Manihot

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Manihot
Manihot palmata.jpg
Manihot palmata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Crotonoideae
Tribe: Manihoteae
Genus: Manihot
Mill. 1754 not Adans. 1763[1]
Type species
Manihot esculenta
Crantz.[2][3]
Synonyms[4]

Hotnima A.Chev.
Janipha Kunth
Mandioca Link
Manihotoides D.J.Rogers & Appan[1]

Manihot is a genus of [5] in the diverse milkspurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It was described as a genus in 1754.[6][3]

Species of Manihot are monecious trees, shrubs and a few herbs that are native to the Americas, from Arizona in the United States south to Argentina and Uruguay.[4] The best known member of this genus is the widely-cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta).[7]

Manihot species are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera including Endoclita sericeus and Hypercompe hambletoni.

Species[4]
  1. Manihot acuminatissima Müll.Arg. - Goiás, Bahia
  2. Manihot aesculifolia (Kunth) Pohl - Mexico, Central America
  3. Manihot alutacea D.J.Rogers & Appan - Goiás
  4. Manihot angustiloba (Torr.) Müll.Arg. - Mexico, Arizona
  5. Manihot anisophylla (Griseb.) Müll.Arg. - N Argentina
  6. Manihot anomala Pohl - South America
  7. Manihot attenuata Müll.Arg. - Goiás
  8. Manihot auriculata McVaugh - Jalisco, Nayarit
  9. Manihot baccata Allem - Fr Guiana, NE Brazil
  10. Manihot brachyandra Pax & K.Hoffm. - Bahia
  11. Manihot brachyloba Müll.Arg. - Central Amer, Dominican Rep, N South America
  12. Manihot breviloba - Sergipe
  13. Manihot caerulescens Pohl - Brazil, Paraguay
  14. Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll.Arg. - N South America, Trinidad, Curaçao
  15. Manihot catingae Ule - Bahia, Minas Gerais
  16. Manihot caudata Greenm. - N Mexico
  17. Manihot cecropiifolia - Goiás, Distrito Federal
  18. Manihot chlorosticta Standl. & Goldman - Mexico
  19. Manihot compositifolia Allem - Bahia
  20. Manihot condensata D.J.Rogers & Appan - Bolivia
  21. Manihot corymbiflora Pax & K.Hoffm. - Rio de Janeiro
  22. Manihot crassisepala Pax & K.Hoffm. - México State, Morelos, Jalisco
  23. Manihot crotalariiformis Pohl - Minas Gerais
  24. Manihot davisiae Croizat - Arizona, Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa
  25. Manihot diamantinensis Allem - Bahia
  26. Manihot dichotoma Ule - NE Brazil
  27. Manihot divergens Pohl - Goiás, Distrito Federal, Minas Gerais
  28. Manihot epruinosa Pax & K.Hoffm. - Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia
  29. Manihot esculenta Crantz - from Mexico to Brazil
  30. Manihot falcata D.J.Rogers & Appan - Goiás, Distrito Federal
  31. Manihot filamentosa Pittier - NW Venezuela
  32. Manihot flemingiana D.J.Rogers & Appan - Mato Grosso
  33. Manihot foetida (Kunth) Pohl - C + N Mexico
  34. Manihot fortalezensis Nassar, D.G.Ribeiro, Bomfim & P.T.C.Gomes - Ceará
  35. Manihot fruticulosa (Pax) D.J.Rogers & Appan - Brazil
  36. Manihot gabrielensis Allem - Goiás
  37. Manihot gracilis Pohl - Paraguay, Brazil
  38. Manihot grahamii Hook. - S Brazil, N Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay
  39. Manihot guaranitica Chodat & Hassl. - N Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia
  40. Manihot handroana Cruz - Minas Gerais
  41. Manihot hassleriana - Paraguay
  42. Manihot heptaphylla Ule - Bahia
  43. Manihot hilariana Baill. - Minas Gerais
  44. Manihot hunzikeriana Mart.Crov. - Rio Grande do Sul, Misiones
  45. Manihot inflata Müll.Arg. - São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná
  46. Manihot irwinii D.J.Rogers & Appan - Goiás
  47. Manihot jacobinensis Müll.Arg. - Mato Grosso, Bahia
  48. Manihot janiphoides Müll.Arg. - São Paulo, Minas Gerais
  49. Manihot jolyana Cruz - São Paulo
  50. Manihot leptophylla Pax - NW South America
  51. Manihot longepetiolata Pohl - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  52. Manihot maracasensis Ule - Bahia
  53. Manihot marajoara Huber - Pará, Amapá
  54. Manihot mcvaughii V.W.Steinm. - Michoacán
  55. Manihot membranacea Pax & K.Hoffm. - Mato Grosso
  56. Manihot michaelis McVaugh - Colima, Jalisco
  57. Manihot mirabilis Pax - Paraguay
  58. Manihot mossamedensis Taub. - Goiás
  59. Manihot nana Müll.Arg. - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  60. Manihot neusana Nassar - Paraná
  61. Manihot nogueirae Allem - Distrito Federal
  62. Manihot oaxacana D.J.Rogers & Appan - Oaxaca
  63. Manihot obovata J.Jiménez Ram. - Guerrero
  64. Manihot oligantha Pax & K.Hoffm. - Goiás
  65. Manihot orbicularis Pohl - Goiás
  66. Manihot palmata Müll.Arg. - Rio de Janeiro
  67. Manihot pauciflora Brandegee - Puebla, Oaxaca
  68. Manihot paviifolia Pohl - Goiás
  69. Manihot peltata Pohl - Goiás
  70. Manihot pentaphylla Pohl - Brazil, Paraguay
  71. Manihot peruviana Müll.Arg. - Loreto, San Martin
  72. Manihot pilosa Pohl - E Brazil
  73. Manihot pohliana Müll.Arg. - Bahia
  74. Manihot pohlii Wawra - Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro
  75. Manihot populifolia Pax - Paraguay
  76. Manihot pringlei S.Watson - Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro
  77. Manihot procumbens Müll.Arg. - Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraguay
  78. Manihot pruinosa Pohl - Mato Grosso, Goiás
  79. Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax & K.Hoffm. - Ceará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba
  80. Manihot purpureocostata Pohl - Goiás
  81. Manihot pusilla Pohl - Goiás
  82. Manihot quinquefolia Pohl - Bahia
  83. Manihot quinqueloba Pohl - Mato Grosso, Goiás
  84. Manihot quinquepartita Huber ex D.J.Rogers & Appan - Amapá, Pará, Maranhão, Mato Grosso
  85. Manihot reniformis Pohl - Bahia
  86. Manihot reptans Pax - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  87. Manihot rhomboidea Müll.Arg. - Mexico, Central America
  88. Manihot rubricaulis I.M.Johnst. - Mexico
  89. Manihot sagittatopartita Pohl - Bahia, Goiás, Minas Gerais
  90. Manihot salicifolia Pohl - Mato Grosso, Goiás
  91. Manihot sparsifolia Pohl - Goiás
  92. Manihot stipularis Pax - Distrito Federal, Goiás
  93. Manihot stricta Baill. - Peru, Mato Grosso, Goiás
  94. Manihot subspicata Rogers & Appan - Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas
  95. Manihot surinamensis D.J.Rogers & Appan - Venezuela, the 3 Guianas
  96. Manihot tenella Müll.Arg. - São Paulo, Paraguay
  97. Manihot tomatophylla Standl. - Morelos, Jalisco, Michoacán
  98. Manihot tomentosa Pohl - Goiás, Minas Gerais
  99. Manihot triloba (Sessé) McVaugh ex Miranda - Mexico
  100. Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll.Arg. - Brazil, Paraguay
  101. Manihot triphylla Pohl - Distrito Federal, Goiás, Minas Gerais
  102. Manihot tristis Müll.Arg. - Venezuela, the 3 Guianas, N Brazil
  103. Manihot variifolia Pax & K.Hoffm. - Paraguay
  104. Manihot violacea Pohl - Brazil
  105. Manihot walkerae Croizat - Texas, Tamaulipas
  106. Manihot websteri D.J.Rogers & Appan - Puebla, Oaxaca
  107. Manihot weddelliana Baill. - Goiás
  108. Manihot xavantinensis D.J.Rogers & Appan - Mato Grosso
  109. Manihot zehntneri Ule - Bahia
formerly included[4]

