caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.[100]

On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed. 7 World Trade Center collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, but there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. However, many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths.[101] A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at 1,776 feet (541 m) and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere,[102] while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site.

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[103]

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor,[46] severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents[104] and leading to gasoline shortages[105] and disruption of mass transit systems.[106][107][108][109] The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[110]

Geography[edit]

A modern redrawing of the 1807 version of Commissioner's Grid plan for Manhattan, a few years before it was adopted in 1811. Central Park is absent. Dark color denotes existing blocks, light gray were planned.
Central Park is visible in the center of this satellite image. Manhattan is bound by the Hudson River to the west, the Harlem River to the north, and East River to the east.

Description[edit]

Manhattan Island[edit]

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.[111] Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).[112] New York County as a whole covers a total area of 33.77 square miles (87.5 km2), of which 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2) are land and 10.81 square miles (28.0 km2) are water.[113] The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle.

Marble Hill[edit]

One neighborhood of New York County is contiguous with the mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan.[114] Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.[115]

Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in topography has been evened out.[51]

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street.[116] When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site.[117] Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City.[118] The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.[119]

Geology[edit]

Bedrock[edit]

Manhattan schist outcropping in Central Park

The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as Manhattan Schist. It is a strong, competent metamorphic rock created when Pangaea formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In Central Park, outcrops of Manhattan Schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example.[120][121][122]

Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas, as skyscrapers must have their foundations sunk into solid bedrock.[123][124][125] However, new research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.[126][127][128]

Updated seismic analysis[edit]

According to the United States Geologic Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.[129]

Locations[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Neighborhoods[edit]

Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly").[130][131] and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park").[132][133][134] Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands.[135] Alphabet City comprises Avenues A, B, C and D, to which its name refers. Some have simple folkloric names like Hell's Kitchen alongside their more official but lesser used title Clinton.

Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, are commercial and known for upscale shopping. Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture.[136] Chelsea is a neighborhood with a large gay population, and recently a center of New York's art industry and nightlife.[137] Washington Heights is a vibrant neighborhood of immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Chinatown has a dense population of people of Chinese descent.[138][139] Koreatown is roughly bounded by 5th and 6th Avenues, between 31st and 36th Streets. Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill.[140]

In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system is oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest).[141] This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street,[142] with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation.

Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block in most places.[142] South of Waverly Place in Manhattan, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Though the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Streets in Midtown are usually one way with a few exceptions (14th, 34th and 42nd to name a few). The rule of thumb is odd numbered streets run west while evens run east.[112]

Public housing in the foreground in the Lower East Side 

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) coldest month (January) isotherm, New York City including Manhattan itself experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa),[143][144] and located at around 40°N latitude, is the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes, such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, helping to moderate the amount of snow, which averages 25 inches (64 cm) each year.[145] Spring and fall in New York City are mild, while summer is very warm and humid, with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher recorded from 18 to 25 days on average during the season.[146] The city's long-term climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms in the region.[147] Central Park is the location of record for the borough's climatic data.

Temperature records have been set as high as 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936, and as low as −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934.

Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.[148]


Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1869–present[a]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
75
(24)
86
(30)
96
(36)
99
(37)
101
(38)
106
(41)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
84
(29)
75
(24)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 38.3
(3.5)
41.6
(5.3)
49.7
(9.8)
61.2
(16.2)
70.8
(21.6)
79.3
(26.3)
84.1
(28.9)
82.6
(28.1)
75.2
(24)
63.8
(17.7)
53.8
(12.1)
43.0
(6.1)
62.0
(16.7)
Average low °F (°C) 26.9
(−2.8)
28.9
(−1.7)
35.2
(1.8)
44.8
(7.1)
54.0
(12.2)
63.6
(17.6)
68.8
(20.4)
67.8
(19.9)
60.8
(16)
50.0
(10)
41.6
(5.3)
32.0
(0)
47.9
(8.8)
Record low °F (°C) −6
(−21)
−15
(−26)
3
(−16)
12
(−11)
32
(0)
44
(7)
52
(11)
50
(10)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
7
(−14)
−13
(−25)
−15
(−26)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.65
(92.7)
3.09
(78.5)
4.36
(110.7)
4.50
(114.3)
4.19
(106.4)
4.41
(112)
4.60
(116.8)
4.44
(112.8)
4.28
(108.7)
4.40
(111.8)
4.02
(102.1)
4.00
(101.6)
49.94
(1,268.5)
Snowfall inches (cm) 7.0
(17.8)
9.2
(23.4)
3.9
(9.9)
0.6
(1.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
4.8
(12.2)
25.8
(65.5)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.4 9.2 10.9 11.5 11.1 11.2 10.4 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.6 10.6 122.0
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.0 2.8 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3 11.4
 % humidity 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7
Percent possible sunshine 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[150][151][152]

