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Mani Ratnam

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Mani Ratnam
Mani Ratnam premiere.jpg
Mani Ratnam at the premiere of Raavan in 2010
Born Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam
(1956-06-02) 2 June 1956 (age 58)
Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India[1][2]
Residence Alwarpet, Chennai, India
Occupation Film director
Film producer
Screenwriter
Years active 1973–present
Religion None
Spouse(s) Suhasini (1988–present)
Children Nandan (b-1991)

Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam (born 2 June 1956), commonly known as Mani Ratnam, is an Indian film director, screenwriter and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema, based out of Chennai. Starting his career as a management consultant, he made an entry into films through the Kannada film Pallavi Anu Pallavi in 1983. Despite a commercial failure, the film earned critical acclaim and fetched an award for the screenplay at the Karnataka State Film Awards. Ratnam's following efforts were the Malayalam film Unaru (1984), and the Tamil films: Pagal Nilavu and Idhaya Kovil, both in 1985. He came into prominence after Mouna Ragam (1986) which established himself as a leading director in Tamil cinema. He followed that with the Godfatheresque Nayagan (1987), which was among the three Indian films to be named by Time magazine's list of All-Time 100 Greatest Movies in 2005.[3] His Telugu film Geethanjali won multiple Nandi Awards apart from the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment. His next release Anjali (1990) was India's submission for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Ratnam is well known for his "Terrorism trilogy" consisting of Roja (1992), Bombay (1995) and Dil Se.. (1998).

Widely regarded as one of the leading directors in Indian cinema,[4], Ratnam is widely credited with having revolutionized the Tamil film industry and altering the profile of Indian cinema.[5] Ratnam is married to Tamil actress Suhasini and has a son with her. In 2002, he was honoured with the Padma Shri, the fourth-highest civilian award given by the Government of India. Ratnam has won several film awards, including six National Film Awards. In addition to these, he is a recipient of a number of awards at various international film festivals and a few Filmfare Awards.

Early life and background[edit]

Mani Ratnam seated to the right of Suhasini.
Mani Ratnam with his wife Suhasini (pictured in 2010).

Born in 1956, Mani Ratnam's family was closely associated with film production. His father, S. G. Ratnam, was a film distributor who worked for Venus Pictures,[6] while his uncle 'Venus' Krishnamurthy was a film producer. Mani grew up in Madras (now Chennai),[7] along with his brothers and cousins in a joint-family. Despite being a film family, the children were not allowed to watch films as the elders considered it a taboo".[8] However, they were allowed to watch the shoot of films produced by them. Mani started watching films more actively while he was studying in the Besant Theosophical School, Adyar, Madras.[8] During this time, he started admiring actors like Sivaji Ganesan and Nagesh, and watched all their films. At the age of 15, he got to know about director K. Balachander and became a fan of his. Upon completing his schooling, he graduated with a degree in commerce from the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, affiliated with Madras University,[9] and then went to Bombay to pursue his MBA in finance from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies.[10] After finishing his post-graduation in 1977, he was employed in a firm as a management consultant where he continued to work for sometime.[5]

Ratnam had two brothers—G. Venkateswaran and G. Srinivasan—both of them film producers, and a sister. Venkateswaran, a film producer who made many of Mani's films, Mouna Ragam, Nayagan, Agni Natchathiram, Thalapathi and Anjali,[5] committed suicide in 2003, reportedly because of financial problems.[6][11] His younger brother, G. Srinivasan died in an accident while trekking in Manali in 2007.[12] In 1988, Mani married Suhasini, who was a leading actress in South Indian cinema then.[13][14] The couple have a son Nandhan Maniratnam (b. 1992).[15] Mani resides in Alwarpet, Chennai, where he runs Madras Talkies, his production company.[16][17]

Film career[edit]

Beginnings: 1977-1983[edit]

