Manhattan, New York
|Borough of New York City|
|New York County|
Manhattan at dusk in 2014
Borough of Manhattan shown in orange.
|Country||United States of America|
|City||New York City|
|• Type||Borough (New York City)|
|• Borough President||Gale Brewer (D)
— (Borough of Manhattan)
|• District Attorney||Cyrus Vance, Jr.
— (New York County)
|• Total||33.77 sq mi (87.5 km2)|
|• Land||22.96 sq mi (59.5 km2)|
|• Water||10.81 sq mi (28.0 km2)|
|• Density||70,825.6/sq mi (27,345.9/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Website||Manhattan Borough President|
Manhattan // is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the mainland. Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. As of 2012[update], Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough.
New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. It is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.
Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village served as the catalyst for the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cooper Union and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 50 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In the very early part of the 21st century, various areas suffered significant destruction, especially in Lower Manhattan, and were being renovated and rebuilt. During the September 11 attacks in 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center and the towers collapsed, killing over 2,600 people. Surrounding buildings in the World Trade Center area were also severely damaged or destroyed. In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, while ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan.
New York's five boroughs overview
|Borough||County||1 July 2013
|Source: United States Census Bureau|
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Landmarks and architecture
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education and scholarly activity
- 8 Culture and contemporary life
- 9 Sports
- 10 Government
- 11 Housing
- 12 Infrastructure
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.
New York County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state in which they are located. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".
The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.
It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.
A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around $1,050 in 2014.
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.
The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.
American Revolution and the early United States
A prelude to organized colonial opposition to British rule, the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies was held in New York City in 1765. The Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, the first document by a representative body of multiple colonies to assert the concept popularly known as "no taxation without representation". It was also the first time the colonies cooperated for a unified political aim, laying the foundation for the Continental Congresses that followed years later.
The Sons of Liberty developed in Manhattan in the days following the Stamp Act protests. The organization participated in a long-term confrontation with British authorities over liberty poles that were alternately raised by the Sons of Liberty and cut down by British authorities. The skirmishes ended when the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress took power in 1775.
Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.
From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.
New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada. By 1810 New York City, then confined to Manhattan, surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped park in an American city and the nation's first public park.
During the American Civil War, New York City likely had the most complex relationship to the war, of any northern city that did not border a southern city. The city's strong commercial ties to the American South, its growing immigrant population (prior to then largely from Germany and Ireland; beginning in the late 1850s waves of Italian; and Central, and Eastern European Jews began flowing in en-masse), anger about conscription sizzled and resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service, led to resentment against Lincoln's war policies, plus the racial element, fomented paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrant's jobs, culminated in the three-day long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred.
The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and New York became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France. The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city was a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization.
In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection across the East River. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed. In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. On January 1, 1914, the New York state legislature created Bronx County, and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.
The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s, Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990.
On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers. The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.
The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance. As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline today, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the GE Building.
Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, including Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947. In 1951, the UN relocated from its first headquarters near Queens, to the East Side of Manhattan.
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.
The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease.
By the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeting to 537 by 2008, and the crack epidemic and its associated drug-related violence under greater control. The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in Manhattan's economy.
On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed. 7 World Trade Center collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, but there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. However, many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths. A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at 1,776 feet (541 m) and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site.
The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.
On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street). New York County as a whole covers a total area of 33.77 square miles (87.5 km2), of which 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2) are land and 10.81 square miles (28.0 km2) are water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle.
One neighborhood of New York County is contiguous with the mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan. Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.
Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in topography has been evened out.
Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.
The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as Manhattan Schist. It is a strong, competent metamorphic rock created when Pangaea formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In Central Park, outcrops of Manhattan Schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example.
Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas, as skyscrapers must have their foundations sunk into solid bedrock. However, new research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.
Updated seismic analysis
According to the United States Geologic Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
- Bergen County, New Jersey—west/northwest
- Hudson County, New Jersey—west/southwest
- Bronx County, New York (The Bronx)—northeast
- Queens County, New York (Queens)—east/southeast
- Kings County, New York (Brooklyn)—south/southeast
- Richmond County, New York (Staten Island)—southwest
National protected areas
- African Burial Ground National Monument
- Castle Clinton National Monument
- Federal Hall National Memorial
- General Grant National Memorial
- Governors Island National Monument
- Hamilton Grange National Memorial
- Lower East Side Tenement National Historic Site
- Statue of Liberty National Monument (part)
- Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site
Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly"). and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands. Alphabet City comprises Avenues A, B, C and D, to which its name refers. Some have simple folkloric names like Hell's Kitchen alongside their more official but lesser used title Clinton.
Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, are commercial and known for upscale shopping. Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture. Chelsea is a neighborhood with a large gay population, and recently a center of New York's art industry and nightlife. Washington Heights is a vibrant neighborhood of immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Chinatown has a dense population of people of Chinese descent. Koreatown is roughly bounded by 5th and 6th Avenues, between 31st and 36th Streets. Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill.
In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system is oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest). This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street, with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation.
Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block in most places. South of Waverly Place in Manhattan, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Though the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Streets in Midtown are usually one way with a few exceptions (14th, 34th and 42nd to name a few). The rule of thumb is odd numbered streets run west while evens run east.
Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) coldest month (January) isotherm, New York City including Manhattan itself experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and located at around 40°N latitude, is the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes, such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, helping to moderate the amount of snow, which averages 25 inches (64 cm) each year. Spring and fall in New York City are mild, while summer is very warm and humid, with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher recorded from 18 to 25 days on average during the season. The city's long-term climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms in the region. Central Park is the location of record for the borough's climatic data.
Temperature records have been set as high as 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936, and as low as −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934.
Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1869–present[a]|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Average high °F (°C)||38.3
|Average low °F (°C)||26.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−6
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.65
|Snowfall inches (cm)||7.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.2||10.9||11.5||11.1||11.2||10.4||9.5||8.7||8.9||9.6||10.6||122.0|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||4.0||2.8||1.8||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||11.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.7||163.1||212.5||225.6||256.6||257.3||268.2||268.2||219.3||211.2||151.0||139.0||2,534.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||55||57||57||57||57||59||63||59||61||51||48||57|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
|Black or African American||18.4%||22.0%||19.6%||2.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||25.8%||26.0%||n/a||n/a|
At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.
According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).
The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.
According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.
In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.
There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.
Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.
Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. Based on IRS data for the 2004 tax year, New York County (Manhattan) had the highest average federal income tax liability per return in the country. Average tax liability was $25,875, representing 20% of adjusted gross income. As of 2002, Manhattan had the highest per capita income of any county in the country.
The Manhattan ZIP Code 10021, on the Upper East Side is home to more than 100,000 people and has a per capita income of over $90,000. It is one of the largest concentrations of extreme wealth in the United States. Most Manhattan neighborhoods are not as wealthy. The median income for a household in the county was $47,030, and the median income for a family was $50,229. Males had a median income of $51,856 versus $45,712 for females. The per capita income for the county was $42,922. About 17.6% of families and 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 18.9% of those age 65 or over.
Lower Manhattan (Manhattan south of Houston Street) is more economically diverse. While the Financial District had few non-commercial tenants after the 1950s, the area has seen a surge in its residential population, with estimates showing over 30,000 residents living in the area as of 2005, a jump from the 15,000 to 20,000 before the September 11, 2001, attacks.
The borough is also experiencing a baby boom. Since 2000, the number of children under age five living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%.
Manhattan is religiously diverse. The largest religious affiliation is the Roman Catholic Church, whose adherents constitute 564,505 persons (more than 36% of the population) and maintain 110 congregations. Jews comprise the second largest religious group, with 314,500 persons (20.5%) in 102 congregations. They are followed by Protestants, with 139,732 adherents (9.1%) and Muslims, with 37,078 (2.4%).
As of 2010, 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, ages five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) African languages as a main language. In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, ages 5 and older, spoke a language other than English at home.
Landmarks and architecture
The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. From 1890–1973, the world's tallest building was in Manhattan (with a gap between 1901–08, when the title was held by Philadelphia City Hall), with nine different buildings holding the title. The New York World Building on Park Row, was the first to take the title in 1890, standing 309 feet (94 m) until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge. The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high took the title in 1899. The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing 700 feet (210 m) at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice. The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at 792 feet (241 m).