See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1656* 1,000 —    
1698* 6,788 +578.8%
1711* 10,538 +55.2%
1730* 11,963 +13.5%
1731* 8,628 −27.9%
1756* 15,710 +82.1%
1773* 21,876 +39.2%
1774* 23,600 +7.9%
1782* 29,363 +24.4%
1790 33,131 +12.8%
1800 60,489 +82.6%
1810 96,373 +59.3%
1820 123,706 +28.4%
1830 202,589 +63.8%
1840 312,710 +54.4%
1850 515,547 +64.9%
1860 813,669 +57.8%
1870 942,292 +15.8%
1880 1,164,674 +23.6%
1890 1,441,216 +23.7%
1900 1,850,093 +28.4%
1910 2,331,542 +26.0%
1920 2,284,103 −2.0%
1930 1,867,312 −18.2%
1940 1,889,924 +1.2%
1950 1,960,101 +3.7%
1960 1,698,281 −13.4%
1970 1,539,233 −9.4%
1980 1,428,285 −7.2%
1990 1,487,536 +4.1%
2000 1,537,195 +3.3%
2010 1,585,873 +3.2%
2013 1,626,159 +2.5%
Sources:[1][153][154]
Racial composition 2012[155] 1990[156] 1950[156] 1900[156]
White 65.2% 58.3% 79.4% 97.8%
—Non-Hispanic 47.6% 48.9% n/a n/a
Black or African American 18.4% 22.0% 19.6% 2.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 25.8% 26.0% n/a n/a
Asian 12.0% 7.4% 0.8% 0.3%

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population.[157][158] As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States.[159] If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²).[113] Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.[160]

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).[155]

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.[161]

According to the 2009 American Community Survey,[162] the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.[163]

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. Based on IRS data for the 2004 tax year, New York County (Manhattan) had the highest average federal income tax liability per return in the country. Average tax liability was $25,875, representing 20% of adjusted gross income.[164] As of 2002, Manhattan had the highest per capita income of any county in the country.[165]

The Manhattan ZIP Code 10021, on the Upper East Side is home to more than 100,000 people and has a per capita income of over $90,000.[166] It is one of the largest concentrations of extreme wealth in the United States. Most Manhattan neighborhoods are not as wealthy. The median income for a household in the county was $47,030, and the median income for a family was $50,229. Males had a median income of $51,856 versus $45,712 for females. The per capita income for the county was $42,922. About 17.6% of families and 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 18.9% of those age 65 or over.[167]

Lower Manhattan (Manhattan south of Houston Street) is more economically diverse. While the Financial District had few non-commercial tenants after the 1950s, the area has seen a surge in its residential population, with estimates showing over 30,000 residents living in the area as of 2005, a jump from the 15,000 to 20,000 before the September 11, 2001, attacks.[168]

The borough is also experiencing a baby boom. Since 2000, the number of children under age five living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%.[169]

Religion[edit]

Manhattan is religiously diverse. The largest religious affiliation is the Roman Catholic Church, whose adherents constitute 564,505 persons (more than 36% of the population) and maintain 110 congregations. Jews comprise the second largest religious group, with 314,500 persons (20.5%) in 102 congregations. They are followed by Protestants, with 139,732 adherents (9.1%) and Muslims, with 37,078 (2.4%).[170]

Languages[edit]

As of 2010, 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, ages five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) African languages as a main language. In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, ages 5 and older, spoke a language other than English at home.[171]

Landmarks and architecture[edit]