Mani Ratnam was not satisfied with his job as a consultant as he found it to be a mere extension of his academics. During this time, Ravi Shankar, a friend of his, and the son of director B. R. Panthulu, was in the process of making his first film, in Kannada. Mani accompanied Ravi Shankar along with another friend called Raman, son of S. Balachander, to complete the script of the film.[8] Mani took a sabbatical from his job in order to make himself involve in the making of the film. Being inexperienced, the crew were largely dependent upon American Cinematographer. The principal cast included Vishnuvardhan, Srinath, Ambarish, Lakshmi and Roja Ramani. When the filming was about to begin in Kolar, Karnataka, Mani Ratnam left his consulting job and joined the crew. The film, however, did not take off and was eventually shelved. Mani Ratnam was firm in his idea of becoming a film-maker, though his family was not fully supportive of his idea. Though he was not pleased with the films made in Tamil cinema till then, he was amazed at P. Bharathiraja's 16 Vayathinile and J. Mahendran's Mullum Malarum, and Uthiripookkal, that came around this time. During this time, he befriended a group of people including P. C. Sreeram, Santhana Bharathi and P. Vasu who had similar passions of entering into the film industry .[8]

With a script in hand, Mani Ratnam had an idea to either get a producer for his film, or to narrate the script to a "celebrated" film-maker so that he could get a chance to work along with them and get to know about the various aspects involved in film-making. He chose three directors—Balachander, Bharathiraja and Mahendran. As the attempts to meet and convince all the three proved to be unsuccessful, he decided to look out for a producer. In the process, he along with Sreeram—to be his cinematographer—met around 20 people, with all the efforts being unsuccessful.[8]

Early years and struggle: 1983-1986[edit]

Mani Ratnam developed his script—originally written in English—into a film and named it Pallavi Anu Pallavi. His uncle Krishnamurthy agreed to produce the film but imposed a condition that it should be made in Kannada and with a limited budget. As a debutant, Mani Ratnam wanted to make sure that the technical aspects of the film are good. He persuaded Balu Mahendra to do the cinematography as he found the latter's work to be very impressive.[18] He managed to get other crew members B. Lenin (Editor), Thotta Tharani (Production designer) and Ilaiyaraaja (Music composer), all leading craftsmen in their respective fields then. For the male lead, he cast Anil Kapoor after watching his performance in Vamsa Vruksham. Lakshmi who was a leading actress then, was cast as the female lead.[18] The film explored the relationship between a young man and an older woman. Although an average grosser at the box-office, the film fetched the Best Screenplay Award from the Karnataka State Government for the year 1983.[19] After watching Pallavi Anu Pallavi, N. G. John, a Malayalam film producer, offered Mani Ratnam a chance to direct a film in Malayalam. Scripted by T. Damodaran, Unaru was about the corruption in labour unions of Kerala.[20] The film was completed with in two months and got released in April 1984. Mani Ratnam attributed the failure of the film to the conflict of interests that he and the producer had.[8] Following this, he had his break in Tamil cinema when G. Thyagarajan of Sathya Jyothi Films offered him to direct Pagal Nilavu (1985). The film had Murali and Revathi playing lead roles.[21] It was different from his previous two films in a way that it included dance sequences and a comedy "track". However, the film turned out to be another failure for him. The same year, he got an offer to direct another Tamil film Idaya Kovil, a romantic drama. He remodelled a ready made script on the lines of Charlie Chaplin's Limelight (1952). Described by himself as an unsatisfied work, the film was a major box-office success.[19] Mani Ratnam described the phase between the years 1983 and 1986 to be the toughest of his career, with only Pallavi Anupallavi being a satisfiable film, as the rest three were done with a lot of "compromises".[8]

Breakthrough: 1986–1991[edit]

In 1986, Ratnam directed the Tamil romantic drama Mouna Ragam, which starred Revathi and Mohan. The film was critically acclaimed for portraying urban Tamils in a "realistic" manner.[22] Specifically, it told the story of the friction between a newly-wed couple.[19] The score by Ilaiyaraaja was highly appreciated and became popular upon release.[23] Mouna Raagam was subsequently dubbed into Telugu under the same title and became a hit in Andhra Pradesh as well.[24] The film elevated Mani Ratnam's status as a director, and won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil at the 34th National Film Awards. Mani Ratnam won his first Filmfare Award for directing the film.[19][25]