The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown. At 927 feet (283 m), 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in an astonishing eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title. At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark 185-foot (56 m) high spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to 1,046 feet (319 m) and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929. Both buildings were soon surpassed, with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its Art Deco tower soaring 1,250 feet (380 m) to the top of the building. The 203-foot (62 m) high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to 1,453 ft (443 m).
The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were located in Lower Manhattan. At 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417 and 415 m), the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972, until they were surpassed by the construction of the Willis Tower in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears tower located in Chicago). One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently under construction and is slated to be ready for occupancy in 2013.
In 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex. Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City. Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage". The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including nearly 1,000 in New York City.
The Theater District around Broadway at Times Square, New York University, Columbia University, Flatiron Building, the Financial District around Wall Street, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Little Italy, Harlem, the American Museum of Natural History, Chinatown, and Central Park are all located on this densely populated island.
Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue, on the south by West 59th Street, and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Along the park's borders, these streets are usually referred to as Central Park North, Central Park West, and Central Park South, respectively (Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border). The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. The 843-acre (3.41 km2) park offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and grassy areas used for various sporting pursuits, as well as playgrounds for children. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The 6-mile (9.7 km) road circling the park is popular with joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, especially on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 pm, when automobile traffic is banned.
While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes. The construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers crafted the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. Workers moved nearly 3,000,000 cubic yards (2,300,000 m3) of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs.
17.8% of the borough, a total of 2,686 acres (10.87 km2), are devoted to parkland. Almost 70% of Manhattan's space devoted to parks is located outside of Central Park, including 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts and many other amenities.
The African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries. The remains were found in 1991 during the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Building.
Manhattan has some of the nation's most valuable real estate, and has a reputation as one of the most expensive areas in the United States. On September 20, 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries, including Namibia and Sierra Leone."
Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct.
In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any other county or city in the country, and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.
Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation, while Lower Manhattan is the third largest.
Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The borough's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually.
New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the nation, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan. Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation. Lower Manhattan is the nation's third-largest central business district (after Chicago's Loop) and is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the NYSE MKT (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), the New York Board of Trade, the New York Mercantile Exchange (Nymex,) and NASDAQ. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.
Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech enterprises utilizing the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, game design, financial technology ("fintech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the New York City metropolitan area's venture capital investments, which was more than US$2.1 billion for various industries in the first half of 2014, and entrepreneurship ecosystem. High technology startup companies and employment, which are growing mostly in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region, are bolstered by New York City's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.
On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.
As of 2013[update], the global advertising agencies of Omnicom Group and Interpublic Group, both based in Manhattan, had combined annual revenues of approximately US$21 billion, reflecting New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry, which is metonymously referred to as "Madison Avenue".
The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.
Tourism is also vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's visitors, which was estimated to reach 55 million in 2014. According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013-2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012-2013 season; attendance in 2013-2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012-2013 season's 11.57 million.
Manhattan is served by the major New York City dailies, including The New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest financial newspaper, The Wall Street Journal, is also based there. Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States. The Village Voice is a leading alternative weekly based in the borough.
Television, radio and film
Modern New York City is familiar to many people around the globe thanks to its popularity as a setting for television series and films. Notable television shows set in Manhattan include I Love Lucy, Friends, Saturday Night Live, and Seinfeld.
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox, as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO and Comedy Central. In 1971, WLIB became New York's first black-owned radio station and the crown jewel of Inner City Broadcasting Corporation. A co-founder of Inner City was Percy Sutton, a former Manhattan borough president and long one of the city's most powerful black leaders. WLIB began broadcasts for the African-American community in 1949 and regularly interviewed civil rights leaders like Malcolm X and aired live broadcasts from conferences of the NAACP. Influential WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.
The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming. NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics.
Education and scholarly activity
Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Charter schools include Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep.
Some of the best-known New York City public high schools, such as Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Murry Bergtraum High School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College are located in Manhattan. Bard High School Early College, a new hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city.
Many prestigious private prep schools are located in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart, The Hewitt School, Saint David's School (New York City) and Loyola School (New York City). Along with the Upper West Side's Collegiate School and Trinity School. The borough is also home to two private schools that are known as the most diverse in the nation, Manhattan Country School and United Nations International School. Manhattan has the only official Italian American school in the U.S., La Scuola d'Italia.
As of 2003, 52.3% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree, the fifth highest of all counties in the country. By 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people.
Manhattan has various colleges and universities including Columbia University (and its affiliate Barnard College), Fordham College at Lincoln Center, Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology, New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, and Yeshiva University. Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, School of Visual Arts, Touro College and Union Theological Seminary. Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them St. John's University, The College of New Rochelle and Pratt Institute.
The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students. A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctoral granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College.
Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences. The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York University School of Medicine.
Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country. The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, Donnell Library Center, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan. More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.
Culture and contemporary life
Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon Washington Square Park to commemorate the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of women's liberation, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements.
The Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States. Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. Perhaps no other artist is as associated with the downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s as Andy Warhol, who socialized at clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54.
Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats. A little more than a mile from Times Square is the Lincoln Center, home to one of the world's most prestigious opera houses, that of the Metropolitan Opera.
Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections, both contemporary and historical, in the world including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Guggenheim Museum, and the Grey Art Gallery, custodian of the New York University Art Collection. A popular haven for art, the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea is widely known for its galleries and cultural events, with more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists.
Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; even some natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan will describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the city".
The borough has a place in several American idioms. The phrase a New York minute is meant to convey a very short time, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible". It refers to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan. The term "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play The Melting Pot, which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908. The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building. The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple." Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term.
Manhattan is home to the NBA's New York Knicks, the NHL's New York Rangers, and the WNBA's New York Liberty, who all play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, leaving them at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.
Today, Manhattan is the only borough in New York City that does not have a professional baseball franchise. The Bronx has the Yankees (American League) and Queens has the Mets (National League) of Major League Baseball. The Minor League Baseball Brooklyn Cyclones play in Brooklyn, while the Staten Island Yankees play in Staten Island. Yet three of the four major league teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The New York Giants played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed west with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season. The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium. The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964. After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing.
The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home. The New York Liberty of the WNBA have shared the Garden with the Knicks since their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams. Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its streetball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league.
Though both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956. The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens in 1964.
The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since their founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans.
The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. In 1975, the team signed Pelé, officially recorded by FIFA as the world's greatest soccer player, to a $4.5 million contract, drawing a capacity crowd of 22,500 to watch him lead the team to a 2–0 victory. The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in dreadful condition though and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pele's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.
Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong mayor-council system since its revision in 1989. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan.
The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.
Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current Borough President is Gale Brewer, elected as a Democrat in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote. Brewer replaced Scott Stringer, who went on to become New York City Comptroller.
Cyrus Vance, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of New York County since 2010. Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. As the host of the UN, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates. It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1916, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.
|2012||83.7% 500,159||14.9% 89,119|
|2008||85.7% 572,126||13.5% 89,906|
|2004||82.1% 526,765||16.7% 107,405|
|2000||79.8% 449,300||14.2% 79,921|
|1996||80.0% 394,131||13.8% 67,839|
|1992||78.2% 416,142||15.9% 84,501|
|1988||76.1% 385,675||22.9% 115,927|
|1984||72.1% 379,521||27.4% 144,281|
|1980||62.4% 275,742||26.2% 115,911|
|1976||73.2% 337,438||25.5% 117,702|
|1972||66.2% 354,326||33.4% 178,515|
|1968||70.0% 370,806||25.6% 135,458|
|1964||80.5% 503,848||19.2% 120,125|
|1960||65.3% 414,902||34.2% 217,271|
|1956||55.74% 377,856||44.26% 300,004|
|1952||58.47% 446,727||39.30% 300,284|
|1948||52.20% 380,310||33.18% 241,752|
The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Registered Republicans are a minority in the borough, only constituting approximately 12% of the electorate. Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the Financial District. The Democrats hold 66.1% of those registered in a party. 21.9% of the voters were unaffiliated (independents).
Manhattan is divided between four congressional districts, all of which are represented by Democrats.
- Charles B. Rangel represents the 15th district in Upper Manhattan, which incorporates Harlem, Spanish Harlem, Washington Heights, Inwood and parts of the Upper West Side.