A. T. Stewart in 1870, 9th Street, Manhattan

The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. From 1890–1973, the world's tallest building was in Manhattan (with a gap between 1901–08, when the title was held by Philadelphia City Hall), with nine different buildings holding the title.[172] The New York World Building on Park Row, was the first to take the title in 1890, standing 309 feet (94 m) until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge.[173] The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high took the title in 1899.[174] The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished.[175] The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing 700 feet (210 m) at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice.[176] The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at 792 feet (241 m).[177]

The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown.[178] At 927 feet (283 m), 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in an astonishing eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title.[179] At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark 185-foot (56 m) high spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to 1,046 feet (319 m) and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929.[180] Both buildings were soon surpassed, with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its Art Deco tower soaring 1,250 feet (380 m) to the top of the building. The 203-foot (62 m) high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to 1,453 ft (443 m).[181][182]

The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were located in Lower Manhattan. At 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417 and 415 m), the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972, until they were surpassed by the construction of the Willis Tower in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears tower located in Chicago).[183] One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently under construction and is slated to be ready for occupancy in 2013.[184]

In 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex. Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City.[185] Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage".[186] The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including nearly 1,000 in New York City.[187]

The Theater District around Broadway at Times Square, New York University, Columbia University, Flatiron Building, the Financial District around Wall Street, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Little Italy, Harlem, the American Museum of Natural History, Chinatown, and Central Park are all located on this densely populated island.

The city is a leader in energy-efficient green office buildings, such as Hearst Tower and the rebuilt 7 World Trade Center.[188]

Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue, on the south by West 59th Street, and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Along the park's borders, these streets are usually referred to as Central Park North, Central Park West, and Central Park South, respectively (Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border). The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. The 843-acre (3.41 km2) park offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas used for various sporting pursuits, as well as playgrounds for children. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The 6-mile (9.7 km) road circling the park is popular with joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, especially on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 pm, when automobile traffic is banned.[189]

While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes. The construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers crafted the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. Workers moved nearly 3,000,000 cubic yards (2,300,000 m3) of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs.[190]

17.8% of the borough, a total of 2,686 acres (10.87 km2), are devoted to parkland. Almost 70% of Manhattan's space devoted to parks is located outside of Central Park, including 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts and many other amenities.[191]

The African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries. The remains were found in 1991 during the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Building.

One World Trade Center is currently the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. 
The Chrysler Building was the tallest building in the city and the world from 1930–1931. 
The Empire State Building was the world's tallest building from 1931 to 1972. 
The twin towers of the former World Trade Center, New York's tallest buildings, 1972 to 2001
Manhattan has served as home to the United Nations Headquarters since 1952. 

Cityscape[edit]

Panorama looking north from the Empire State Building
Skyline of Midtown Manhattan, as seen from the observation deck of the GE Building
A view of Midtown and Lower Manhattan from Eagle Rock Reservation in the Watchung Mountains of New Jersey
Skyline of Upper Manhattan and Midtown Manhattan as seen from Jersey City

Economy[edit]

Manhattan has some of the nation's most valuable real estate, and has a reputation as one of the most expensive areas in the United States.[193] On September 20, 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries, including Namibia and Sierra Leone."[194]

Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City.[195] In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.[196] Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct.

In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any other county or city in the country,[197] and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.[198]

Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013,[199] making it the largest office market in the United States.[200] Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation,[201] while Lower Manhattan is the third largest.

Financial sector[edit]

Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The borough's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.[202]

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[192] Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion,[203] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually.[204]

Corporate sector[edit]

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the nation, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.[205] Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013,[206] making it the largest office market in the United States,[207] while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.[208] Lower Manhattan is the nation's third-largest central business district (after Chicago's Loop)[209] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the NYSE MKT (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), the New York Board of Trade, the New York Mercantile Exchange (Nymex,) and NASDAQ. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.[210]

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech enterprises[211] utilizing the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, game design, financial technology ("fintech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the New York City metropolitan area's venture capital investments, which was more than US$2.1 billion for various industries in the first half of 2014,[212] and entrepreneurship ecosystem. High technology startup companies and employment, which are growing mostly in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens,[213] and elsewhere in the region, are bolstered by New York City's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[214] New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[215] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[216]

On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[217][218]

As of 2013, the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue".

