Manipur

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Manipur
ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔ
State
Official seal of Manipur
Seal
Location of Manipur in India
Location of Manipur in India
Map of Manipur
Map of Manipur
Coordinates (Imphal): 24°49′01″N 93°57′00″E / 24.817°N 93.95°E / 24.817; 93.95Coordinates: 24°49′01″N 93°57′00″E / 24.817°N 93.95°E / 24.817; 93.95
Country  India
Established 21 January 1972
Capital Imphal
Largest city Imphal
Districts 9
Government
 • Governor Vinod Duggal
 • Chief Minister Okram Ibobi Singh (INC)
 • Legislature Unicameral (60 seats)
 • High Court Manipur High Court
Area
 • Total 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)
Area rank 23rd
Population (2011)
 • Total 2,721,756
 • Rank 22nd
 • Density 120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-MN
HDI Increase 0.707 (medium)
HDI rank 5th (2005)
Literacy 79.85% (2011 Census)
Official languages Meeteilon
Website www.manipur.gov.in

Manipur (Kangleipak/ Sanaaleibaak/ Meitrabaak) (Pron: /məɳɪpʊr/) About this sound pronunciation  maṇipur) is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. Its people include the Meetei, Pangal (Muslims), Bishnupriya Manipuri's, Naga and Kuki who speak different languages of branches of the Tibeto-Burman family. The state is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma lies to the east. It covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi).

The Meetei,[1] who live primarily in the state's valley region, form the primary ethnic group (35% of the total population). They live on 10% of the land area of the state, while the tribal people who constitute 33% of the state population live on 90% of its geographical area. The term Meetei now refers to five social groups – the Meetei Sanamahi (believe in Meetei culture and God), Meetei Christians, Meetei Hindus (believe in both Meetei and Hindu gods), the Meetei Brahmins (Manipuri Brahmin locally called "Bamons") and the Meetei Muslims (called Miah Meetei or Pangal). The Bamons and the Pangals originally came from mainland India, they are of Indo-Aryan group. All of them have Meeteilon as their mother-tongue. Their language, Meeteilon (also known as Manipuri), is the lingua franca in the state and is one of the languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Meeteis also have their own unique script known as "Meetei Mayek".

Contents

Etymology[edit]

Manipur had been known throughout the ages as Kangleipak or Meeteileipak[2] as well as by more than twenty other names.[3] Sanamahi Laikan wrote that Manipur's new nomenclature was adopted in the eighteenth century during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba. According to Sakok Lamlen, the area had different names according to the era. During the Hayachak period, it was known as Mayai Koiren poirei namthak saronpung or Tilli Koktong Ahanba, then in the Khunungchak period as Meera Pongthoklam. During the Langbachak era, it became Tilli Koktong Leikoiren and finally Muwapalli in the Konnachak epoch.[4]

Neighbouring cultures had differing names for Manipur and its people. The Shan or Pong called the area Cassay, the Burmese Kathe, and the Assamese Meklee. In the first treaty between the British East India Company and Meidingu Chingthangkhomba (Bhagyachandra) signed in 1762, the kingdom was recorded as Meckley. Bhagyachandra and his successors issued coins engraved with "Manipureshwar," or "lord of Manipur" and the name Meckley was discarded. Later on, the Sanskritisation work, Dharani Samhita (1825–34) popularised the legends of the origin of Manipur's name.[5]

History[edit]

The Kangla Sha, the state emblem
Kangla Gate, the west entrance to the Kangla Fort

Manipur before being a part of India, was one of the many hundreds of kingdoms of the south and southeast Asia. The history of Manipur dates back from nearly 3000 B.C. Its first King (locally called as "Ningthou") who ruled from Kangla at Imphal in 33 AD was Meidingu Nongdaa Lairen Paakhangba.

Manipur also has its own traditional way of living, which is also one of the oldest of the region. Sanamahism was followed by the Meetei community and some related communities of Manipur. Later, it got influenced by Hinduism. Then in the 19th century with the arrival of the British, many tribal people were converted to Christianity.

Manipur came under British rule as a princely state (kangleipak). During World War II, Manipur was the scene of many fierce battles between the Japanese and the British Indian forces. The Japanese were beaten back before they could enter Imphal, which was one of the turning points of the war. After the war, the Manipur Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja as the Executive Head. In 1949, Maharaja Budhachandra was summoned to Shillong, capital of the Indian province of Meghalaya where he signed a Treaty of Accession merging the kingdom into India. Thereafter the legislative assembly was dissolved and Manipur became part of the Republic of India in October, 1949.[6] It was made a Union Territory in 1956[7] and a fully-fledged State in 1972.[8] M.K. Priyobarta became the first Chief Minister (1972–74) of the State of Manipur.