In 1987, Ratnam directed Nayagan starring Kamal Haasan, and the film became a huge success and brought him recognition at the national level.[22][26] Inspired by the 1972 American epic crime film, The Godfather,[5][27] the film was based on the real-life story of underworld king Varadarajan Mudaliar,[22][28] and tells the story of an orphaned slum-dweller and his rise to top of the Mumbai underworld hierarchy,[23] was included in Time magazine's All-Time 100 Greatest Movies in 2005.[3] Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy and Guru Dutt's Pyaasa are the only other Indian films that have appeared in the list.[29] Indian critics dubbed the film as India's answer to The Godfather.[30][31][32] Nayagan was both commercially successful and critically acclaimed winning three National Awards—Best Actor, Best Cinematography and Best Art Direction—at the 35th National Film Awards.[23][26] The film was India's official entry to the Oscars for Best Foreign Language Film at the 60th Academy Awards.[33]

Following these two commercial successes, Ratnam wrote and directed Agni Natchathiram in 1988.[34] The film deals with the story of step-brothers played by Prabhu and Karthik[23] and is notable for its use of new techniques in camera framework, especially during the songs.[35] The film had a successful run in the box office.[5][34]

In 1989 Ratnam opted to make his next project, Geethanjali, his maiden venture in Telugu.[26] Starring Nagarjuna in the lead role, the film told the story of an ill-fated couple, both of whom are suffering from terminal diseases.[5] Geethanjali was critically acclaimed and won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment in 1990. In addition, it won the Best Director and Nandi Award for Best Story Writer for Ratnam.[36] Ratnam maintained a momentum of making emotional stories of under-served people through the film Anjali in 1990, which starred Raghuvaran and told the story of an autistic child who changed the lives of people around her.[37] The film proved to be a commercial success and was nominated as India's official entry to the Oscars in the Best Foreign Language Film category at the 63rd Academy Awards.[37][38] Following Anjali's release, Ratnam later made another underworld-themed Tamil film, Thalapathi (1991), starring Rajinikanth and Mammootty.[39] The film was an adaptation of Mahabharata, dealt with the friendship between Karna and Duryodhana portrayed by Rajinikanth and Mammmooty respectively.[40] The film met with both critical acclaim and commercial success upon release.[41] Ilaiyaraaja's musical score and Ratnam's work were highly appreciated as they both went on to win the Music Director and Best Director awards respectively at the 39th Filmfare Awards.[citation needed] This film however, marks the last film where Mani Ratnam and Ilaiyaraja have collaborated.

International acclaim: 1992–99[edit]

With Thalapathi, Mani Ratnam ended his long-term association with music director Ilaiyaraaja, bringing in debutant music director A. R. Rahman to score his Tamil classic Roja (1992). The venture was successful, earning Ratnam various awards. Roja, a romantic film, was about terrorism in the Kashmir region.[5] Starring Arvind Swamy and Madhoo, it was nominated for the Golden St. George Award at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival.[42] It became highly popular, gaining an iconic status in Indian cinema and was dubbed into other languages and met similar success in other regions.[43] Ratnam took a more light-hearted approach with his next film —Thiruda Thiruda (1993). Scripted by Ram Gopal Varma,[44] it explored the action and thriller genres,[45] was a departure from Ratnam's previous style and fared moderately well at the box office. A retrospective of his Tamil films was held at the Toronto International Film Festival in 1994.[2]