- Jerrold Nadler represents the 8th district, based on the West Side, which covers most of the Upper West Side, Hell's Kitchen, Chelsea, Greenwich Village, Chinatown, Tribeca and Battery Park City, as well as some sections of Southwest Brooklyn.
- Carolyn B. Maloney represents the 14th district, the so-called "Silk Stocking" district that was the political base for Teddy Roosevelt and John Lindsay. It covers most of the Upper East Side, Yorkville, Gramercy Park, Roosevelt Island and most of the Lower East Side and the East Village, as well as portions of western Queens.
- Nydia Velázquez of the Brooklyn/Queens-based 12th district, represents a few heavily Puerto Rican sections of the Lower East Side, including Avenues C and D of Alphabet City.
No Republican has won the presidential election in Manhattan since 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41.20%–39.55%. Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16.7%. The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions. The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election.
The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. The James Farley Post Office in Midtown Manhattan is New York City's main post office. It is located at 421 Eighth Avenue, between 31st Street and 33rd Street. The post office stopped 24-hour service on May 9, 2009, due to decreasing mail traffic.
Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the U.S. Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area.
Crime and public safety
Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen. The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860. The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities.
As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period. from 1920–1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize.
New York City experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s, with a near fivefold jump in the total number of police-recorded crimes, from 21.09 per thousand in 1960 to a peak of 102.66 in 1981. Homicides continued to increase in the city for another decade, with murders recorded by the NYPD jumping from 390 in 1960, to 1,117 in 1970, 1,812 in 1980, and reaching its peak of 2,262 in 1990 mainly because of the crack epidemic. Starting circa 1990, New York City saw record declines in homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, violent crime, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and property crime, a trend that has continued to today.
Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States. The city as a whole ranked fourth nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey of the 32 cities surveyed with a population above 500,000. The New York City Police Department, with 36,400 officers, is larger than the next four largest U.S. departments combined. The NYPD's counter-terrorism division, with 1,000 officers assigned, is larger than the FBI's. The NYPD's CompStat system of crime tracking, reporting and monitoring has been credited with a drop in crime in New York City that has far surpassed the drop elsewhere in the United States.
Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%. In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines.
In the early days of Manhattan, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the Continental Army evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses.
The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Tenements were usually five-stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25x100 lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants. By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough.
Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 798,144 housing units in Manhattan as of the 2000 Census, at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind The Bronx. Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities.
Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the George Washington Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, and the Lincoln Tunnel, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast and Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park at its southern tip. It is possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, by using the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811, called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue in the west. There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village. The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (76 by 183 m).
According to the original Commissioner's Plan there were 155 numbered crosstown streets, but later the grid has been extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street (Manhattan). Moreover, the numbering system continues even in The Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that there the grid plan is not so regular; there the last numbered street is 263rd Street.
Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets, some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street).
A consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge). On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level. A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December.
The Wildlife Conservation Society, which operates the zoos and aquariums in the city, is currently undertaking The Mannahatta Project, a cartoon simulation to visually reconstruct the ecology and geography of Manhattan when Henry Hudson first sailed by in 1609, and compare it to what we know of the island today.
Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transport and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs and only 5% use public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport and only 18% driving to work. According to the United States Census, 2000, more than 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car.
The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. There are 147 subway stations in Manhattan and four under construction, out of the 468 stations. A second subway, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) system, connects six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains. A one-way fare on the bus or subway is $2.50, and PATH costs $2.25. There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses). The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the SmartLink. The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard. Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island), the Metro-North Railroad (which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut) and New Jersey Transit trains to various points in New Jersey. Multibillion US$ heavy-rail transit projects under construction in Manhattan and New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, the East Side Access project, and the 7 Subway Extension.
MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system.
New York's iconic yellow cabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough. Various private transportation network companies compete in Manhattan with each other and with the city's taxicabs. Manhattan also sees tens of thousands of bicycle commuters. The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. (The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram.) The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips. The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated.
The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs. Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York, New England; cross-border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the South and Midwest.
Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, large and smaller; while the George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan to Bergen County in New Jersey.
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Hugh L. Carey Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.
The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive are two routes with limited access that skirt the east side of Manhattan along the East River, designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses.
Manhattan has three public heliports. US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey before going out of business in 2009.
New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan.
Crosstown traffic refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's East Side and Manhattan's West Side. The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the barrier posed by the Park itself to uptown streets, and absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island. The only exceptions are the four sunken roads that travel through Central Park. Proposals in the mid-1900s to build such roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway and Lower Manhattan Expressway, did not go forward. The congestion makes Manhattan's crosstown buses the perennial "winners" of the "Pokey Awards" for slowest service in New York City.
Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station. Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning by some 1,800 Manhattan customers. Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well.
Manhattan, surrounded by two brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water. To satisfy the growing population, the city of New York acquired land in Westchester County and constructed the old Croton Aqueduct system, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the new Croton Aqueduct, which opened in 1890, but this was interrupted in 2008 for the construction since underway of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing almost a 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx. Water comes to Manhattan through New York City Water Tunnel No. 1, Tunnel No. 2, and Tunnel No. 3, completed in 1917, 1936, and (Manhattan's supply) 2013, respectively.
The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal. The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas.
The address algorithm of Manhattan is commonly used to find an address in a major street in Manhattan. It is commonly found on telephone directories and New York City guide books, though it is also found on the Manhattan bus maps.
- List of counties in New York
- List of Manhattan neighborhoods
- National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York
- Sawing off of Manhattan Island
- Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.
- "New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York State & County QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Barry, Dan. "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun", The New York Times, October 11, 2001. Accessed June 30, 2009. "A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world."
- Sorrentino, Christopher. "When He Was Seventeen", The New York Times, September 16, 2007. Accessed December 22, 2007. "In 1980 there were still the vestigial remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world."
- Bumiller, Elisabeth. "The Pope's visit: the cardinal; As Pope's Important Ally, Cardinal Shines High in Hierarchy", The New York Times, October 8, 1995. Accessed December 18, 2007. "As the Archbishop of the media and cultural center of the United States, Cardinal O'Connor has extraordinary power among Catholic prelates."
- "United Nations Visitors Centre "Welcome to the United Nations - Tour the international UN Headquarters"". United Nations. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S.". Business Insider, Inc. July 31, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "UBS may move US investment bank to NYC". e-Eighteen.com Ltd. June 10, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Richard Florida (May 8, 2012). "What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "Table 1 GFCI 15 Ranks and Ratings – Page 7". Qatar Financial Centre Authority and Z/Yen Group. March 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- Danielle Kurtzleben (May 24, 2012). "The Most Expensive Places in America". USA Today. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "Where Inequality Is Worst In The United States". Forbes. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Camille Mann and Stephanie Valera. "World's Most Crowded Islands". The Weather Channel. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- "Interactive Data". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "NYBits.com – Manhattan". Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Patrick McGeehan (December 20, 2011). "As City Closes In on 50 Millionth Visitor, British Couple to Be Feted". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "NYC reaches goal of 50 million tourists". North Jersey Media Group. December 20, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "NYC The Official Guide nycgo.com – nyc statistics". NYC & Company. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Big Apple History Arts and Entertainment The Crossroads of the World". Thirteen/WNET New York 2005 Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Crossroads of the world – Times Square the official website of Times Square". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Times Square New York, NY Times Square". 2011 NYCTourist.com. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Aditya Rangroo (October 14, 2010). "Times Square Crossroads of the World New York City Info". (C) 1980–2010 TimesSquare.com A Dataware Corporation Company. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Explore Manhattan Neighborhoods: The Center of the Universe (aka Times Square). Her Campus (March 22, 2011). Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
- Ewing, Michael. (January 12, 2013) Ballin! Times Square Has Bigger Economy Than Pittsburgh. Observer. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
- back in Times Square | Times Square New York City. Timessquare.com (October 30, 2009). Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
- "Times Square". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Joshua Pramis (October 2011). "World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 1: Times Square, New York City". American Express Publishing Corporation. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "The Most Jivin' Streetscapes in the World". Luigi Di Serio. 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "New York Architecture Images- Midtown Times Square". 2011 nyc-architecture. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Buildings in New York City". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet". explorechinatown.com. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- David M. Reimers. Still the Golden Door: the Third .... Google Books. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Chinatown". Indo New York. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group Inc. January 21, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "NYC Colleges and Universities". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Arwu.org. Retrieved July 2, 2013.[dead link]
- Michael M. Grynbaum (May 24, 2012). "The Reporters of City Hall Return to Their Old Perch". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- "City Hall (New York)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
- Shedd, Charles E. Jr. (October 28, 1959). "National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: New York City Hall". National Park Service.