A separatist movement has been active in Manipur since 1964 with the establishment of the United National Liberation Front; several groups have used violence to achieve their goal of a sovereign Manipur. Beside this, there have been demands by the tribal people to divide the present state into two or three Indian states. Foreign travellers to Manipur must gain special permission to enter, as it is considered a "sensitive area" due to its political troubles and geographical location.[9]

Geography and climate[edit]

Singda-The place where the Highest Mud Dam in India is located
Barak River in its upper course in Manipur

Manipur is one of the seven states of Northeast India. The state is bound by Nagaland in the north, Mizoram in the south, Assam in the west, and by the borders of the country Burma in the east as well as in the south. The state capital of Manipur is Imphal. The state lies at a latitude of 23°83’N – 25°68’N and a longitude of 93°03’E – 94°78’E. The total area covered by the state is 22,347 km². The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 700 square miles (2,000 km2) surrounded by blue mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres above the sea level.[10] The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges prevent the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley and bar cyclonic storms originating from the Bay of Bengal.

Four major river basins are in Manipur State: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north.[11] The total water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget.[12] (By way of comparison, India receives 400 Mham (million hectare meters) of rain annually.[13]) The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by a number of tributaries such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north and forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak lake.[10] The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive in nature and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang and Leimatak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.

Physiographically, Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions – an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but are also conspicuous with regard to various flora and fauna. The valley region would have been a monotonous, featureless plain but for a number of hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km². The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Iso Peak near Mao Songsong.

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay, and are quite varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The top soil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.[14] The climate of the State is salubrious with approximate average annual rainfall varying from 933 mm at Imphal to 2593 mm at Tamenglong. The temperature ranges from sub-zero to 36 °C.

Districts[edit]

Manipur has currently nine administrative districts.

District Area Population Headquarters
Bishnupur 496 237,399 Bishnupur
Churachandpur 4570 274,143 Tuibuang
Chandel 3313 144,182 Chandel
Imphal East 709 456,113 Porompat
Imphal West 519 517,992 Lamphelpat
Senapati 3271 193,744 Senapati
Tamenglong 4391 140,651 Tamenglong
Thoubal 514 422,168 Thoubal
Ukhrul 4544 183,998 Ukhrul

Tourism[edit]

Due to its natural beauty Manipur is known as the 'Switzerland of India'.[15]

Manipur has a rich culture featuring martial arts, dance, theatre and sculpture. Its greenery with the moderate climate make it attractive to tourists. The seasonal Shirui Lily plant at Ukhrul (district), Dzukou valley at Senapati, Sangai (Brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lake are some of the rare things found in Manipur. Polo, which can be called a royal game, also originated from Manipur. Some of the main tourist attractions are:

Imphal (Capital)[edit]

A view of Imphal City
Ima Market, Imphal

The city is inhabited by the Meitei, Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) and other tribes, and among these the Meitei population is the largest. Besides these main communities there is a large migrant population from Bihar, UP, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, etc. and it is just 7 km (4.3 mi) from the airport of Manipur (Tulihal Airport). The district is divided into East and West and the recently constructed sports complex (Khuman Lampak Sports Complex) for the 1997 National Games is also one of the attractions consisting of everything from a cyclists' velodrome to the main stadium. Most of the imported goods are sold here at its Paona Bazar, Gam-bir Sing Shopping Complex, Ningthibi Collections and Leima Plaza.

Shree Govindajee Temple[edit]

This temple in Manipur diplomatically adjoins the palaces of the former rulers of the then kingdom; it is dull in design with gold domes, a paved court and a large, raised congregation hall. The Principal Deity in the centre has other Deities of Radha Govinda, Balaram and Krishna and Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra on either side of it. It is covered with gold and brass ornaments.

Keibul Lamjao National Park[edit]

Sangai at Keibul Lamjao National Park

Keibul Lamjao National Park, 48 km (30 mi) away from Imphal is an abode of, rare and endangered species of Brow Antlered deer (Scientific name: Rucervus eldii eldii). This ecosystem is home to 17 rare species of mammals. The greenery of the place and the moderate temperature makes a pleasant experience to visit.[10] It is the only floating national park of the world.