Ratnam again teamed up with Ram Gopal Varma to provide the screenplay for the latter's Telugu film Gaayam, a socio-politico film loosely based on The Godfather.[46] In 1995, Ratnam returned to Tamil language drama through Bombay starring Arvind Swamy and Manisha Koirala, which told the story of a Hindu-Muslim couple in the midst of the 1993 religious Bombay riots and bombings. It was also the first Indian film to focus on marriage between Hindu and Muslim people.[47] The film met with controversy and censorship upon release,[47] was subsequently dubbed into Hindi and was commercially successful and appreciated by critics.[47] It won a number of awards, such as Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, Special Award from the Political Film Society,[48] In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem International Film Festival[49] and the Gala Award at the Edinburgh International Film Festival.[50]

Ratnam produced his wife's directorial debut film, Indira,[51] and the critical success Iruvar with Mohanlal, Aishwarya Rai, Tabu and Prakash Raj in the lead, his next film as director. Iruvar was honoured the Best Film at the "Festival of the Auteur Films" at the FEST film festival held in Belgrade.[52] In 1998 came the third part of his "terrorism trilogy", named Dil Se.. and starring Shahrukh Khan and Manisha Koirala, with the latter fabricating the second collaboration.[53] It showed the relationship between a young man and a dangerous, disturbed woman. Although they fall in love, she is unable to take the romance further due to her bleak past. The soundtrack album, again composed by A. R. Rahman, gained mass appeal and gave Rahman his next Filmfare Award for Best Music Direction in 1999.[54][55] Unlike his previous two projects, Dil Se.. opened with well note among the film critics and the film poorly performed in the domestic market,[56] despite being a success overseas.[57][58][59] It was screened in many international film festivals, and won the Netpac award (Ex-Aqueo) in the Berlin International Film Festival.[60] In 2000, Ratnam directed the romantic drama Alaipayuthey that starred R. Madhavan and Shalini. The film focussed on marriage and explored relationships and their consequences, and garnered critical recognition.[61][62] It was also screened at the Berlin International Film Festival.[63]

Along with Vasanth, he was instrumental in organizing Netru, Indru, Naalai,[64] a stage musical that marked the first theatre production, with numerous other artistes, to aid The Banyan, an organization that rehabilitates women and children with mental illness.[65][66]

Kannathil Muthamittal and onwards: 2002–present[edit]

Ratnam's following project, Kannathil Muthamittal, dealt with the story of a child of Sri Lankan Tamil parentage adopted by Indian parents, who wishes to meet her biological mother during the Sri Lankan Civil War.[67] The film was critically lauded and commercially successful, winning six National Film Awards, Filmfare Award for Best Direction in Tamil, In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem Film Festival[68] and an award at the Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles.[69] In 2004, he made a Hindi film titled Yuva, his second venture into Bollywood. The film, which tells the story of how one incident sends the lives of three youths on a collision course and received positive reviews.[70] Ratnam made the film simultaneously in Tamil as Aaytha Ezhuthu, starring Surya Sivakumar, R. Madhavan and Siddharth replacing Ajay Devgn, Abhishek Bachchan and Vivek Oberoi respectively from the Hindi version.[70] The Tamil version was appreciated by critics, unlike the Hindi version, which was a failure at the box office. Ratnam suffered his first heart attack while shooting for Yuva.[53]

In 2007, Ratnam made Guru, a biographical film based on the life of Dhirubhai Ambani, a business magnate from India.[71] starring Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai, through his production house, Madras Talkies.[72] The film is set in the early 1950s, became a box office success, and received critical acclaim.[73] Guru is the only Mani Ratnam film to be screened in the Tous Les Cinemas du Monde (World Cinema) section of the 2007 Cannes Film Festival.[74][75]

In 2010, Ratnam worked on a bilingual film, titled Raavanan in Tamil where in the film look was unveiled at 2010 Cannes Film Festival, as part of its marketing campaign.[76] and Raavan in Hindi.[77] The Tamil version was dubbed into Telugu and titled Villain. The film was released worldwide on 18 June 2010.[78] The film is loosely based on the Hindu epic Ramayana; its narrative occurs over 14 days when a revolutionist named Veera, who lives in a forest, kidnaps a policeman's wife to avenge his sister's death. The Tamil version received positive reviews from the critics compared to its other versions.[79] The New York Times called the movie a "critics' pick". However, the reviewers of the Hindi version panned the film; Rajeev Masand said it was "a crushing bore of a film, a disappointment on virtually every count"[80] The Tamil version was declared a box office success.[81]