- "Mr. Bloomberg, Perth Amboy Begs to Differ", New York Times (July 24, 2007). Accessed 2011-10-11
- "Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". CNN. November 13, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "Alleged 9/11 Plotters Face Trial Blocks From WTC Site". WIBW. November 13, 2009. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Long, Colleen & Peltz, Jennifer (October 30, 2012). "Water, fire and darkness: NYC after the superstorm". Associated Press. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- 2013 borough population estimates are taken from the annual database of county population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved on May 13, 2014.
- Per the County and City Data Book:2007 (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008, New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
- American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
- Juet, Robert (2006) . "Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage, from the 1625 Edition of Purchas His Pilgrimes". The New York Times. Translated by Brea Barthel (The New Netherland Museum). p. 16.
- Holloway, Marguerite. "Urban tactics; I'll Take Mannahatta", The New York Times, May 16, 2004, accessed June 30, 2009. "He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant island of many hills."
- "Zip Code lookup for 10111".
- R. J. Knecht: Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I; p. 372. Cambridge University Press (1996) ISBN 0-521-57885-X
- Seymour I. Schwartz: The Mismapping of America. p.42; The University of Rochester Press (2008) ISBN 978-1-58046-302-7
- Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
- "Henry Hudson and His Exploration" Scientific American, September 25, 1909, accessed May 1, 2007. "This was a vain hope however, and the conviction must finally have come to the heart of the intrepid adventurer that once again he was foiled in his repeated quest for the northwest passage ... On the following day the "Half Moon" let go her anchor inside of Sandy Hook. The week was spent in exploring the bay with a shallop, or small boat, and "they found a good entrance between two headlands" (the Narrows) "and thus entered on the September 11 into as fine a river as can be found.""
- "The Inauguration of George Washington, 1789, as narrated by Rudolph Von Dorsten". Copyright © Ibis Communications, Inc. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."
- Tolerance Park Historic New Amsterdam on Governors Island[dead link], Tolerance Park. Accessed May 12, 2007. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
- City Seal and Flag[dead link], New York City, accessed May 13, 2007. "Date: Beneath the horizontal laurel branch the date 1625, being the year of the establishment of New Amsterdam."
- "Value of the guilder / euro". Iisg.nl. May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Williams, Jasmin K. "New York – The Empire States"[dead link], The New York Post, November 22, 2006. Accessed May 19, 2007. "In 1647, Dutch leader Peter Stuyvesant arrived with an iron fist to put an end to the colony's rampant crime and restore order."
- About the Council, New York City Council. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- New York State History, New York Department of State, accessed June 29, 2009. "...named New York in honor of the Duke of York."
- Griffis, William Elliot. "The Story of New Netherland" Chapter XV: The Fall of New Netherland, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909. "In religious matters, Article VIII of the capitulation read, "The Dutch shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in Divine worship and in Church government.""
- Tolerance Park Historic New Amsterdam on Governors Island[dead link], Tolerance Park. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
- Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6
- Thalassa, FR3 Television, broadcast of Monday August 27, 2012
- "THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS OF THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS". constitution.org. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Fort Washington Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- "Happy Evacuation Day", New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, November 23, 2005. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- The Nice Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, Pennsylvania: Maple Press, 1948...
- "Birthplace of American Government". National Park Service. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Lynch, Jack. "Debating the Bill of Rights". Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "History & Culture – Federal Hall National Memorial". National Park Service. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Bridges, William (1811). Map of the City of New York and Island of Manhattan with Explanatory Remarks and References.
- Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
- Dunlap, David W. "Last Time New York Had Just 27 House Seats? The City Was on the Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Blair, Cynthia. "1858: Central Park Opens"[dead link], Newsday. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Between 1853 and 1856, city commissioners purchased more than 700 acres (280 ha) from 59th Street to 106th Street between Fifth and Eighth Avenues to create Central Park, the nation's first public park as well as its first landscaped park."
- Rybczynski, Witold. "Olmsted's Triumph" at the Wayback Machine (archived November 28, 2006), Smithsonian (magazine), July 2003. Accessed May 29, 2007. "By 1876, landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux had transformed the swampy, treeless 50 blocks between Harlem and midtown Manhattan into the first landscaped park in the United States."
- Which existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River harbor, which allowed trade with stops such as the West Point Foundry one of the great manufacturing hubs of the early US, and the NYC Atlantic Ocean ports, New York City was the American industrial powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between north and south.
- http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/317749.html , The New York City Draft Riots of 1863: An excerpt from In the Shadow of Slavery:African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 by Leslie M. Harris
- Ward, Geoffrey C. "Gangs of New York", a review of Paradise Alley by Kevin Baker, The New York Times, October 6, 2002. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The New York draft riots remain the worst civil disturbance in American history: according to the historian Adrian Cook, 119 people are known to have been killed, mostly rioters or onlookers who got too close when federal troops, brought back from the battlefield to restore order, started shooting."
- Statue of Liberty, National Park Service. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- "New Jerseyans' Claim To Liberty I. Rejected", The New York Times, October 6, 1987. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The Supreme Court today refused to strip the Statue of Liberty of its status as a New Yorker. The Court, without comment, turned away a move by a two New Jerseyans to claim jurisdiction over the landmark for their state."
- Macy Jr., Harry. Before the Five-Borough City: The Old Cities, Towns and Villages That Came Together to Form "Greater New York"[dead link], New York Genealogical and Biographical Society from The NYG&B Newsletter, Winter 1998, accessed April 29, 2007. "In 1683, when the Province of New York was first divided into counties, the City of New York also became New York County... In 1874, to accommodate this growth, New York City and County annexed from Westchester County what is now the western Bronx... In 1895 New York City annexed the eastern Bronx."
- Hermalyn, Gary and Ultan, Lloyd. Bronx History: A General Survey, New York Public Library. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
- Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Manning, Susan. "City systems and world-systems: Four millennia of city growth and decline", University of California, Riverside Institute for Research on World-Systems. Accessed May 17, 2007. "New York, which became the largest city in the world by 1925, beating out London..."
- "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Rosenberg, Jennifer. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, About.com. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-62463-X. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- "Stuyvesant Town to Get Its First Tenants Today", The New York Times, August 1, 1947. p. 19
- Behrens, David. "The World Came to Long Island: The small Village of Lake Success played a big role in the launch of the United Nations"[dead link], Newsday. Accessed May 29, 2007. "In the spring of 1951, the UN moved to its current home along Manhattan's East River."
- National Park Service (2008). "Workforce Diversity: The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". US Department of Interior. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group. January 21, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Christopher Effgen (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Harris, Paul. "How the mean streets of New York were tamed", The Guardian, January 15, 2006. Accessed June 29, 2009. "Alongside the changed tactics came a fall in the crack epidemic that had swept the city in the Eighties. By the Nineties police had driven dealers off the streets, thus reducing drug-related violence.... The figures speak for themselves. In 1990, 2,245 New Yorkers were murdered. Last year the number was 537, the lowest for 40 years."
- Hevesi, Dennis. "In Much of the City, A Robust Market", The New York Times, March 16, 1997. Accessed June 29, 2009.
- Mary Johnson (October 29, 2012). "VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant". DNA Info. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- Edelman, Susan (January 6, 2008). "Charting post-9/11 deaths". Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- Katia Hetter (November 12, 2013). "It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper". CNN. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- "OccupyWallStreet - About". The Occupy Solidarity Network, Inc. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Gas Lines Pop Up Citywide As Relief Efforts Continue". NY1. November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- "Free Gas Draws Crowds In New York City; Gas Rationing Starts In New Jersey". NPR. November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- "Tracking Storm Sandy Recovery". Reuters. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- Bhasin, Kim (October 30, 2012). "MTA: In 108 Years, The NYC Subway System Has Never Faced A Disaster As Devastating As This". Business Insider. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Hurricane Sandy forces mass transit closure, evacuations". MyFoxNY. November 12, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Raw: Sandy Leaves NYC Subways Flooded on YouTube
- Robert S. Eshelman (November 15, 2012). "Adaptation: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form". E&E Publishing, LLC. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- New York City Administrative Code Section 2-202 Division into boroughs and boundaries thereof – Division Into Boroughs And Boundaries Thereof.[dead link], Lawyer Research Center. Accessed May 16, 2007. "The borough of Manhattan shall consist of the territory known as New York county, which shall contain all that part of the city and state, including that portion of land commonly known as Marble Hill and included within the county of New York and borough of Manhattan for all purposes pursuant to chapter nine hundred thirty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eighty-four and further including the islands called Manhattan Island, Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, Ellis Island, Franklin D. Roosevelt Island, Randall's Island and Oyster Island..."
