Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Manhattan Institute)
Jump to: navigation, search
Manhattan Institute
for Policy Research
Manhattan Institute.gif
Motto Turning Intellect into Influence
Formation 1978
Type Public policy think tank
Headquarters 52 Vanderbilt Avenue
Location New York, NY
President
Lawrence J. Mone
Website www.manhattan-institute.org

The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is a conservative American think tank established in New York City in 1978 by Antony Fisher and William J. Casey. The organization describes its mission as to "develop and disseminate new ideas that foster greater economic choice and individual responsibility". Its message is communicated through books, articles, interviews, speeches, op-eds, and through the institute's quarterly publication City Journal.

Divisions[edit]

The Institute is arranged into the following divisions

  • Center for the American University
  • Center for State and Local Leadership
  • Center for Civic Innovation
  • Center for Legal Policy
  • Center for Medical Progress
  • Center for Energy Policy and the Environment

Policy positions[edit]

Law enforcement[edit]

The Manhattan Institute is perhaps best known for its influence on law enforcement methods. In particular, the Institute is widely credited with pioneering community policing methods and more specifically quality-of-life policing, also known as "broken windows theory" after the landmark 1982 Atlantic Monthly article "Broken Windows" by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. Broken Windows posits that dealing more effectively and comprehensively with low-level quality of life crime would reduce more high-profile violent crime. Broken Windows policing was put to its first major large-scale test in the mid-1990s after the election of Rudolph Giuliani as mayor of New York City. Giuliani was an outspoken advocate of community policing, frequently citing the influence "Broken Windows" had on his thinking as mayor.[citation needed] Giuliani appointed Kelling’s intellectual collaborator William J. Bratton as New York City Police Commissioner in 1994, saying, "I chose Bill Bratton because he agreed with the Broken Windows theory."[1]

A follow-up book by Kelling and Catherine Coles published by the Manhattan Institute in 1996 led to further interest in community policing methods, leading some municipalities to adopt quality-of-life and community policing as official policy. Giuliani-era New York City Police Commissioner Bratton took these methods to Los Angeles on being appointed Los Angeles Police Department chief of police.[2][3] Newark, New Jersey Mayor Cory Booker has been lauded for his Broken Windows-based approach to crime since taking office in 2006.[4][5]

Senior fellow Heather Mac Donald argues that crime prevention statistics from the 2008–2009 recession improved as a result of efficient policing, high incarceration rates, more police officers working, data-driven approaches such as CompStat which helps commanders target high-crime areas, and a policy of holding precinct commanders accountable for results.[6] She contends the decline of American cities, beginning during the 1960s, was a result of crime "spiraling out of control".[7]

Welfare reform[edit]

The Manhattan Institute was one of the key institutions that pressed for reform of the welfare system in the mid-1990s.[8] Charles Murray's Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950–1980 (1984) argued that the welfare state had fostered a culture and cycle of dependency that was to the detriment of both welfare recipients and the United States as a whole.[9]

School choice[edit]

Former senior fellow Jay P. Greene’s empirical research on the efficacy of school choice helped to convince the Supreme Court of the United States to affirm the constitutionality of school vouchers in its landmark Zelman v. Simmons-Harris decision.[citation needed] His research was cited four times, including three times by Justice Sandra Day O’Connor who court-watchers had identified as the “swing vote” on the case.[citation needed]

Medicare[edit]

The Institute's Center for Medical Progress opposes allowing the federal government to negotiate prices in the Medicare Part D prescription drug program [10] and believes that drug price negotiating has adverse effects in the Veterans Administration.[11]

Hydraulic fracturing[edit]

The Manhattan Institute is a proponent of the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) method of extracting natural gas and oil from underground deposits. Opponents have been critical of the method owing to concerns that the chemicals involved in it lead to water contamination. In response to calls to ban fracking in parts of New York, the Manhattan Institute released a report in 2011 projecting that allowing fracking could "inject over $11 billion dollars into the state economy".[12]

Events[edit]

The institute holds several annual events including

  • The Wriston Lecture series
  • William E. Simon Lectures on Philanthropy and Social Entrepreneurship
  • The Hayek Prize and Lectures
  • The Alexander Hamilton Award

People currently affiliated with the Manhattan Institute[edit]

Funding sources[edit]

The Manhattan Institute received over $31 million in grants from 1985 to 2012, from foundations such as the Koch Family Foundations, the John M. Olin Foundation, the Bradley Foundation, the Scaife Foundations, and the Smith Richardson Foundation.[13] The Manhattan Institute does not disclose its corporate funding, but the Capital Research Center listed its contributors as Bristol-Myers Squibb, ExxonMobil, Chase Manhattan, Cigna, Sprint Nextel, Reliant Energy, Lincoln Financial Group Foundation, and Merrill Lynch. Throughout the 1990s the Tobacco industry was a major funding source for the institute. [14]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983960-2,00.html
  2. ^ Blankstein, Andrew; Therolf, Garrett (2006-12-27). "L.A. crime decreases for 5th year – Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  3. ^ "Los Angeles Police Chief Faces a Huge Challenge". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  4. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (2007-05-27). "Newark Battles Murder and Its Accomplice, Silence". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  5. ^ Steven Malanga (2007-04-26). "Cory Booker’s Battle for Newark by Steven Malanga, City Journal Spring 2007". City-journal.org. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  6. ^ A transcript of the weekend's program on FOX News channel – Paul Gigot, Heather Mac Donald (February 8, 2010). "Hey, Big Spender". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-11-04. "Mac Donald: It is extraordinary. And I credit the spread, ultimately, of efficient policing and incarceration. But this is exactly the opposite of what criminologists were hoping for—really gleefully hoping for—that the crime drop began in the '90s nationally would finally reverse itself ..." 
  7. ^ Heather Mac Donald (July 15, 2008). "Cities You Can Believe In". Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-11-04. "Many American cities began their decades-long decline in the 1960s, when crime started spiraling out of control." 
  8. ^ Institute articles on welfare
  9. ^ "Losing Ground by Charles Murray", Conservative Monitor
  10. ^ One-Size-Fits-All Rules Will Hurt Drug Quality, Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2007
  11. ^ [1] Older Drugs, Shorter Lives?: An Examination of the Health Effects of the Veterans Health Administration Formulary
  12. ^ Hargreaves, Steve (1 July 2011). "New York set to lift fracking ban". CNN Money (New York). Retrieved 5 July 2011. "A report last week from the conservative Manhattan Institute said allowing drilling in New York could inject over $11 billion dollars into the state economy in the years ahead." 
  13. ^ "Conservative Transparency:RECIPIENT: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research". Bridge Project. 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  14. ^ "Manhattan Institute for Policy Research". SourceWatch. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-11-03. [unreliable source?]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°45′15″N 73°58′39″W / 40.754275°N 73.97747°W / 40.754275; -73.97747