Manikganj District

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Manikganj
মানিকগঞ্জ
District
Location of Manikganj in Bangladesh
Location of Manikganj in Bangladesh
Coordinates: 23°51′N 90°01′E / 23.85°N 90.01°E / 23.85; 90.01Coordinates: 23°51′N 90°01′E / 23.85°N 90.01°E / 23.85; 90.01
Country  Bangladesh
Division Dhaka Division
Area
 • Total 1,383.66 km2 (534.23 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 1,392,867
 • Density 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Literacy rate
 • Total 26.9%
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
 • Summer (DST) BDST (UTC+7)
Website www.dcmanikganj.gov.bd

Manikganj (Bengali: মানিকগঞ্জ [mɑnɪkˈɡəndʒ]) is a district in central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka Division.

Geography[edit]

Manikganj is a district in Dhaka Division. It comprises an area of 1,383.66 km2 (534.23 sq mi), bounded by Tangail District on the north, Dhaka District on the east, Faridpur and Dhaka districts on the south, the Padma, Jamuna and the districts of Pabna and Rajbari on the west. Annual average temperatures reach a maximum of 36°C and a minimum to 12.7°C with the annual rainfall total being 2,376 mm (93.5 in). The main rivers are the Padma, Jamuna, Dhaleshwari, Ichamati and Kaliganga.

Subdivisions[edit]

Manikganj (Town) consists of 9 wards and 49 mahallas. The area of the town is 20.59 km². Administration Manikganj subdivision was established in 1845 and was turned into a district in 1984. It consists of 1 municipality, 7 upazilas, 65 union parishads, 1357 mouzas, 9 wards, 49 mahallas and 1647 villages. The upazillas are Manikganj Sadar Upazila, Singair Upazila, Shibalaya Upazila, Saturia Upazila, Harirampur Upazila, Ghior Upazila and Daulatpur Upazila.

History[edit]

Manikganj was formerly a subdivision of Dhaka District. It was turned into a district in 1984.

On the April 26, 1989 Manikganj was the site of, what was at the time, the world's worst tornado in terms of loss-of-life. 1,300 people were initially reported as having been killed with 12,000 injured. The towns of Saturia and Manikganj Sadar were leveled and about 80,000 people were made homeless.

Historical events[edit]

  • A decisive battle was fought between the Mughal Army and the combined forces of the Bara Bhuiyans under Musa Khan at Jatrapur and Dakchara on the Ichamati (in present-day Harirampur Upazila). It resulted in the defeat of the Bara Bhuiyans and established the Mughal supremacy over the central Bhati region.
  • In the second half of the nineteenth century indigo uprisings spread over the district. On 12 February 1932, the anti-British revolutionists under Hiralal Mohanta of Manikganj town looted the postal despatch.

War of Liberation[edit]

During the War of Liberation in 1971 a group of Pakistani intruding soldiers on boats while proceeding towards the Singair camp was attacked by the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters on the Nurani-ganga Khal and in the encounter more than three hundred Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters were killed. In a pitched battle between the Pak-army and the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters at Baira under Singair upazila 15 Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters were killed. The Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters killed 41 Pakistani armies by gunshot at village Terasree under Ghior upazila on 22 November. The Pak-soldiers attacked the camp of the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters at Nayabari under Shivalaya upazila in the month of November and after a fight for four hours the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters were compelled of retreat. A battle was fought between the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters and the Pakistani intruding soldiers at village Kagajinagar of sadar upazila on 12 December in which the Pak-soldiers being pressed by guerrilla attack dispersed. In an encounter between the Pakistani army and the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters at Baliartek on 14 December one Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters was captured and Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters Nawsher Molla killed. The Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters Chand Mia was killed in an encounter at village Manra. A battle was fought between the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters and the Pakistani intruding soldiers on 15 December at village Ghazinda in which the Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters Mohammad Aminur Rahman, Chhakkeluddin, Shariful Islam and Rahijuddin were died. During November 1971, at the Northwest corner of Golaidanga village, Balodhara union in Singair upazila, a group of Freedom Fighters attacked the boats carrying the Pakistani intruding soldiers and a terrible battle was occurred on the Nuraniganga Khal (canal). Eighty-two Pak soldiers were killed and 50 others held with injuries in a fierce battle with freedom fighters at Golaidanga village in Singair upazila on October 28. Freedom fighters Lokman Hossain, Zahidur Rahman and Tobarak Hossain Ludu led the operation. More than three hundred Mukti Bahini Freedom Fighters were killed during this battle which is one of the significant liberation fight against Pakistani military in Manikgonj. After this battle, the PAK soldiers burnt 152 houses surrounding villages of the battle place and killed 6 local people who were mostly elderly stayed at home. In the last week of November in 1971, fresh groups of freedom fighters entered different areas of Manikganj and defeated Pakistani troops in a few battles. Finally they declared the then sub-division (now Manikganj district) free on December 13.

Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Saturia Pilot High School compound, Primary Training Institute campus, Tara-ghat, house of Balai Babu; mass grave: by the side of Thana pond; Memorial monument: at a place adjacent to the Manikganj bus-stand, memorial monument at village Terasree in Ghior upazila.

Personalities[edit]

Archaeological heritage[edit]

Baher Paglar Astana, Mahadebpur, Matta Math, Sree Sree Anandamayee Kalibari, Rajani Bhaban and Jhobhat Bhaban, Narayan Sadhu Asram, Sivabari Mandir, Neel-kuthi at Bimile (sadar upazila); Fort at Fordnagar, Baira Neel-kuthi, residence of Datta-Guptas, Ananda Kuthi and Mandir, Senabari and Durga-mandap, Imampara Jami Masjid, tomb of Ibrahim Shah, (Singair upazila); Ekdala Fort, Katasgarh Fort, Fort at Dhaki-jora, Daschira Buddha-vihara and stupa, Navaratna Math, Teota Zamindar Bari, Machain Masjid, tomb of Shah Rustam, Matta Kshitish Lal Sarkar bari Kali Mandir, Tepra Kali Mandir, Sree-bari, Neel-kuthi at Teota (Shivalaya upazila); Baliati Zamindar Palace, Dhankora Zamindar-bari, tomb of Kalu Shah, Gauranga Math (Saturia upazila); Neel-kuthi at village Sreebari Baratia, Panch-thubi Bauddha-vihara (Ghior); Jhitka Lokmania Dargah (Harirampur).kotkandi game mosque Tomb of Hazrat Ibrahim Bogdadi (Paril,Singair), Binodpur Kha Shaheb Zamindar Bari (Binodpur,Singair)

Population[edit]

Manikganj District has a population of 1,274,829; 51.16% male and 48.84% female; the population density is 2582. Among the peasants, landless 23%, marginal peasant 29%, small peasant 25%, intermediate 18% and 5% rich.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Manikganj District
Religion Percent
Islam
  
87%
Hinduism
  
12.41%
Christianity
  
0.03%
Buddhism
  
0.03%
other religions
  
0.53%

The district of Manikganj consists 3575 mosques, 160 temples, 10 churches, five Buddhist temples and a pagoda.[citation needed]

Literacy and education[edit]

Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy is 26.9% (male 33.7% and female 20.1%). Educational institutions: college 24, high school 130, junior high school 7, primary training institute 1, vocational training institute 1, madrasa 87, music school 1, tol 1, primary school 588, NGO operated school 290, community school 2, adult education centre 225, satellite school 10. Old and noted institutions: Manikganj Govt. High School (1884), Government Debendra College (1942), Government Bhiku Memorial College (1966)- Daragram, Charmasul Munshi Bande Ali High School, Charmastul, Daulatpur Manikgonj(1969), Manikganj Government Girl's College (1972), Khondkar Nurul Hossain Law Academy, Manikganj Technical School & College 1984, Katigram High School 1972, Dhankora Girish Institution (1917), Dhankora Govt. Primary School (1915), Surendra Kumar Government Girl's High School (1938), Primary Training Institute, Baliati Iswar Chandra High School (1919), Ghior Durga Narayan High School(1929), Jaimandap High School (1921), Teota Academy (1891), Hijulia Govt. Primary School (estd 1935, Nationalised:1975), Golaidanga High School (estd 1967) Bashir Uddin Foundation High School Uttar Jamsha (Estd 1995) Barangail Gopal Chandra high school (1924)

Newspapers and periodicals[edit]

Newspapers and periodicals (weekly) Karcha, Alor Bani, Muktir Vahana, Manikganjer Khabar, Ababil; (defunct) Paril Bartabaha (1280 BS), Weekly Manikganj (1972), Weekly Budhbar, Weekly Pataka, Navagram (1978), Chalaman (1980), Muktir Dak (1980), Manikganj Barta (1981), Maitree International (1979), Jagarani (1965), Ritu-rang-man (1967), Abahaman (1978), Bitapa (1981), Dishari, Aloklata, Shiuli, Durbachal, Dawal, Ghazikhali, Chhayapalli.