- How New York Works, How Stuff Works, accessed June 30, 2009. "The island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2), 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide (at its widest point)."
- New York—Place and County Subdivision[dead link], United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: Spuyten Duyvil Swing Bridge; Restoring a Link In the City's Lifeline". The New York Times, March 6, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- Jackson, Nancy Beth. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Marble Hill; Tiny Slice of Manhattan on the Mainland". The New York Times, January 26, 2003. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The building of the Harlem River Ship Canal turned the hill into an island in 1895, but when Spuyten Duyvel Creek on the west was filled in before World War I, the 51 acres (21 ha) became firmly attached to the mainland and the Bronx."
- Cudahy, Brian J. Cudahy (1990). Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor. Fordham University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-8232-1245-9.
- Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-7838-9785-5.
- Iglauer, Edith (November 4, 1972). "The Biggest Foundation". The New Yorker.
- ASLA 2003 The Landmark Award, American Society of Landscape Architects. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- "Manhattan Schist in Bennett Park". BennyLabamba.com. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- John H. Betts The Minerals of New York City originally published in Rocks & Minerals magazine, Volume 84, No. 3 pages 204–252 (2009).
- Samuels, Andrea. "An Examination of Mica Schist by Andrea Samuels, Micscape magazine. Photographs of Manhattan schist". Microscopy-uk.org.uk. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Manhattan Schist in New York City Parks – J. Hood Wright Park". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Why is Manhattan skyline missing tall buildings in the middle?". Yahoo. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Quinn, Helen (June 6, 2013). "How ancient collision shaped New York skyline". BBC Science. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved June 13, 2013. "These rocks are Manhattan schist, part of that ancient supercontinent, fragments of Pangaea left behind when the continent split. They are just glimpses of what is below the surface in abundance in Downtown and Midtown. And it is these fragments of very hard rock that provide the perfect foundations for New York's highest buildings. Where Manhattan schist can be found very close to the surface you can build high, and so Downtown and Midtown have become home to Manhattan's tallest buildings."
- Barr, Jason; Tassier, Troy & Trendafilov, Rossen (October 2010). "Depth to Bedrock and the Formation of the Manhattan Skyline, 1890–1915" (PDF). Fordham University. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Chaban, Matt (January 17, 2012). "Uncanny Valley: The Real Reason There Are No Skyscrapers in the Middle of Manhattan". The New York Observer. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Chaban, Matt (January 25, 2012). "Paul Goldberger and Skyscraper Economist Jason Barr Debate the Manhattan Skyline" (PDF). The New York Observer. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Jessica Robertson and Mark Petersen (July 17, 2014). "New Insight on the Nation’s Earthquake Hazards". United States Geologic Survey. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Senft, Bret. "If You're Thinking of Living In/TriBeCa; Families Are the Catalyst for Change", The New York Times, September 26, 1993. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Families have overtaken commerce as the catalyst for change in this TRIangle BElow CAnal Street (although the only triangle here is its heart: Hudson Street meeting West Broadway at Chambers Street, with Canal its north side) ... Artists began seeking refuge from fashionable SoHo (SOuth of HOuston) as early as the mid-70s."
- Cohen, Joyce. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Nolita; A Slice of Little Italy Moving Upscale", The New York Times, May 17, 1998. Accessed June 30, 2009. "NO ONE is quite certain what to call this part of town. Nolita—north of Little Italy, that is—certainly pinpoints it geographically. The not-quite-acronym was apparently coined several years ago by real-estate brokers seeking to give the area at least a little cachet."
- Louie, Elaine. "The Trendy Discover NoMad Land, and Move In"
- Feirstein, Sanna. (2001), Naming New York: Manhattan Places and How They Got Their Names: New York: New York University Press, p. 103
- Sternbergh, Adam. "Soho. Nolita. Dumbo. NoMad? Branding the last unnamed neighborhood in Manhattan. Published April 11, 2010"
- Pitts, David. U.S. Postage Stamp Honors Harlem's Langston Hughes at the Wayback Machine (archived October 1, 2006), United States Department of State. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Harlem, or Nieuw Haarlem, as it was originally named, was established by the Dutch in 1658 after they took control from Native Americans. They named it after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands."
- Bruni, Frank. "The Grounds He Stamped: The New York Of Ginsberg", The New York Times, April 7, 1997. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Indeed, for all the worldwide attention that Mr. Ginsberg received, he was always a creature and icon principally of downtown Manhattan, his world view forged in its crucible of political and sexual passions, his eccentricities nurtured by those of its peculiar demimonde, his individual myth entwined with that of the bohemian East Village in which he made his home. He embodied the East Village and the Lower East Side, Bill Morgan, a friend and Mr. Ginsberg's archivist, said yesterday."
- Dunlap, David W. "The New Chelsea's Many Faces", The New York Times, November 13, 1994. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Gay Chelsea's role has solidified with the arrival of A Different Light bookstore, a cultural cornerstone that had been housed for a decade in an 800-square-foot (74 m2) nook at 548 Hudson Street, near Perry Street. It now takes up more than 5,000 square feet (500 m2) at 151 West 19th Street and its migration seems to embody a northward shift of gay life from Greenwich Village... Because of Chelsea's reputation, Mr. Garmendia said, single women were not likely to move in. But single men did. "The whole neighborhood became gay during the 70's", he said."
- Grimes, Christopher. "WORLD NEWS: New York's Chinatown starts to feel the pinch over 'the bug'"[dead link], Financial Times, April 14, 2003. Accessed May 19, 2007. "New York's Chinatown is the site of the largest concentration of Chinese people in the western hemisphere."
- Chinatown: A World of Dining, Shopping, and History at the Wayback Machine (archived July 9, 2006), NYC & Company, accessed June 30, 2009. "No visit to New York City is complete without exploring the sights, cuisines, history, and shops of the biggest Chinatown in the United States. The largest concentration of Chinese people—150,000—in the Western Hemisphere are in a two-square-mile area in downtown Manhattan that's loosely bounded by Lafayette, Worth, and Grand streets and East Broadway."
- Kris Ensminger (October 10, 2008). "Good Eating Curry Hill More Than Tandoori". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Petzold, Charles. " How Far from True North are the Avenues of Manhattan?", accessed April 30, 2007. "However, the orientation of the city's avenues was fixed to be parallel with the axis of Manhattan Island and has only a casual relationship to true north and south. Maps that are oriented to true north (like the one at the right) show the island at a significant tilt. In truth, avenues run closer to northeast and southwest than north and south."
- NYC Basics at the Wayback Machine (archived October 11, 2007), NYC & Company, accessed June 30, 2009. "Downtown (below 14th Street) contains Greenwich Village, SoHo, TriBeCa, and the Wall Street financial district."
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "New York, NY". NOAA. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- Riley, Mary Elizabeth (2006). "Assessing the Impact of Interannual Climate Variability on New York City's Reservoir System" (PDF). Cornell University Graduate School for Atmospheric Science. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- "Keeping New York City Cool Is The Job Of NASA's Heat Seekers."[dead link], Spacedaily.com, February 9, 2006. Accessed May 16, 2007. "The urban heat island occurrence is particularly pronounced during summer heat waves and at night when wind speeds are low and sea breezes are light. During these times, New York City's air temperatures can rise 7.2 °F (4.0 °C) higher than in surrounding areas."
-  Belvedere Castle at NYC Parks
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "New York Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990". NOAA.
- "Census". United States Census. page 36
- Campbell Gibson. "Population of the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States: 1790 to 1990". United States Bureau of the Census.
- "State and County QuickFacts: New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "New York - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau.