Loktak Lake and Sendra Island[edit]

48 km (30 mi) from Imphal, lies the largest fresh water lake in the North East India, the Loktak Lake, a veritable miniature inland sea. From the Tourist Bungalow set atop Sendra Island, visitors get a bird's eye view of life on the Lake-small islands that are actually floating weed on which live the Lake people, the shimmering blue waters of the Lake, labyrinthine boat routes and colourful water plants. The Sendra Tourist Home with an attached cafeteria in the middle of the lake is an ideal tourist spot. The special treat to watch are the floating islands popularly known as Phumdi which is made out of the tangle of watery weeds and other plants. For a nominal fee, people can hire small boats and see the way of life on these floating islands. The wetland is swampy and is favourable for a number of species to thrive on. It is in the district of Bishnupur. Etymology of Loktak is "Lok = stream and tak= the end" (End of the Streams).[10] Sendra park and resort is opening on the top of Sendra hills and attracting the tourist.

View of Loktak
Sendra resort

Dzükou Valley[edit]

The Dzükou Valley is a sight to behold. It is located in Senapati district bordering with Kohima. This valley is well known for its natural beauty, seasonal flowers and the overall flora and fauna. Dzükou derives its meaning from the Angami/Mao word which translates to "Cold Water" referring to the ice cold stream that flows through the valley. It is situated at an altitude of 2438 m above sea level, behind the Japfü Peak located in Nagaland. The rare Dzükou lily is found only in this valley

Gambhir Singh shopping complex[edit]

Gambhir Singh shopping complex is flooded with the latest foreign fashion accessories and tattoo shops.

Lamka (Churachandpur District)[edit]

Lamka (Churachandpur District) is the second largest town in Manipur dominated by the Tribals people. It is located 62 km south of the capital city Imphal. The town is a thriving business centre. The main attraction of the district is the Mata {Khuga} Dam, which is some 7 km south of the town itself.

Moreh[edit]

Moreh is a booming border town in the Indo-Burmese border. It is inhabited mainly by the Kukis and some other ethnic communities like the Meiteis, Nepalis, Sikhs, Bengalis, Biharis, Rajasthanis, Tamils, etc. Moreh is a little bit of Myanmar in its place. Approximately 110 kilometers from Imphal, this border town is located on the lands of Tamu. It is an important commercial hub in the Northeast.

One can enjoy the advantages of the rupee at the Myanmar Shopping Complex. It is famous for an assortment of Thai, Chinese and Burmese electronic gadgets, clothes, carpets and home decor range. There is a thriving trade between India and Burma through this town. With the legal trade there also exists a thriving illegal trade, mostly opium, going on through this town.

Other places to visit[edit]

INA War Museum, Moirang
Paona Bazar, Imphal
  • Oinam Hill
  • Purul
  • Willong
  • Paona Bazar|Paona Keithel
  • Singda
  • Korea Town
Leimaram waterfall

Khonghampat Orchidarium[edit]

7 km (4.3 mi) from Imphal, on National Highway 39 (India) is the Central Orchidarium, which covers 200 acres (0.81 km2) and houses over 110 rare varieties of orchids, which include almost a dozen endemic species. The peak blooming season is March – April.

Manipur Zoological Gardens[edit]

Manipur Zoo

6 km (3.7 mi) to the west of Imphal, at the foot of the pine growing hillocks at Iroisemba on the Imphal-Kangchup Road are the Zoological Gardens. Not to be missed is an opportunity to see the graceful brow antlered deer (Sangai), one of the rarest species in the world, in sylvan surroundings.

Kaina[edit]

It is a hillock about 921 metres above sea level and a sacred place of the Manipuri Hindus. So goes the story that one night, Shri Govindajee appeared in the dream of his devotee, Shri Jai Singh Maharaja and asked the saintly king to install in a temple, an image of Shri Govindajee. It was to be carved out of a jack fruit tree, which was then growing at Kaina. The scenery in this place is charming and the hill shrubs and natural surroundings give the place a religious atmosphere. It is only 29 km (18 mi) from Imphal.

Khongjom[edit]

Khongjom war memorial

36 km (22 mi) on the Indo-Burmese road, a war broke out between Manipur and British India in 1891. It is here that Major General Paona Brajabashi, one of the great warriors of Manipur proved his valour against the superior force of the invading British Army in 1891. A War Memorial has been constructed on the top of the Kheba Hill. 23 April is celebrated as Khongjom Day every year and is a state holiday.