moved to Aleurites Cnidoscolus Jatropha

  1. M. curcas - Jatropha curcas
  2. M. diversifolia - Jatropha diversifolia
  3. M. gossypiifolia - Jatropha gossypiifolia
  4. M. herbacea - Cnidoscolus urens
  5. M. moluccana - Aleurites moluccanus
  6. M. multifida - Jatropha multifida
  7. M. spinosissima - Cnidoscolus vitifolius
  8. M. urens - Cnidoscolus urens

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Manihot Mill.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-03-31. Retrieved 2011-05-06. 
  2. ^ lectotype designated by R.A. Howard, Fl. Lesser Antilles 5: 64 (1989)
  3. ^ a b Tropicos, Manihot Mill.
  4. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Rodgers, D.J. & S.A Ganapthi. 1917. Manihot and Manihotaides (Euphorbiaceae). Flora Neotropica, Monograph No. 13.
  6. ^ Miller, Philip. 1754. Gardeners Dictionary...Abridged...fourth edition vol. 2
  7. ^ Second, G; C. Iglesias (2001). "Chapter 11: The State of the Use of Cassava Genetic Diversity and a Proposal to Enhance it". In H. David Cooper, Charlie Spillane. Broadening the Genetic Base of Crop Production. CABI. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-0-85199-411-6. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Manihot at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Manihot at Wikispecies