Ratnam's next film, Kadal was released worldwide on 1 February 2013 to mixed reviews from critics and became a box office failure. Later the distributor of the film filed a police complaint against Ratnam on account of the huge losses suffered by him.[82]

His most recent film, romantic drama O Kadhal Kanmani[83] starring Dulquer Salmaan and Nithya Menen as lead pair, was released on April 17, 2015. The cinematography and editing of the film was handled by P. C. Sreeram and A. Sreekar Prasad respectively, while music was scored by A. R. Rahman. The same film is dubbed and released in Telugu as OK Bangaram

Style, craft and technical collaborations[edit]

Ratnam's aspiration towards films grew up watching films of K. Balachander, Guru Dutt and Sivaji Ganesan.[84] His is greatly influenced by the film-making styles of Akira Kurosawa, Martin Scorsese, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Ingmar Bergman and J. Mahendran.[84][85]

Unlike many filmmakers, Ratnam neither assisted in film-making nor worked as a cinematographer before making a name for himself in the industry.[86] Ratnam is highly credited for having revolutionized the Tamil film industry and altering the profile of Indian cinema.[5] He has made films with a variety of genres and a majority of his films are characterized by a string of Socio-political themes.[87] It was mainly because of this most of his films have garnered both critical acclaim and commercial success.[87] With his idea of combining art and commercial elements, Ratnam was referred for bringing new dimension to the South Asian film industry.[87] Many of his films have taken inspirations from real-life incidents such as Nayagan, Bombay, Iruvar and films like Thalapathi and Raavan were based on Indian epics.[2] He is lauded for his casting in each of his films—he said in an interview, "I am not a director who performs and shows. I discuss the role, the scene with my actors and let them bring life to it".[2]

Like most of his contemporaries, Ratnam handled screenplay for a majority of his films. Right from the beginning of his career, his works were noted for their technical expertise in areas such as cinematography, art direction, editing and background score. For his debut film, he managed to handpick Balu Mahendra, Thotta Tharani, B. Lenin and Ilaiyaraaja, leading craftsmen in their respective fields.[88] As Ratnam's career progressed, he worked with P. C. Sreeram and continued his collaborations with him till Geethanjali. In 1991 for his film Thalapathi, Ratnam chose Santosh Sivan and Suresh Urs—both newcomers to the Tamil film industry—to do cinematography and editing respectively.[89][90] Both would later go onto become a part of his regular crew.[91] While working on Raavan, Santosh noted "any cameraman can hone his skills just working with [Ratnam]" and described Ratnam's films as difficult to film.[91] From his debut project till Thalapathi, Ilaiyaraaja was Ratnam's regular composer.[92] The duo split due to some creative differences after the film. For his next film Roja, he collaborated with debutant A. R. Rahman.[92] He has also worked with other cinematographers such as Rajiv Menon and Ravi K. Chandran while also switching between Sreeram and Santosh Sivan.[93] Starting with Alaipayuthey, Sreekar Prasad has been his regular film editor for all his films till date.[94][95]

Awards and honours[edit]

Ratnam is well recognized outside India with a retrospective of his films held at various film festivals around the world such as Toronto International Film Festival, Pusan International Film Festival, Tokyo Filmex and Birmingham International Film Festival.[52] His films are being screened regularly at many film festivals such as Venice Film Festival, Rotterdam Film Festival, Montreal Film Festival and Palm Springs International Film Festival.[52]