Tengnoupal[edit]

69 km (43 mi) from Imphal. The highest point on the Indo-Burmese Road, from here, you can have a full view of the valley of Burma( now Myanmar). Tengnoupal is the eastern General Headquarters of the Mate Tribe Council,(MTC), Manipur, India, the only apex tribal level organisation of the MATE TRIBE and THE MATE PEOPLE, in Manipur, (India). The Mate Tribe was recently recognised by the Government of India as one of the 34 recognised Scheduled Tribes of Manipur state. Shri Houlim Thangkholen Mate, Present Chief of Tengnoupal (Houlim-Mate) village, son of (late) Pu. Houlim Jamkhothang Mate, the ex-Chief of Tengnoupal (Houlim-Mate) village. Tengnoupal (Houlim-Mate) village is inhabited by the Houlim-Mate clan of the Langsun-sub-tribe of Mate tribe as Chief-clan and other Mate sub-tribes, sub-clans and Lineages viz, 1. Langsun-Mate, 2.Chethang-Mate,3.Sheilai-Mate,4.Chingthat-Mate,5.Limson-Mate, 6.Limsong-Mate,7.Sonlim-Mate @(Vansat), 8.Phuthou-Mate and 9. Thathil-Hilvel-Mate, the youngest clan of Mate Tribe as Chief's tribe,clans, sub-clans, Lineages and other clans belonging to Thadou Tribe (Mangvung- Haokip), Any-Kuki tribe (Hanghal, Touthang, Lupho-Lupheng (Hangmi Tribe (an unrecognised tribe, though they have unsuccessfully tried for their tribe recognition as ST of Manipur since 1970s) and also the Baite clan of the Vaiphei tribe. Tengnoupal (Mate) village is the colourful cultural centre of the Mate tribe and other inhabiting tribes viz, Any-Kuki tribe and other tribes. Tengnoupal was the most important war theatre of the Second World War.

  • SOURCES: 1. The Gazette of India, 2012, 2. The Mate Tribe of Manipur, by Shri Langsun D. Mate, IRS, Omson Publication, New Delhi(2000),3. The Ethnographic Profile of The Mates of Manipur by Dr. W. Nabachandra Singh, published by the Government of Manipur, Imphal (2000) and Mate Literature Society (MLS): Mate Laibul, published with the permission and forwarding of the Director, Art & Culture, Govt. of Manipur, Imphal.

Ukhrul[edit]

83 km (52 mi) to the east of Imphal, this district headquarters of Manipur East is the highest hill station of the state. A centre of the colourful warrior tribe Tangkhul Nagas, it is well developed and famous for its peculiar type of land-lily, the Shirui, grown in the Shirui hills. The Shirui Hills and Khangkhui Lime Caves are interesting places for excursions.

Manipur State Museum[edit]

State Museum of Manipur

The interesting museum near the Polo Ground in the heart of Imphal has a fairly good display of Manipur's Tribal heritage and a collection of portraits of Manipur's former rulers.

Maibam Lotpa Ching[edit]

This is a hillock about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Imphal on the Tiddim Road. It is a thrilling spot where a fierce battle took place between the British and the Japanese forces in World War II and is regarded as a holy place. There is also a monument in memory of the Japanese Martyrs who sacrificed their lives in this fierce battle.

Willong Khullen & Yangkhullen[edit]

Stone Erections of Willong Khullen

Willong Khullen is a village located some 37 km (23 mi) from National Highway 39 (India) (Maram) on the Maram-Peren Road. It is home to a stone erection very similar to Stonehenge. Some of the tallest stones are seven meters tall and one meter thick. It is believed that the stones are uncountable. Many have tried, but there is a spirit who confuses midway.

The village of Yangkhullen is built on a steep slope on the hills.

Leimaram Waterfall[edit]

A popular tourist and picnic spot in Sadu Chiru is known as Leimram waterfall (near Ichum Keirap village) 27 km (17 mi) from Imphal, in the Sadar hill area, Senapati district. Hundreds of tourists flock to this place to enjoy the view of this waterfall and the natural beauty surrounding it. Consisting of three falls with the first fall about thirty meters high. To the side of it, a newly built park or garden, 'Agape Park', is situated. It is owned and managed by Kamlun Telien of Ichum Keirap.

Entry to Manipur[edit]

Until recently, entry to Manipur was controlled by the central government, for both foreigners and citizens of India. Foreigners entering Manipur prior to 1 January 2011 (including foreign citizens born in Manipur) were required to possess a Restricted Area Permit. Since 1 January 2011 foreign citizens are no longer required to have a Protected Areas Permit (PAP) and this relaxation has been extended every year.

The state government as per directives from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India on 9 November,[when?] relaxed existing guidelines of the ministry's circular No. 249 under letter no. 15011/7/95-F.I dated 29 June 1998 and delegated powers to issue Protected Area Permits (PAP):

  • To visiting foreign tourists in a group of two or more persons with a recognised travel agent who would act as an escort of the group up to a maximum period of 30 days.
  • Foreigners married to Indian nationals belonging to Manipur can visit the state on tourist visa for a maximum period of 90 days.
  • IO/OCI card holders hailing from Manipur, and visiting foreign nationals engaged in development/welfare projects would continue to require prior permission of the MHA; after examining their proposal in consultation with security agencies, MHA may consider issue of PAP to such visits of foreign nationals initially for a period up to 180 days.