- "State and County QuickFacts: New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "State and County QuickFacts: New York (city), New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Population Density", Geographic Information Systems – GIS of Interest. Accessed June 30, 2009. "What I discovered is that out of the 3140 counties listed in the Census population data only 178 counties were calculated to have a population density over one person per acre. Not surprisingly, New York County (which contains Manhattan) had the highest population density with a calculated 104.218 persons per acre."
- Percent of Occupied Housing Units That are Owner-occupied[dead link], United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
- New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough 2000–2030, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2006. Accessed May 18, 2007.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "New York County, New York – ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved July 24, 2011.[dead link]
- "New York County, New York – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2009". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved May 7, 2012.[dead link]
- Sahadi, Jeanne. Biggest Income Tax Burdens: Top 10 Places[dead link], CNN Money. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- Newman, Jeffrey L. "Comprehensive revision of local area personal income: preliminary estimates for 2002 and revised estimates for 1969–2001", Survey of Current Business, June 2004. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Per capita personal income in New York County (Manhattan), New York, at ,4,591, or 274 percent of the national average, was the highest."
- Zip Code Tabulation Area 10021[dead link], United States Census 2000. Retrieved April 27, 2007.
- York County, New York[dead link], United States Census 2000. Retrieved April 27, 2007.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer. "Baby Strollers and Supermarkets Push Into the Financial District", The New York Times, April 15, 2005. Accessed May 11, 2007.
- Roberts, Sam. "In Surge in Manhattan Toddlers, Rich White Families Lead Way", The New York Times, March 27, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- New York County, New York, Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association. Retrieved December 20, 2013. Enter New York County, New York, 2010 in data entry.
- McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.: Tall, Taller. Tallest", The New York Times, November 5, 1995. p. CY2. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Big Span Project Initiated by City; Manhattan Plaza of Brooklyn Bridge Would Be Rebuilt to Cope With Traffic Increase COST IS PUT AT $6,910,000 Demolition Program is Set – Street System in the Area Also Faces Rearranging", The New York Times, July 24, 1954. p. 15.
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/The Park Row Building, 15 Park Row; An 1899 'Monster' That Reigned High Over the City", The New York Times, March 12, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- Gray, Christopher. " Streetscapes/Singer Building; Once the Tallest Building, But Since 1967 a Ghost", The New York Times, January 2, 2005. Accessed May 15, 2007. "The 41-story Singer Building, the tallest in the world in 1908 when it was completed at Broadway and Liberty Street, was until September 11, 2001, the tallest structure ever to be demolished. The building, an elegant Beaux-Arts tower, was one of the most painful losses of the early preservation movement when it was razed in 1967.... Begun in 1906, the Singer Building incorporated Flagg's model for a city of towers, with the 1896 structure reconstructed as the base, and a 65-foot-square shaft rising 612 feet (187 m) high, culminating in a bulbous mansard and giant lantern at the peak."
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/Metropolitan Life at 1 Madison Avenue; For a Brief Moment, the Tallest Building in the World", The New York Times, May 26, 1996. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- Dunlap, David W. "Condos to Top Vaunted Tower Of Woolworth", The New York Times, November 2, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- "Denies Altering Plans for Tallest Building; Starrett Says Height of Bank of Manhattan Structure Was Not Increased to Beat Chrysler.", The New York Times, October 20, 1929. p. 14.
- "Bank of Manhattan Built in Record Time; Structure 927 feet (283 m) High, Second Tallest in World, Is Erected in Year of Work.", The New York Times, May 6, 1930. p. 53.
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Chrysler Building; Skyscraper's Place in the Sun", The New York Times, December 17, 1995. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Then Chrysler and Van Alen again revised the design, this time in order to win a height competition with the 921-foot (281 m) tower then rising at 40 Wall Street. This was done in secret, using as a staging area the huge square fire-tower shaft, intended to vent smoke from the stairways. Inside the shaft, Van Alen had teams of workers assemble the framework for a 185-foot-high spire that, when lifted into place in the fall of 1929, made the Chrysler building, at 1046 feet, 4.75 inches high, the tallest in the world."
- "Rivalry for Height is Seen as Ended; Empire State's Record to Stand for Many Years, Builders and Realty Men Say. Practical Limit Reached; Its Top Rises 1,250 feet (380 m), but Staff Carrying Instruments Extends Pinnacle to 1265.5 Feet.", The New York Times, May 2, 1931. p. 7.
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Empire State Building; A Red Reprise for a '31 Wonder", The New York Times, June 14, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- Barss, Karen. "The History of Skyscrapers: A race to the top", Information Please. Accessed May 17, 2007. "The Empire State Building would reign supreme among skyscrapers for 41 years until 1972, when it was surpassed by the World Trade Center (1,368 feet, 110 stories). Two years later, New York City lost the distinction of housing the tallest building when the Willis Tower was constructed in Chicago (1450 feet, 110 stories)."
- "About the WTC". Silverstein Properties. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
- Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/'The Destruction of Penn Station'; A 1960s Protest That Tried to Save a Piece of the Past", The New York Times, May 20, 2001. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- About the Landmarks Preservation Commission[dead link], New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- "Requiem For Penn Station", CBS News, October 13, 2002. Accessed May 17, 2007.
- Pogrebin, Robin. "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers", The New York Times, April 16, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- Central Park General Information, Central Park Conservancy. Retrieved September 21, 2006.
- Central Park History, Central Park Conservancy. Retrieved September 21, 2006.
- Environment at the Wayback Machine (archived April 11, 2007), Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
- "2013 WFE Market Highlights". World Federation of Exchanges. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- The most expensive ZIP codes in America, Forbes, September 26, 2003. Accessed June 29, 2009.
- Tim Phillips, "The Occupy Movement is a Response to Social Stratification; it's not 'Economic Terrorism'", Activist Defense, September 25, 2012.
- "Manhattan Average Weekly Wage in Manhattan at $2,821 in First Quarter 2007" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. November 19, 2007. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- "County Employment and Wages Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "The Dynamic Population of Manhattan". Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Commuting shifts in top 10 metro areas", USA Today, May 20, 2005. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
- "What is an office condominium?". Rudder Property Group. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11". Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Thomas P. DiNapoli (New York State Comptroller) and Kenneth B. Bleiwas (New York State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York City". Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Ambereen Choudhury, Elisa Martinuzzi & Ben Moshinsky (November 26, 2012). "London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Sanat Vallikappen (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Fortune Magazine: New York State and City Home to Most Fortune 500 Companies, Empire State Development Corporation, press release dated April 8, 2005, accessed April 26, 2007. "New York City is also still home to more Fortune 500 headquarters than any other city in the country."
- "What is an office condominium?". Rudder Property Group. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11". Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Retrieved October 18, 2013.[dead link]
- Lower Manhattan Recovery Office, Federal Transit Administration, accessed June 23, 2014. "Lower Manhattan is the third largest business district in the nation. Prior to September 11th more than 385,000 people were employed there and 85% of those employees used public transportation to commute to work."
- David Enrich, Jacob Bunge, and Cassell Bryan-Low (July 9, 2013). "NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Megan Rose Dickey and Jillian D'Onfro (October 24, 2013). "SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech". Business Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Industry Stats By Date". National Venture Capital Association. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Morris, Keiko (April 29, 2014). "Widening Tech 'Alley' Outgrows Its Name: Label Is Giving Way to References to Submarkets like Chelsea, Flatiron/Madison Square". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action" (PDF). New York City Economic Development Corporation. March 2005. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Ivan Pereira (December 10, 2013). "City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem". amNewYork/Newsday. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Jon Brodkin (June 9, 2014). "Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS". Condé Nast. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA (December 19, 2011). "Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Ju, Anne (December 19, 2011). "'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion". Cornell University. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Morris, Keiko (July 28, 2014). "Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Michael Howard Saul (December 10, 2013). "New York City Sees Record High Tourism in 2013". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics". The Broadway League. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- New York City Newspapers and News Media, ABYZ News Links. Accessed May 1, 2007.
- Jaker, Bill; Sulek, Frank; and Kanze, Peter "The Airwaves of New York: Illustrated Histories of 156 AM Stations in the Metropolitan Area", Google Book Search, p. 113. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- President's Bio[dead link], WNYC, accessed May 1, 2007. "Heard by over 1.2 million listeners each week, WNYC radio is the largest public radio station in the country and is dedicated to producing broadcasting that extends New York City's cultural riches to public radio stations nationwide."
- Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary[dead link], Manhattan Neighborhood Network press release dated August 6, 2006, accessed April 28, 2007. "Public access TV was created in the 1970s to allow ordinary members of the public to make and air their own TV shows—and thereby exercise their free speech. It was first launched in the U.S. in Manhattan July 1, 1971, on the Teleprompter and Sterling Cable systems, now Time Warner Cable."
- Wienerbronner, Danielle (2010-11-09). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". TheHuffingtonPost.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Melago, Carrie (November 30, 2007). "U.S. News & World Report gives city schools high marks in new list". Daily News. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- New York: Education and Research, City Data. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- La Scoula d'Italia[dead link], accessed June 29, 2009.
- Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree[dead link], United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- McGeehan, Patrick. "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates", The New York Times, August 16, 2006. Accessed March 27, 2008. "In Manhattan, nearly three out of five residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city."
- The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university, City University of New York, accessed June 30, 2009. "The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university..."
- New York City Economic Development Corporation (November 18, 2004). "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan". Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- National Institutes of Health (2003). "NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003". Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- The Central Libraries[dead link], New York Public Library. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
- Manhattan Map, New York Public Library. Retrieved June 6, 2006.
- The Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- Weber, Bruce. "Critic's Notebook: Theater's Promise? Look Off Broadway", The New York Times, July 2, 2003. Accessed May 29, 2007. "It's also true that what constitutes Broadway is easy to delineate; it's a universe of 39 specified theaters, which all have at least 500 seats. Off Broadway is generally considered to comprise theaters from 99 to 499 seats (anything less is thought of as Off Off), which ostensibly determines the union contracts for actors, directors and press agents."
- Theatre 101, Theatre Development Fund. Accessed May 29, 2007.
- Music Details for Sunday January 5, 1997, ABC Classic FM. Accessed June 19, 2007. "James Levine made his Metropolitan Opera debut at the age of 27, conducting Tosca.... Since the mid eighties he has held the role of Artistic Director, and it is under his tenure that the Met has become the most prestigious opera house in the world."
- "Stylish Traveler: Chelsea Girls", Travel + Leisure, September 2005. Accessed May 14, 2007. "With more than 200 galleries, Chelsea has plenty of variety."
- "City Planning Begins Public Review for West Chelsea Rezoning to Permit Housing Development and Create Mechanism for Preserving and Creating Access to the High Line", New York City Department of City Planning press release dated December 20, 2004. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Some 200 galleries have opened their doors in recent years, making West Chelsea a destination for art lovers from around the City and the world."
- Purdum, Todd S. "Political memo; An Embattled City Hall Moves to Brooklyn", The New York Times, February 22, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009. ""Leaders in all of them fear that recent changes in the City Charter that shifted power from the borough presidents to the City Council have diminished government's recognition of the sense of identity that leads people to say they live in the Bronx, and to describe visiting Manhattan as 'going to the city.'"
- "New York Minute". Dictionary of American Regional English. January 1, 1984. Retrieved September 5, 2006.
- "The Melting Pot", The First Measured Century, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- Dolkart, Andrew S. "The Architecture and Development of New York City: The Birth of the Skyscraper – Romantic Symbols", Columbia University, accessed May 15, 2007. "It is at a triangular site where Broadway and Fifth Avenue—the two most important streets of New York—meet at Madison Square, and because of the juxtaposition of the streets and the park across the street, there was a wind-tunnel effect here. In the early twentieth century, men would hang out on the corner here on Twenty-third Street and watch the wind blowing women's dresses up so that they could catch a little bit of ankle. This entered into popular culture and there are hundreds of postcards and illustrations of women with their dresses blowing up in front of the Flatiron Building. And it supposedly is where the slang expression "23 skidoo" comes from because the police would come and give the voyeurs the 23 skidoo to tell them to get out of the area."
- "Mayor Giuliani signs legislation creating "Big Apple Corner" in Manhattan", New York City press release dated February 12, 1997.
- Giants Ballparks: 1883 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- Yankee Ballparks: 1903 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- Mets Ballparks: 1962 – present, MLB.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- Drebinger, John. "The Polo Grounds, 1889–1964: A Lifetime of Memories; Ball Park in Harlem Was Scene of Many Sports Thrills", The New York Times, January 5, 1964. p. S3.
- Arnold, Martin. "Ah, Polo Grounds, The Game is Over; Wreckers Begin Demolition for Housing Project", The New York Times, April 11, 1964. p. 27.
- History of the National Invitation Tournament, National Invitation Tournament. Accessed May 8, 2007. "Tradition. The NIT is steeped in it. The nation's oldest postseason collegiate basketball tournament was founded in 1938."
- History of the New York Knicks[dead link], NBA.com. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- The New York Liberty Story, Women's National Basketball Association. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- Rucker Park, ThinkQuest New York City. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- The Giants Stadiums: Where the Giants have called home from their inception in 1925 to the present[dead link], New York Giants, dated November 7, 2002. Accessed May 8, 2007. "The Giants shared the Polo Grounds with the New York Baseball Giants from the time they entered the league in 1925 until they moved to the larger Yankee Stadium for the start of the 1956 season."
- Stadiums of The NFL: Shea Stadium, Stadiums of the NFL. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- New York Americans, Sports Encyclopedia. Accessed May 8, 2007.
- "A ,.5 Million Gamble", Time (magazine), June 30, 1975. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
- Collins, Glenn. "Built for Speed, And Local Pride; Track Stadium Emerges On Randalls Island", The New York Times, August 20, 2004. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- "Mayor Michael Bloomberk, Parks & Recreation Commissioner Adrian Benepe and the Randall's Island Sports Foundation Name New York City's Newest Athletic Facility Icahn Stadium", Mayor of New York City press release, dated January 28, 2004. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
- "Report on Ballot Proposals of the 2003 New York City Charter Revision Commission" (PDF), Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Accessed May 11, 2007. "Unlike most cities that employ nonpartisan election systems, New York City has a very strong mayor system and, following the 1989 Charter Amendments, an increasingly powerful City Council."
- Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, Cornell Law School. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
- , New York Times. Accessed January 25, 2014. "New York 2013 Election Results."
- Biography of Cyrus R. Vance[dead link], New York County District Attorney's Office. Accessed April 27, 2007. "He returned to private life until 1974, when he made the first of eight successful bids for election as District Attorney of New York County."
- Society of Foreign Consuls: About us. Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- Manhattan Municipal Building[dead link], New York City. Accessed June 29, 2009.
- "Election results from the N.Y. Times". Elections.nytimes.com. December 9, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2009.
- Grogan, Jennifer. Election 2004—Rise in Registration Promises Record Turnout, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, accessed April 25, 2007. "According to the board's statistics for the total number of registered voters as of the October 22 deadline, there were 1.1 million registered voters in Manhattan, of which 727,071 were Democrats and 132,294 were Republicans, which is a 26.7 percent increase from the 2000 election, when there were 876,120 registered voters."
- President—History: New York County, Our Campaigns. Accessed May 1, 2007.
- 2004 General Election: Statement and Return of the Votes for the Office of President and Vice President of the United States[dead link] (PDF), New York City Board of Elections, dated December 1, 2004. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- National Overview: Top Zip Codes 2004 – Top Contributing Zip Codes for All Candidates (Individual Federal Contributions ( 00+)), The Color of Money. Accessed May 29, 2007.
- Big Donors Still Rule The Roost, Public Campaign, press release dated October 29, 2004. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
- "Post Office Location – James A. Farley." United States Postal Service. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- New York City's main post office stops 24-hour service, Associated Press, Friday, April 17, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Christiano, Gregory. "The Five Points", Urbanography. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- Walsh, John, "The Five Points"[dead link], Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area, September 1994. Accessed May 16, 2007. "The Five Points slum was so notorious that it attracted the attention of candidate Abraham Lincoln who visited the area before his Cooper Union Address."
- Al Capone, Chicago History Museum. Accessed May 16, 2007. "Capone was born on January 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York.... He became part of the notorious Five Points gang in Manhattan and worked in gangster Frankie Yale's Brooklyn dive, the Harvard Inn, as a bouncer and bartender."
- Jaffe, Eric. "Talking to the Feds: The chief of the FBI's organized crime unit on the history of La Cosa Nostra" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 15, 2007), Smithsonian (magazine), April 2007. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- Langan, Patrick A. and Durose, Matthew R. "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). United States Department of Justice, October 21, 2004. Accessed June 4, 2014.