The Government of India honoured Ratnam with Padma Shri in 2002.[96] He has won several National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards, Filmfare Awards South and state awards. Apart from these awards, many of his films have been screened at various film festivals and have won numerous accolades. Geethanjali, directed by him won the Golden Lotus Award for Best Popular Film at the 37th National Film Awards. Other films like Mouna Ragam, Anjali, and Kannathil Muthamittal have won the Best Regional Film awards at the National Film Awards. Two of his films, Roja and Bombay have won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration. The former was also nominated for Best Film category at the 18th Moscow International Film Festival.[97] In 2010, Ratnam was honoured with Jaeger-Lecoultre Glory to the Filmmaker at the 67th Venice International Film Festival.[22][98]

Filmography[edit]

Year Film Director Producer Writer Notes
1983 Pallavi Anu Pallavi Yes Yes Kannada film
Karnataka State Film Award for Best Screenplay
1984 Unaru Yes Malayalam film
1985 Pagal Nilavu Yes Yes
Idaya Kovil Yes Yes
1986 Mouna Ragam Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil
Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Director
1987 Nayagan Yes Yes
1988 Agni Natchathiram Yes Yes
1989 Geethanjali Yes Yes Telugu film
National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment
Nandi Award for Best Story Writer
1990 Sathriyan Yes Yes
Anjali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil
1991 Thalapathi Yes Yes Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Director
1992 Roja Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration
Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Director
Nominated—Golden St. George for Best Film at Moscow International Film Festival
1993 Dasarathan Yes
Gaayam Yes Telugu film
Thiruda Thiruda Yes Yes Yes
1995 Bombay Yes Yes Yes Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie
Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration
Filmfare Award for Best Tamil Director
Special Award at the Political Film Society Awards
In the Spirit of Freedom Award at the Jerusalem Film Festival
Gala Award at the Edinburgh International Film Festival
Indira Yes Yes Distributor Only
Aasai Yes
1997 Iruvar Yes Yes Yes Best Film at Belgrade International Film Festival
Nerrukku Ner Yes
1998 Dil Se.. Yes Yes Yes Hindi film
NETPAC Award (special mention) at Berlin International Film Festival
1999 Taj Mahal Yes
2000 Alaipayuthey Yes Yes Yes
2001 Dumm Dumm Dumm Yes Yes
2002 Five Star Yes Yes
Kannathil Muthamittal Yes Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil
Filmfare Award for Best Director – Tamil
Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Director
Best Film Award at Jerusalem Film Festival
ITFA Best Director Award
Audience Award for Best Feature Film at Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles
Audience Choice Award for Narrative Competition at RiverRun International Film Festival
Best Picture Award at Zimbabwe International Film Festival
Audience Award, Jury Award and a Special Award at Film Fest New Haven
Best International Film at Westchester Film Festival
Saathiya Yes Yes Hindi film
Filmfare Award for Best Screenplay
2004 Yuva Yes Yes Yes Hindi film
Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie
Filmfare Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated—Screen Award for Best Director
Nominated—Screen Award for Best Screenplay
Aaytha Ezhuthu Yes Yes Yes
2007 Guru Yes Yes Yes Hindi film
Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Film
Filmfare Award for Best Director
Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated—Screen Award for Best Director
Nominated—Screen Award for Best Screenplay
2010 Raavan Yes Yes Yes Hindi film
Raavanan Yes Yes Yes Nominated—Vijay Award for Favourite Director
2013 Kadal Yes Yes Yes
2015 O Kadhal Kanmani Yes Yes Yes Released 17 April 2015[99][100]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ MovieBuzz (3 June 2011). "Happy Birthday to Mani sir". Sify. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d Nayar, Parvathi (25 June 2010). "Jewel of Indian cinema". AsiaOne. Singapore Press Holdings. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Corliss, Richard (12 February 2005). "Time 100: Nayakan". Time. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  4. ^ Bal 2004, pp. 339–44.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mani matters!". Sify. Sify Technologies Ltd. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  6. ^ a b N, Sathiya Moorthy. "Film producer GV commits suicide". Rediff Movies. Rediff. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  7. ^ Singh, Vidya (3 November 2011). "Maniratnam, the filmmaker". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Rangan 2014, chpt. Pallavi Anupallavi, Unaru, Pagal Nilavu, Idhayakoil.