The official order of the state Home department also mentioned the permitted areas for foreigners to visit in the state including Loktak Lake, Imphal, INA Memorial Moirang, Keibul Lamjao Deer Sanctuary, Waithou Lake, Imphal-Bishnupur-Phubala-Moirang-Sendra-Keibul-Lamjao-Imphal, Imphal-Moirang Lake-Keibul Lamjao-Churachandpur-Khuga(Tuitha) River-Imphal, Imphal-Litan-Ukhrul-Shiroy-Sangshak-Imphal, Imphal-Thoubal- Waithou Lake- Khongjom-Kakching- Thongjao-Waikhong-Sugunu-Imphal, Imphal-Khonghampat-Kanglatombi-Kangpokpi-Senapati-Karong-Mao gate-Imphal and Imphal Noneh-Khongsang-Nungba-Jiribam-Imphal.

The official order further mentioned thatnwhereas until now foreigners were required to travel by air from Kolkata to Imphal, henceforth foreign tourists will also be allowed to enter by road along NH-39 and NH-53. This circuit would be Dimapur-Kohima-Imphal-Jiribam-Silchar, the official order mentioned.

Hotels[edit]

  • The Classic Grande, 4 star hotel
  • Classic Hotel, 3 star hotel
  • Hotel Imphal, 3 star
  • Anand Continental Hotel,
  • Hotel Yaiphaba,
  • Excellency Hotel,
  • Hotel Krishtina,
  • Nirmala Hotel,
  • Hotel Bheigo,
  • Tampha Hotel are among the best hotels in Imphal.[15]

Vegetation[edit]

Flowers lining up the Foothills
A tree standing alone amidst the wilderness

The natural vegetation occupies an area of about 14,365 km² which is nearly 64% of the total geographical area of the state. The vegetation consists of a large variety of plants ranging from short and tall grasses, reeds and bamboos to trees of various species. Broadly, there are four types of forests:

  • Tropical Semi-evergreen.
  • Dry Temperate Forest
  • Sub-Tropical Pine
  • Tropical Moist Deciduous

Teak, pine, oak, uningthou, leihao, bamboo, cane, etc. are important forest resources growing in plenty. In addition, rubber, tea, coffee, orange, and cardamom are grown in hill areas. Rice is a staple food for Manipuris. Rice and cash crops make up the main vegetation cover in the valley.

Climate[edit]

The Dzuko Valley lying on the border of Manipur and Nagaland has a temperate climate
Monsoon clouds in Manipur

The climate of Manipur is largely influenced by the topography of this hilly region which defines the geography of Manipur. Lying 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is wedged between hills on all sides. This northeastern corner of India enjoys a generally amiable climate, though the winters can be a little chilly. The maximum temperature in the summer months is 32 degrees C. In winter the temperature often falls below zero, bringing frost. Snow sometimes falls in some hilly regions due to the Western Disturbance. The coldest month is January, and the warmest July. The ideal time for tourism in the state, in terms of climate, is from October to February, when the weather remains bright and sunny without the sun being too hot.

The state is drenched in rains from May until mid-October. It receives an average annual rainfall of 1467.5 mm. However, the rain distribution varies from 933 mm in Imphal to 2593 mm in Tamenglong. The precipitation ranges from light drizzle to heavy downpour. The normal rainfall of Manipur enriches the soil and helps in agricultural processes and irrigation. The South Westerly Monsoon picks up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and heads toward Manipur, hits the eastern Himalaya ranges and produces a massive amount of rain in the state.

Population[edit]

Manipur has a population of 2,721,756. Of this total, 58.9% live in the valley and the remaining 41.1% in the hilly regions. The hills are inhabited mainly by the Naga and Kuki, and smaller tribal communities and the valley mainly by the Meitei, Bamons (Manipuri Brahmin) and Pangal. Some Bishnupriya Manipuri, Naga, Paite and Kuki settlements are also found in the valley region. Racially, Manipuri people are unique; they have features similar to South east Asian.[17]

The distribution of area, population and density, literacy rate, etc. as per the 2001 Census provisional figures are as below:

[The figures given here are not showing - some layout instruction is needed.]

Language[edit]

The official languages are Manipuri (Meeteilon) and English.

Meetei language (Meeteilon)[edit]

Meeteilon, a Tibeto-Burman language, the official language of Manipur, has a long history. It is the main language of communication among the different tribes and people inhabiting Manipur. English is slowly gaining ground as a common language of communication, especially in the cities. Hindi is spoken primarily by migrants (mayaang) from northern India.