Occupations[edit]

Main occupations Agriculture 37.96%, fishing 1.87%, agricultural labourer 22.25%, wage labourer 3.92%, industry 1.15%, commerce 11.97%, construction 1.03%, service 8.43%. transport 1.76% and others 9.66%.

Agriculture[edit]

Land use Cultivable land 107897 hectares; fallow land 16193 hectares; single crop 25%, double crop 59.4% and triple crop land 15.6%. Cultivable land under irrigation 40%. Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is Tk 11,642 per 0.01 hectare. Main crops Paddy, jute, sugarcane, wheat, tobacco, mustard, sesame, potato, ground nut, onion, chilli, garlic, khesari, lentil, leguminous pulse, vegetables.

Extinct and nearly extinct crops Kaun, China, Linseed, Barley, Arahar, Maize, Sweet Potato. Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, safeda, banana, papaya, guava, coconut, palm, kamranga. Fisheries, dairies and poultries Fishery 660, livestock and dairy 741, poultry 1375, hatchery 16.

Communication facilities[edit]

Communication facilities Roads: pucca 264 km, semi pucca 52 km, mud road 2268 km, waterways 118-nautical-mile (219 km).

Traditional transport Horse, horse carriage, push van, palanquin, bullock cart, buffalo cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.

Village of Helachia communication is not develop because local government don't care on the Village. But It is a beautiful Village of manikgonj District.

Manufactories[edit]

Manufactories Heavy industry 5, medium industry 15, small industry 945.

Cottage industries Weaving 1107, silk work 23, brass metal work 39, conch work 19, packaging 54, bidi factory 9, welding 294, candle and agar factory 51, molasses production 54, book binding 46, wood work 399, bamboo work 1264, goldsmith 460, blacksmith 382, potteries 953, tailoring 1042, miscellaneous cottage industries 97.

Haat, Bazar and Mela[edit]

There are total 166 Haats and Bazars. Besides 54 fairs (Mela) are held in Manikgonj. Manikgonj bijoy Mela,Rowth Jattra Mela (Katigram) Poush mela (Atigram), Bathaimuri Mela, Baher Paglar Mela, Sadhur Mela ( South Jamsha,Singair)are favorite all over Manikgonj.

Main exports[edit]

Main exports Tobacco, cotton and silk fabrics, molasses, paddy, jute, wheat, potato, milk, poultry, metal products, ground nut, oil seed, electric pole, gas cylinder.

NGO activities[edit]

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are brac, proshika, asa, grameen bank, Prism Bangladesh, Sheds, NBCL, Gana Kalyan Trust, Shapla Neer, VON, Sonali Sangstha, Manab Unnayan, TURD, VIRK, ARAB, ITCL, iccdr, b, SPUS, Usha, DRRS, CDC, ccdb, Samamana, Dak, OSP, SEEDS,ASA (Association for social advancement),Desh Multipurpose (Total NGOs 354).

Health centres[edit]

Health centres Sadar hospital 1, Manikganj Diabetic Samiti (Hospital) 1, maternity and child care centre 2, upazila health complex 6, family planning centre 43, satellite clinic 27, community clinic 30, NGO operated health centre 2, private clinic 5.

Places of interest[edit]

Baliati Zamindar Bari(Saturia), the tomb of Shah Rustam, forts at Fordnagar and DhakiJora, Imampara Jami Masjid, Teota Rajbari, Navaratna temple (Teota), Baliati Zamindar Bari, Ekdala fort, Machain Mosque, Dhankora Zamindar bari, Katasgarh fort, Shib Bari, Matta Kshitish Lal Sarkar bari kali mandir and the Ibrahim Shah tomb.

Among the educational institutions Government Devendra College, Khan Bahadur Awlad Hossain Khan Degree College,Manikganj Technical School &College,Manikganj, Manikganj Model High School, Manikganj Government High School, Surendrakumar Government Girl High School, Khan Bahadur Awlad Hossain Khan High School Katigram High School,Katigram are prominent.

Goliadanga (coordinates: 23°45'28"N 90°5'57"E) is a small village located at Balodhara Union under Singainr Upozila in Manikgonj District. Golaidanga is a historic place and well known for the liberation war took place on the Nurani-ganga river in 1971 between Mukti Bhahini (Bangladeshi Freedom Fighters) and Pakistani military. Goliadanga is very prominent in education, art and culture compared to the surrounding local villages. Golidanga High School established by the local scholar and founding headmaster Md. Mohar Ali in 1967. Under the strong guidance of the pioneer headmaster Md Mohar Ali, Golaidanga High School produces many scholars in every field of study and the school is continuously speeding the light of education in the surrounding areas. In 2010 Goliadanga High School celebrates its first reunion function.