Biotechnology[edit]

The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.[219]

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is also vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's visitors, which was estimated to reach 55 million in 2014.[220] According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013-2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012-2013 season; attendance in 2013-2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012-2013 season's 11.57 million.[221]

Media[edit]

Manhattan is served by the major New York City dailies, including The New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest financial newspaper, The Wall Street Journal, is also based there. Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States. The Village Voice is a leading alternative weekly based in the borough.[222]

Television, radio and film[edit]

Modern New York City is familiar to many people around the globe thanks to its popularity as a setting for television series and films. Notable television shows set in Manhattan include I Love Lucy, Friends, Saturday Night Live, and Seinfeld.

The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox, as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO and Comedy Central. In 1971, WLIB became New York's first black-owned radio station and the crown jewel of Inner City Broadcasting Corporation. A co-founder of Inner City was Percy Sutton, a former Manhattan borough president and long one of the city's most powerful black leaders.[223] WLIB began broadcasts for the African-American community in 1949 and regularly interviewed civil rights leaders like Malcolm X and aired live broadcasts from conferences of the NAACP. Influential WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan.[224] WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.

The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming.[225] NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics.

Education and scholarly activity[edit]

Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.[226]
Stuyvesant High School, highly regarded as one of the best public high schools in the country[227]
A view of the interior of the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library at New York University.
New York Public Library Main Branch at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue; built on the site of the former Croton Reservoir (1897–1911) – Carrère and Hastings, architects.

Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States.[228] Charter schools include Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep.

Some of the best-known New York City public high schools, such as Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Murry Bergtraum High School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College are located in Manhattan. Bard High School Early College, a new hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city.

Many prestigious private prep schools are located in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart, The Hewitt School, Saint David's School (New York City) and Loyola School (New York City). Along with the Upper West Side's Collegiate School and Trinity School. The borough is also home to two private schools that are known as the most diverse in the nation, Manhattan Country School and United Nations International School. Manhattan has the only official Italian American school in the U.S., La Scuola d'Italia.[229]

As of 2003, 52.3% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree, the fifth highest of all counties in the country.[230] By 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people.[231]

Manhattan has various colleges and universities including Columbia University (and its affiliate Barnard College), Fordham College at Lincoln Center, Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology, New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, and Yeshiva University. Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, School of Visual Arts, Touro College and Union Theological Seminary. Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them St. John's University, The College of New Rochelle and Pratt Institute.

The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students.[232] A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctoral granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College.

The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry and Stony Brook University – Manhattan.

Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences.[233] The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities,[234] the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York University School of Medicine.

Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country.[235] The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, Donnell Library Center, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan.[236] More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.[237]

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Times Square, a major cultural venue in the city
Frank Lloyd Wright's Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon Washington Square Park to commemorate the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of women's liberation, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements.[238]

The Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States. Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. Perhaps no other artist is as associated with the downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s as Andy Warhol, who socialized at clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54.

Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square.[239] Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats.[240] A little more than a mile from Times Square is the Lincoln Center, home to one of the world's most prestigious opera houses, that of the Metropolitan Opera.[241]

Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections, both contemporary and historical, in the world including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Guggenheim Museum, and the Grey Art Gallery, custodian of the New York University Art Collection. A popular haven for art, the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea is widely known for its galleries and cultural events, with more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists.[242][243]

Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; even some natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan will describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the city".[244]

The borough has a place in several American idioms. The phrase a New York minute is meant to convey a very short time, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible". It refers to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan.[245] The term "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play The Melting Pot, which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908.[246] The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building.[247] The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple." Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term.[248]

Sports[edit]

Manhattan is home to the NBA's New York Knicks, the NHL's New York Rangers, and the WNBA's New York Liberty, who all play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, leaving them at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

Today, Manhattan is the only borough in New York City that does not have a professional baseball franchise. The Bronx has the Yankees (American League) and Queens has the Mets (National League) of Major League Baseball. The Minor League Baseball Brooklyn Cyclones play in Brooklyn, while the Staten Island Yankees play in Staten Island. Yet three of the four major league teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The New York Giants played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed west with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season.[249] The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium.[250] The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964.[251] After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing.[252][253]

The Skating Pond in Central Park, 1862

The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.[254] The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home.[255] The New York Liberty of the WNBA have shared the Garden with the Knicks since their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams.[256] Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its streetball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league.[257]