Meeteilon has been recognised as the official Manipuri language by the Indian Union and has been included since 1992 in the list of scheduled languages (included in the 8th schedule by the 71st amendment of the Constitution in 1992). Meitei is taught as a subject up to postgraduate level (PhD) in Indian universities, apart from being a medium of instruction up to undergraduate level in Manipur.

Manipuri script[edit]

Meetei Mayek is a script, commonly referred as Mayek, which has been used since ancient times. The origins of the Manipuri alphabet, or Meetei Mayek as it is known in Manipuri, are unknown. Many historical documents were destroyed at the beginning of the 18th century during the reign of King Pamheiba. Some believe the alphabet has been used for almost 4,000 years.

Between 1709 and the middle of the 20th century, the Manipuri language was written with the Bengali alphabet. During the 1940s and 50s, Manipuri scholars began campaigning to bring back the Manipuri alphabet. In 1976 at a writers conference, all the scholars agreed on a new version of the alphabet; it contains several additional letters to represent sounds not present in the language when the script was first developed. The current Manipuri script is a reconstruction of the ancient Manipuri script. Since the early 1980s, the Manipuri alphabet has been taught in schools in Manipur. The Manipuri language is written in Meetei Mayek alphabet more widely than the Bengali alphabet in modern times.

Languages of hill people[edit]

There are 29 different dialects spoken in Manipur. The six main hill dialects recognised by Government of Manipur for the medium of instruction and examination up to class XII are:

  1. Zou, dialect of the zou/zomi people.
  2. Poula, dialect of the Poumai Naga
  3. Thadou, dialect of Thadou people, the second language in the state after Meiteilon during the Colonial Period.
  4. Vaiphei, dialect of Vaiphei people
  5. Tangkhul, dialect of Tangkhul people
  6. Paite, dialect of Paite people
  7. Hmar, dialect of Hmar people
  8. Mao, dialect of Mao people
  9. Lianglad, dialect of Liangmai Naga People
  10. Rongmei, dialect of Rongmei people
  11. Maring, dialect of Maring Naga/Maring, Maring Khoibu, Maring Narum-saibol people
  12. Maram, dialect of Maram Naga
  13. Gangte, dialect of Gangte people and
  14. Mate, Dialect of the Mate-Taithul people

SOURCES: Mate Literature Society (MLS), the Mate Tribe Council (MTC) a Govt. of Manipur registered society Council and Laibul (Mate Primer by MLS (2001), Tuibuang, Maniput (India).

Transportation[edit]

Tulihal Airport, Changangei, Imphal, the only airport of Manipur, connects directly with Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati, Silchar and Agartala. It has been upgraded as an International airport. National Highway NH-39 links Manipur with the rest of the country through the railway stations at Dimapur in Nagaland at a distance of 215 km (134 mi) from Imphal. National Highway 53 (India) connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is 269 km (167 mi) away from Imphal. The road network of Manipur, with a length of 7,170 km (4,460 mi) connects all the important towns and distant villages.

On 9 April 2010, Union Minister of India, Shashi Tharoor announced that the central government is considering a rail link from Manipur to Vietnam.[18]

The proposed Trans-Asian Railway Network (TARN), if constructed, will pass through Manipur, connecting India to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Religion[edit]

A Manipuri woman performing religious rituals
Sanamahi temple at Kangla
Pakhangba
Religion in Manipur[19]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
46.01%
Christianity
  
34.04%
Islam
  
8.81%
Others
  
10.86%

Meeteism and Sanamahi[edit]


The people of Manipur follow several faiths and religions which can be traced to its history. Sanamahism is an ancient indigenous religion. Sanamahi worship is concentrated around the Sun God/Sanamahi. The early Manipuri worshipped a Supreme deity, Lainingthou Soralel, and followed their ancestors. Their ancestor worship and animism was based on Umang Lai – that is, ethnic governing deities worshipped in sacred groves. Some of the gods (Lais) whom Manipuri worship are Atiya Sidaba, Pakhangba, Sanamahi, Leimaren, Oknarel, Panganba, Thangjing, Marjing, Wangbaren, and Koubru. The religious life of the people, even when they adopted non-mainstream Hinduism, retained many characteristics inherited from their prehistoric ancestors. The essentials of this religion remain recognisable to the present day.[20] but did not win widespread adoption until relatively recent history.

Hinduism[edit]

Hinduism became a dominant force in Manipur in the eighteenth century when the king, Garib Niwas (1708–48), declared Vaishnavism as the official State religion. This was the Vaishnavism of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the great Bhakti preacher of Bengal, which stressed Krishna bhakti.