  9. ^ "International Film Festival of India 2002, Madras Talkies "Kannathil Muthamittal"". Directorate of Film Festivals. 26 September 2002. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "Mani mantra for B-school". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). 10 September 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  11. ^ S, Shivakumar (10 May 2003). "The seamier side of film financing". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  12. ^ "Film producer G. Srinivasan dead". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 28 May 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  13. ^ India Today 1988, p. 96.
  14. ^ S. Pradhan, Bharathi (31 October 2010). "Star wives with working lives". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  15. ^ Press Trust of India (2 April 2008). "Mani Ratnam’s son a hit at party meet". The Indian Express. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  16. ^ Ramkumar, Krishna (19 September 2009). "Planet plush!". The Times of India. p. 37. Retrieved 23 May 2012. 
  17. ^ "Security cover for Mani Ratnam reviewed". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 January 2003. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  18. ^ a b P. K, Ajith Kumar (27 August 2010). "A life in cinema". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  20. ^ Subramanian, Samanth (2 March 2005). "Mani on Mani". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  21. ^ Srinivasan, Pavithra (9 September 2010). "Pagal Nilavu (1985)". Rediff. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  22. ^ a b c d Bhaskaran, Gautaman (7 September 2010). "Venice honours Mani Ratnam". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c d Srinivasan, Pavithra (9 June 2010). "Nayagan (1987)". Chennai: Rediff.com. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  24. ^ Hemanth (9 November 2010). "Evolution of Dubbed Films in Andhra Pradesh". South Scope. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  25. ^ Nagappan 2011, p. 172.
  26. ^ a b c Chaudhuri 2005, p. 161.
  27. ^ "Nayagan/Dayavan". Rediff. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  28. ^ Babu Jayakumar, G (7 October 2010). "Tragedy brings back memories of Nayagan". The Indian Express. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  29. ^ Tourtellotte, Bob (24 May 2005). "Three Indian films make it to top 100 list". Reuters. Los Angeles: Sify.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  30. ^ India Today 1994, p. 49.
  31. ^ Parameswaran, Prathibha (19 August 2009). "Sridevi calls me sir, says Kamal Hassan". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  32. ^ Kamath, Sudhish (15 July 2005). "Nayagan, Sarkar stand on their own". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Roy, Piyush (27 January 2008). "India’s Oscar drill". The Indian Express. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  34. ^ a b National Film Development Corporation of India 1988, p. 77.
  35. ^ K, Jeshi (18 June 2005). "When a maestro cranks the camera". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  36. ^ "37th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  37. ^ a b "38th National Film Festival, 1991" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Akal Information Systems Ltd. p. 69. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  38. ^ "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 79. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  39. ^ "Rajinikanth's Thalapathi to be remade in Bollywood". Oneindia.in. Greynium Information Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 22 November 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  40. ^ "Rajni's Tamil Top 10". Rediff. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  41. ^ S Thakkar, Mehul (11 November 2011). "Mani Ratnam reunites with Bharat Shah". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  42. ^ "18th Moscow International Film Festival (1993)". MIFF. Retrieved 2013-03-09. 
  43. ^ Chaudhuri 2005, p. 162.
  44. ^ Sen, Raja (18 June 2010). "Raavan is unforgivably boring". Rediff. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  45. ^ Thoraval 2000, p. 339.
  46. ^ Sri (16 July 2009). "Retrospect: Gaayam (1993)". Telugucinema.com. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  47. ^ a b c Chaudhuri 2005, p. 163.
  48. ^ "Previous Political Film Society Award Winners". Political Film Society. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  49. ^ "13th JFF". Jerusalem Film Festival. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  50. ^ British Federation of Film Societies 1994, p. 15.
  51. ^ "A change of guard". Rediff. 3 November 1998. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]