- Zeranski, Todd. NYC Is Safest City as Crime Rises in U.S., FBI Say". Bloomberg News, June 12, 2006. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- 13th Annual Safest (and Most Dangerous) Cities: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall[dead link], accessed May 16, 2007.
- MacDonald, Heather. "New York Cops: Still the Finest – Bucking a national trend, Gotham's crime rate keeps dropping. Here's why.", City Journal (New York), Summer 2006. Accessed May 16, 2007. "But to his immense credit (and that of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, who has backed him), Kelly has maintained the heart of New York's policing revolution—the now-famous accountability mechanism known as Compstat, a weekly crime-control meeting where top brass grill precinct bosses about every last detail of their command—even as he has refined the department's ability to analyze and respond to crime trends."
- Patrol Borough Manhattan South – Report Covering the Week of May 5, 2009 through 05/10/2009 (PDF), New York City Police Department CompStat, May 30, 2009. Accessed May 30, 2009 and Patrol Borough Manhattan North – Report Covering the Week of April 30, 2007 Through 05/06/2007 (PDF), New York City Police Department CompStat, May 30, 2009. Accessed May 30, 2009
- Great Fire of 1776, City University of New York. Accessed April 30, 2007. "Some of Washington's advisors suggested burning New York City so that the British would gain little from its capture. This idea was abandoned and Washington withdrew his forces from the city on September 12, 1776. Three days later the British occupied the city and on September 21, a fire broke out in the Fighting Cocks Tavern. Without the city's firemen present and on duty, the fire quickly spread. A third of the city burnt and 493 houses destroyed."
- Building the Lower East Side Ghetto[dead link]. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Peterson, Iver. "Tenements of 1880s Adapt to 1980s", The New York Times, January 3, 1988, accessed June 30, 2009. "Usually five stories tall and built on a 25-foot (7.6 m) lot, their exteriors are hung with fire escapes and the interiors are laid out long and narrow—in fact, the apartments were dubbed railroad flats."
- White, Jeremy B. (October 21, 2010). "NYDaily News: Rent too damn high?-news". New York. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- Morgan Brennan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Cities for Luxury Real Estate". Forbes. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Are Manhattan's Right Angles Wrong, by Christopher Gray
- "New York City Map". NYC.gov. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Remarks of the Commissioners for laying out streets and roads in the City of New York, under the Act of April 3, 1807, Cornell University. Accessed May 2, 2007. "These streets are all sixty feet wide except fifteen, which are one hundred feet wide, viz.: Numbers fourteen, twenty-three, thirty-four, forty-two, fifty-seven, seventy-two, seventy-nine, eighty-six, ninety-six, one hundred and six, one hundred and sixteen, one hundred and twenty-five, one hundred and thirty-five, one hundred and forty-five, and one hundred and fifty-five—the block or space between them being in general about two hundred feet."
- Silverman, Justin Rocket (May 27, 2006). "Sunny delight in city sight". Newsday. "'Manhattanhenge' occurs Sunday, a day when a happy coincidence of urban planning and astrophysics results in the setting sun lining up exactly with every east-west street in the borough north of 14th Street. Similar to Stonehenge, which is directly aligned with the summer-solstice sun, "Manhattanhenge" catches the sun descending in perfect alignment between buildings. The local phenomenon occurs twice a year, on May 28 and July 12..."
- Sunset on 34th Street Along the Manhattan Grid[dead link], Natural History Special Feature—City of Stars. Retrieved September 4, 2006.
- The Mannahatta Project, Wildlife Conservation Society, January 1, 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
- Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. Accessed May 21, 2006.
- "New York City Pedestrian Level of Service Study – Phase I, 2006", New York City Department of City Planning, April 2006, p. 4. Accessed May 17, 2007. "In the year 2000, 88% of workers over 16 years old in the U.S. used a car, truck or van to commute to work, while approximately 5% used public transportation and 3% walked to work.... In Manhattan, the borough with the highest population density (66,940 people/sq mi. in year 2000; 1,564,798 inhabitants) and concentration of business and tourist destinations, only 18% of the working population drove to work in 2000, while 72% used public transportation and 8% walked."
- "Manhattan". TSTC.org. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- . "Congestion plan dies". NY1. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- , NYC Subway System. Accessed August 4, 2009.
- , Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
- Metrocard, Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York). Accessed May 11, 2007.
- PATH Frequently Asked Questions, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, accessed April 28, 2007. "PATH will phase out QuickCard once the SmartLink Fare Card is introduced."
- Verena Dobnik (February 7, 2013). "NYC Transit Projects: East Side Access, Second Avenue Subway, And 7 Train Extension (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Bus Facts[dead link], Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York), accessed August 28, 2012.
- About the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission. Retrieved September 4, 2006.
- Lee, Jennifer 8. "Midair Rescue Lifts Passengers From Stranded East River Tram", The New York Times, April 19, 2006. Accessed February 28, 2008. "The system, which calls itself the only aerial commuter tram in the country, has been featured in movies including City Slickers, starring Billy Crystal; Nighthawks, with Sylvester Stallone; and Spider-Man in 2002."
- The Roosevelt Island Tram[dead link], Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Facts About the Ferry, New York City Department of Transportation, accessed August 28, 2012. "On a typical weekday, five boats make 109 trips, carrying approximately 65,000 passengers. During rush hours, the ferry runs on a four-boat schedule, with 15 minutes between departures."
- An Assessment of Staten Island Ferry Service and Recommendations for Improvement[dead link] (PDF), New York City Council, November 2004, accessed April 28, 2007. ""Of the current fleet of seven vessels, five boats make 104 trips on a typical weekday schedule".
- Holloway, Lynette. "Mayor to End 50-Cent Fare On S.I. Ferry", The New York Times, April 29, 1997, accessed June 30, 2009. "Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani said yesterday that he would eliminate the 50-cent fare on the Staten Island Ferry starting July 4, saying people who live outside Manhattan should not have to pay extra to travel."
- The MTA Network[dead link], Metropolitan Transportation Authority, accessed May 17, 2006.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bod Woodruff, Lana Zak, and Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- "Lincoln Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Holland Tunnel". National Historic Landmark Quicklinks. National Park Service. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Queens-Midtown Tunnel Historic Overview". Eastern Roads. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "President the 'First' to Use Midtown Tube; Precedence at Opening Denied Hundreds of Motorists", The New York Times, November 9, 1940. p. 19.
- Kennicott, Philip. "A Builder Who Went to Town: Robert Moses Shaped Modern New York, for Better and for Worse", The Washington Post, March 11, 2007, accessed April 30, 2007. "The list of his accomplishments is astonishing: seven bridges, 15 expressways, 16 parkways, the West Side Highway and the Harlem River Drive..."
- Yu, Roger. Airport Check-in: Speedy service from Newark to Manhattan coming, USA Today, December 10, 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- "New York City's Yellow Cabs Go Green" (Press release). Sierra Club. July 1, 2005. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- "History of the Electric Power Industry" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 30, 2007), Edison Electric Institute. Accessed June 30, 2009.
- Ray, C. Claiborne. "Q&A", The New York Times, May 12, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009. "In a steam-powered system, the whole cycle of compression, cooling, expansion and evaporation takes place in a closed system, like that in a refrigerator or electrical air-conditioner. The difference, Mr. Sarno said, is that the mechanical power to run the compressor comes from steam-powered turbines, not electrical motors."
- A brief history of con edison: steam, Consolidated Edison. Accessed May 16, 2007.
- David W. Dunlap (July 23, 2014). "Quiet Milestone in Project to Bring Croton Water Back to New York City". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- Matt Flegenheimer (October 16, 2013). "After Decades, a Water Tunnel Can Now Serve All of Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- Matthew Philips (November 5, 2013). "Cheap Natural Gas Hits New York City". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- About DSNY, New York City Department of Sanitation, Accessed May 16, 2007.
- Burger, Michael and Stewart, Christopher. "Garbage After Fresh Kills", Gotham Gazette, January 28, 2001. Accessed May 16, 2007.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manhattan.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Manhattan.|
Local government and services:
- Manhattan Borough President official site
- New York City Government with links to Manhattan specific agencies
- Detailed Map of Manhattan
- Maps of Building Heights and Land Value, plus theoretical and zoning-based maps of underdevelopment, all from www.radicalcartography.net