Christianity[edit]

St.Joseph's Cathedral at Imphal

Christianity was brought by missionaries to Manipur in the 19th century. Christianity brought a marked change towards the civilization of the hill people. In the 20th century, a few Christian schools were established, which introduced Western-type education. Respected schools in Manipur are Little Flower School in Imphal, Don Bosco High School in Imphal, St. Joseph's Convent, and Nirmalabas High School, which are all run by Catholic priests and nuns.[citation needed] About 34% of the population of Manipur identify as Christian, and the majority of them are from the hills.

Islam[edit]

Muslims number 190,939, or about 8.32% of the state population as per 2001 census. The influence of religious preceptors, Shaikh Shah Jalal Yemeni who came to Sylhet in 1303 AD and Azan Fakir Baghdadi in 1690 AD in Assam, is felt among Manipuri Muslims. There are Arab, Turani, Bengali and Mughal or Chaghtai Turk sections among Manipuri Muslims.

Manipuri Muslims have been known as Pangal.

Culture[edit]

Culture of Manipur[edit]

The Manipuri have a rich culture. Theatre has been part of the Laiharaoba festivals since time immemorial. Theatre in Manipur is divided into religious and secular, based on texts. The former is the adaptation of religious epics or some episodes from them, performed mainly in the sacred sphere such as temples. Within this, Gauralila (the story of the childhood days of Caitanya Mahaprabhu), Sanjenba (an episode from the play between Krishna and his cows and his Gopis), and Udukhol (an episode from Krishna's childhood days) can be incorporated. They are seasonal performances commanding spiritual devotions among the audience.

Secular theatre is mostly confined to themes that are not religious; it is performed in the secular or profane spheres. Within these are Shumang lila and Phampak lila (stage drama). Shumang lila is very popular. Etymologically Shumang lila is the combination of "Shumang" (courtyard) and "Lila" (play or performance). It is performed in an area of 13/13 ft in the centre of any open space, in a very simple style without a raised stage, set design, or heavy props such as curtains, background scenery, visual effects, etc. It uses one table and two chairs, kept on one side of the performance space. Its claim as the "theatre of the masses" is underlined by the way it is performed in the middle of an audience that surrounds it, leaving one passage as both entrance and exit.

Shumang lila is performed by a touring band of 12–13 professional artists on invitation basis. These troupes may be exclusively female (Nupi Shumang Lila) or exclusively male (Nupa Shumang lila). In each case, one sex plays all parts. Historically Shumang lila was based in Phagee lila (farce), performed during the reign of Ningthourel Chandrakirti (1850–1886), though traces of it were already present in the episode of Tangkhul-Nurabi Loutaba of Laiharaoba festival. Then it was succeeded by such plays as Ramlila, Sabha parba, Kabul lila, etc. But the real Shumang lila with various rasas (sentiments) was ushered in with the epic play Harishchandra (1918). Then it was followed by others such as Meiraba charan, Thok lila, etc. One of the most successful of this era was Moirang parba, an epic play based on the legendary lovers Khamba and Thoibi of Moirang.

On the other hand, the world of Phampak lila (stage drama) performed in the proscenium theatre is similar, in form, to the Western theatrical model and Indian Natyasastra model though its contents are indigenous. The so-called modern theatre descended on Manipuri theatre culture with the performance of Pravas Milan (1902) under the enthusiastic patronage of Sir Churchand Maharaj (1891–1941). The pace of theatrical movement was geared up with the institution of various groups such as Manipur Dramatic Union (MDU) (1930), Arian Theatre (1935), Chitrangada Natya Mandir (1936), Society Theatre (1937), Rupmahal (1942), Cosmopolitan Dramatic Union (1968), and the Chorus Repertory Theatre of Ratan Thiyam (1976). These groups started experimenting with various types of plays apart from historical and pauranic ones. Today Manipuri theatre is well respected because of various excellent productions shown in various parts of the country and abroad. Manipuri plays, both Shumang lila and stage lila, have been a regular feature in the annual festival of the National School of Drama, New Delhi.

Iskcon led by Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami started a network of schools in Northeastern India where more than 4000 students receive education centred on Vaishnava spiritual values. In 1989 he founded "Ranganiketan Manipuri Cultural Arts Troupe" which has approximately 600 performances at over 300 venues in over 15 countries. Ranganiketan (literally "House of Colorful Arts") is a group of more than twenty dancers, musicians, singers, martial artists, choreographers and craft artisans. Some of them are gurus in their own respective fields of art.Their performances both at home and abroad, received acclaim and awards. While at home in Manipur, they often perform at various religious and cultural functions. They are not paid a salary, but live from donations that are offered to them for their artistic contributions.

