The Manila massacre involved the killings of at least 100,000 Filipino civilians in the city of Manila, Philippines by the Japanese troops in the Battle of Manila during World War II. The Manila massacre was one of several major war crimes committed by the Imperial Japanese Army, as judged by the postwar military tribunal. The Japanese commanding general Tomoyuki Yamashita and his chief of staff Akira Mutō involved in the massacre were tried and executed.
To preserve as large a force as possible to continue defensive operations in rural Luzon of the Philippines, General Tomoyuki Yamashita had insisted on a complete withdrawal of Japanese troops from Manila in January, 1945. However, this was not realized because of objections from Imperial Japan headquarters. 10,000 Japanese marines under Vice Admiral Iwabuchi Sanji remained in Manila along with 4000 Japanese army stragglers. In the Battle of Manila, the United States Army and the Philippine Commonwealth Army advanced into the city of Manila to drive out the Japanese. During lulls in the battle for control of the city, Japanese troops took out their anger and frustration on the innocent civilians in the city; various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll of the Manila Massacre was at least 100,000 to 120,000 including children and babies brutally killed by the Japanese, tallying to around 10% of the population of the city.
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- Taylor, Lawrence. A Trial of Generals. Icarus Press, South Bend IN, 1981
- Quezon, Taylor (7 February 2007). "The Warsaw of Asia: How Manila Was Flattened in WWII". Arab News. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- WW2DB: The Philippines Campaign
- The Battling Bastards of Bataan
- The Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century by Matthew White