|Born||Rabindranath Kaul 
25 December 1944
|Died||6 July 2011
|Occupation||Film director, film academic|
|Known for||Uski Roti, Duvidha, Siddeshwari|
Mani Kaul (25 December 1944 – 6 July 2011) was a Indian Kashmiri Pandit film director of Hindi films and an influential director of Indian parallel cinema.  He graduated from the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) where he was a student of Ritwik Ghatak and later became a teacher. Started his career with Uski Roti (1969), which won him the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie, he went on to win four of them in all. He won the National Film Award for Best Direction in 1974 for Duvidha and later the National Film Award for his documentary film, Siddheshwari in 1989.
Early life and background
Born as Rabindranath Kaul, in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, in a Kashmiri Pandit family,  Kaul first joined Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), Pune as an acting student and later shifted to the direction course, where noted film director, of Ritwik Ghatak was a teacher, graduating in 1966.[dubious ]
His first film Uski Roti (1969) has been described as "one of the key films of the New Indian Cinema or the Indian New Wave". It marked a drastic departure from earlier Indian cinema technique, form and narrative. It was one of the early formal experimental films in Indian cinema.
Duvidha (1973), his third, was his first in colour. It grew out of a short story by Vijaydan Detha and tells the story of a merchant's son, who returns with his new bride to have to depart on family business. A ghost falls in love with the bride... It was widely shown across Europe.
Mani Kaul was one of the co-founders of the Yukt Film Co-operative (Union of Kinematograph Technicians) in 1976, leading to avantgarde films. Critics suggest that in "Mani Kaul's cinematic conception, fiction and documentary films have no clear demarcated dividing line." He also taught music in the Netherlands, and was Creative Director of the film house at Osian's Connoisseurs of Art, Mumbai.
According to a tribute from Prabha Mahajan on the Indian documentary film discussion network Docuwallahs2 , Mani Kaul's significant body of work included both feature films and documentaries. In an interview Mani stated: "The dividing line from my films and documentaries is thin. Some of my films like "Siddheshwari" are like poetic documentaries." Mani Kaul's fellow alumni from FTII intend to put together a collective tribute to Mani Kaul and his work, and interested persons were invited to send in their thoughts on Mani as a film maker, teacher/ mentor, colleague, and as a person.
Indian film critic Khalid Mohamed commented, " As a film director, he discussed the status of women (Uski Roti, Duvidha), crafted visually seductive documentaries (Arrival, Before My Eyes, A Desert of a Thousand Lines) and went through a spell of interpreting Fyodor Dostoevsky’s masterworks. The Russian writer’s short story A Gentle Creature inspired Nazar, shot in low, chiaroscuro lighting."
- Uski Roti (1969)
- Ashadh Ka Ek Din (1971)
- Duvidha (1973)
- Ghashiram Kotwal (1979)
- Satah Se Uthata Admi (1980)
- Dhrupad (1982)
- Mati Manas (1984)
- Siddheshwari (1989)
- Nazar[disambiguation needed] (1989)
- Idiot (1992)
- The Cloud Door (1995)
- Naukar Ki Kameez (The Servant's Shirt) (1999)
- Bojh (Burden)(2000)
- Ik Ben Geen Ander (I Am No Other) Nederland 2002
- A Monkey's Raincoat Nederland (2005)
- Signature Film for Osian Cinefan Festival of Asian Cinema (2006)
National Film Awards
Mani Kaul won Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie four times.
- 1971: Uski Roti (1970)
- 1972: Ashad Ka Ek Din (1971)
- 1974: Duvidha (1973)
- 1993: Idiot (1992)
- Derek Malcolm (14 July 2011). "Mani Kaul obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- "Noted filmmaker Mani Kaul dead". CNN-IBN. 6 Jul 2011.
- "Filmmaker Mani Kaul passes away after prolonged illness". Dainik Jagran, Jagran Post. 06 Jul 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- "Profile". upperstall.com.
- "‘Mani Kaul’s films didn’t come to you, you had to go to them’". Indian Express. Jul 16 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- "Berlinale 1971: Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "The Harvard Crimson:: Indie Film Director to Teach VES Course".
- "Filmmaker Mani Kaul dead". The Hindu (India). 6 July 2011.
- "Mani Kaul no more". Docuwallahs2. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- "The determined outsider". Deccan Chronicle (India). 7 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Satah Se Uthata Admi at Cannes Cannes Film Festival.
- Mani Kaul Filmography New York Times.
- Interview with Mani Kaul UNESCO Courier, July–August 1995.
- Avijit Ghosh, "He was, by far, our most original filmmaker" The Times of India.
- Mani Kaul at the Internet Movie Database
- Mani Kaul on Cinematography and Time at Indian Auteur
- The Films of Mani Kaul
- An Interview with Mani Kaul