Though both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956.[258] The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens in 1964.[259]

The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since their founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans.[260]

The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. In 1975, the team signed Pelé, officially recorded by FIFA as the world's greatest soccer player, to a $4.5 million contract, drawing a capacity crowd of 22,500 to watch him lead the team to a 2–0 victory.[261] The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in dreadful condition though and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pele's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.[262][263]

Government[edit]

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong mayor-council system since its revision in 1989.[264] The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[265]

Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current Borough President is Gale Brewer, elected as a Democrat in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote.[266] Brewer replaced Scott Stringer, who went on to become New York City Comptroller.

Cyrus Vance, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of New York County since 2010.[267] Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. As the host of the UN, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates.[268] It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1916, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.[269]

Presidential elections results[270]
Year Democrats Republicans
2012 83.7% 500,159 14.9% 89,119
2008 85.7% 572,126 13.5% 89,906
2004 82.1% 526,765 16.7% 107,405
2000 79.8% 449,300 14.2% 79,921
1996 80.0% 394,131 13.8% 67,839
1992 78.2% 416,142 15.9% 84,501
1988 76.1% 385,675 22.9% 115,927
1984 72.1% 379,521 27.4% 144,281
1980 62.4% 275,742 26.2% 115,911
1976 73.2% 337,438 25.5% 117,702
1972 66.2% 354,326 33.4% 178,515
1968 70.0% 370,806 25.6% 135,458
1964 80.5% 503,848 19.2% 120,125
1960 65.3% 414,902 34.2% 217,271
1956 55.74% 377,856 44.26% 300,004
1952 58.47% 446,727 39.30% 300,284
1948 52.20% 380,310 33.18% 241,752

Politics[edit]

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Registered Republicans are a minority in the borough, only constituting approximately 12% of the electorate. Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the Financial District. The Democrats hold 66.1% of those registered in a party. 21.9% of the voters were unaffiliated (independents).[271]

Manhattan is divided between four congressional districts, all of which are represented by Democrats.

No Republican has won the presidential election in Manhattan since 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41.20%–39.55%. Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote.[272] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16.7%.[273] The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions.[274] The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election.[275]

Federal offices[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. The James Farley Post Office in Midtown Manhattan is New York City's main post office.[276] It is located at 421 Eighth Avenue, between 31st Street and 33rd Street. The post office stopped 24-hour service on May 9, 2009, due to decreasing mail traffic.[277]

Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the U.S. Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area.

A slum tour through the Five Points in an 1885 sketch

Crime and public safety[edit]

An NYPD boat patrols New York Harbor

Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen.[278] The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860.[279] The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities.

As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang.[280] The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period.[281] from 1920–1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize.[281]

New York City experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s, with a near fivefold jump in the total number of police-recorded crimes, from 21.09 per thousand in 1960 to a peak of 102.66 in 1981. Homicides continued to increase in the city for another decade, with murders recorded by the NYPD jumping from 390 in 1960, to 1,117 in 1970, 1,812 in 1980, and reaching its peak of 2,262 in 1990 mainly because of the crack epidemic. Starting circa 1990, New York City saw record declines in homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, violent crime, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and property crime, a trend that has continued to today.[282]

Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States.[283] The city as a whole ranked fourth nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey of the 32 cities surveyed with a population above 500,000.[284] The New York City Police Department, with 36,400 officers, is larger than the next four largest U.S. departments combined. The NYPD's counter-terrorism division, with 1,000 officers assigned, is larger than the FBI's.[283] The NYPD's CompStat system of crime tracking, reporting and monitoring has been credited with a drop in crime in New York City that has far surpassed the drop elsewhere in the United States.[285]

Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%. In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines.[286]

Housing[edit]

Loft buildings (now apartments) in TriBeCa
Row of townhouses on 17–23 West 16th Street

In the early days of Manhattan, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the Continental Army evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses.[287]

The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Tenements were usually five-stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25x100 lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants.[288][289] By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough.[289]

Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 798,144 housing units in Manhattan as of the 2000 Census, at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²).[113] Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind The Bronx.[160] Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities.[290]

As of 2012, Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing was among the most expensive in the world.[291]

Infrastructure[edit]

Streets[edit]

8th Avenue, looking northward ("Uptown"), in the rain. Most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.
Manhattanhenge, as seen looking westward in June 2005.

Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the George Washington Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, and the Lincoln Tunnel, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast and Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park at its southern tip. It is possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, by using the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811, called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue in the west. There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village. The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (76 by 183 m).

According to the original Commissioner's Plan there were 155 numbered crosstown streets,[292] but later the grid has been extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street (Manhattan). Moreover, the numbering system continues even in The Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that there the grid plan is not so regular; there the last numbered street is 263rd Street.[293]

Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets, some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues.[294] Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street).

A consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge).[295] On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level.[295][296] A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December.

The Wildlife Conservation Society, which operates the zoos and aquariums in the city, is currently undertaking The Mannahatta Project, a cartoon simulation to visually reconstruct the ecology and geography of Manhattan when Henry Hudson first sailed by in 1609, and compare it to what we know of the island today.[297]

Transportation[edit]

Grand Central Terminal, a terminal rail station, and a National Historic Landmark.
The Staten Island Ferry, seen from Battery Park crosses Upper New York Bay providing free public transportation between Staten Island and Manhattan.

Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transport and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs and only 5% use public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport and only 18% driving to work.[298][299] According to the United States Census, 2000, more than 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car.[300]

In 2008, Mayor Bloomberg proposed a congestion pricing system to regulate entering Manhattan south of 60th Street. The state legislature rejected the proposal in June 2008.[301]

The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. There are 147 subway stations in Manhattan and four under construction, out of the 468 stations. A second subway, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) system, connects six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains. A one-way fare on the bus or subway is $2.50,[302] and PATH costs $2.25.[303] There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses).[304] The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the SmartLink. The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard.[305] Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island), the Metro-North Railroad (which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut) and New Jersey Transit trains to various points in New Jersey. Multibillion US$ heavy-rail transit projects under construction in Manhattan and New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.[306]

MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system.[307]

New York's iconic yellow cabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough.[308] Various private transportation network companies compete in Manhattan with each other and with the city's taxicabs. Manhattan also sees tens of thousands of bicycle commuters. The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. (The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram.)[309][310] The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips.[311][312] The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated.[313]

The Brooklyn Bridge in the foreground and the Manhattan Bridge beyond it, are two of the bridges that span the East River connecting Lower Manhattan with Brooklyn

The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs.[314] Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York, New England; cross-border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the South and Midwest.

Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, large and smaller; while the George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[315][316] connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan to Bergen County in New Jersey.

Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.[317] The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel.[318] The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940.[319] President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it.[320] The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive are two routes with limited access that skirt the east side of Manhattan along the East River, designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses.[321]

Manhattan has three public heliports. US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey before going out of business in 2009.[322]

New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan.[323]

Crosstown traffic refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's East Side and Manhattan's West Side. The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the barrier posed by the Park itself to uptown streets, and absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island. The only exceptions are the four sunken roads that travel through Central Park. Proposals in the mid-1900s to build such roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway and Lower Manhattan Expressway, did not go forward. The congestion makes Manhattan's crosstown buses the perennial "winners" of the "Pokey Awards" for slowest service in New York City.

Utilities[edit]

Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station.[324] Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning[325] by some 1,800 Manhattan customers.[326] Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well.

Manhattan, surrounded by two brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water. To satisfy the growing population, the city of New York acquired land in Westchester County and constructed the old Croton Aqueduct system, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the new Croton Aqueduct, which opened in 1890, but this was interrupted in 2008 for the construction since underway of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing almost a 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx.[327] Water comes to Manhattan through New York City Water Tunnel No. 1, Tunnel No. 2, and Tunnel No. 3, completed in 1917, 1936, and (Manhattan's supply) 2013,[328] respectively.

Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the natural gas supply delivered to the borough when a new gas pipeline opened on November 1, 2013.[329]

The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal.[330] The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island.[331] A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas.

Address algorithm[edit]

The address algorithm of Manhattan is commonly used to find an address in a major street in Manhattan. It is commonly found on telephone directories and New York City guide books, though it is also found on the Manhattan bus maps.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.[149]

References[edit]

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