Manipuri dance (Ras Lila)[edit]

Rasa Lila in Manipuri dance style

A classical form of Manipuri dance based and inspired by the theme of Lord Krishna and his beloved Radha's love story and the devotion of the Gopis (companions) toward Lord Krishna. This graceful and slow movement of the dance makes it one of the most acclaimed classical dances of India. The costume is elegant, as there are nicely embroidered clothes that give lustre to the beauty of the art. This dance is very exciting dance. Iskcon led by Bhaktisvarupa Damodar Swami has put Manipuri Rasa Lila in Global map with its performance in many prestigious event like many World Conference on science and religion, United Religions Initiative conference, Kumbha Mela and many more.

Chorus Repertory Theater[edit]

The Shrine – the main theatre

The auditorium of the theatre is situated on the outskirts of Imphal and the campus stretches for about 2 acres (8,100 m2). It has housing and working quarters to accommodate a self-sufficiency of life. The theatre association has churned out internationally acclaimed plays like Chakravyuha and Uttarpriyadashi. Its 25 years of existence in theatre had disciplined its performers to a world of excellence. Chakravyuha taken from the Mahabharat epic had won Fringe Firsts Award, 1987 at the Edinburgh International Theater Festival. Chakravyuha deals with the story of Abhimanyu (son of Arjun) of his last battle and approaching death whereas Uttarpriyadashi is an 80-minute exposition of Emperor Ashoka's redemption.

Indigenous games[edit]

The indigenous games of Manipur can be classified as Outdoor and Indoor.

Outdoor[edit]

  1. Mukna
  2. Mukna Kangjei (Khong kangjei)
  3. Sagol Kangjei (Polo)
  4. Yubi lakpi (Coconut Rugby)
  5. Oo-Laobi
  6. Hiyang-Tannaba
  7. Arambai Hunba

Mukna (wrestling)[edit]

Mukna is a popular sport in Manipur

Mukna is a popular form of wrestling. It has fundamental rules agreed by all Mukna organisations and with Royal Consent. Traditionally the game is controlled and organised by Pana Loisang of the Ruler of the state and village organisations. There are four, Panas-Ahallup, Naharup, Khabam and Laipham, who control all fixtures and times for the games and the State Meet in which the Final is invariably graced by the ruler, who presents the title of Jatra (Champion) for the year along with reward of Thum Nama (A full bag of salt) and Ngabong Phi (hand made cloth of cotton yarn), exemption of all state duties and Ningham Samjin dress (traditional). The game has two categories (1) Takhatnabi (League), (2) Naitom (Knockout). The young talents work and play all the year round with dedication for the title of 'Jatra' (Champion) of Mukna of Manipur.

Mukna Kangjei (Khong Kangjei)[edit]

Mukna Kangjei is a game which combines the arts of mukna (wrestling) and Kangjei (Cane Stick) to play the ball made of seasoned bamboo roots. The origin of the game goes back well to Aniconic worship. People celebrate Lai Haraoba (festival to please traditional deities) and include this item to mark the end of the festival. It was believed that Khagemba Ningthou (King, 1597–1652) patronised this game. In later generations, the game is organised in the villages. Presently, associations are formed in Panas with rules and regulations of Mukna Kangjei. The game is played by two teams of seven players each. All players hold a natural cane stick with root, gradually increasing the size of the root, to the length of about seven inches to play the ball made out of seasoned bamboo roots of approximately a diameter of four inches (102 mm). The players put on Mukna Kisi Phijet (dress of cloth knot) to secure protection and holding each other. At present a short pant is added below Kisi[disambiguation needed] (like cloth belt with knots). The game starts by throwing the ball in front of the panjenbas (leaders) of the two teams standing face to face to each other on the line. If possible they can pick up the ball and run. The process of running and obstructing each other to put the ball on the goal line of the ground is allowed, Pun onba (change of side) and end of the game is given by the command of the umpire. The rules for the game are known as Kangjei lon. It has improved a lot and was demonstrated during the Fifth National Games 1999 at Imphal.

Sagol Kangjei (Polo)[edit]

Imphal Polo Ground

To Manipuris according to Chaitharol-Kumbaba, a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who ruled Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (33 AD) introduced Sagol Kangjei (Khong kangjei|Kangjei on horse back). Further regular playing of this game commenced in 1605 during the reign of King Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game. The game requires perfect control of the pony, the stick and the ball with proficiency of riding. The sense of 'fair Play' was the main guided factor of this game. This is played between two teams of Seven players a side. During the time of the late Sir Chandrakirti Singh, K.C.S.I Maharaja of Manipur introduced regular game at Mapal Kangjeibung (now near Tikendrajit Park) on the ground of Sana-Lamjei (length 160 and 80 width in dimension) being one Lamjei equal to 6 ft (1.8 m) The game can be played in smaller ground also if occasion demands. Earlier, there was no definite rules for foul in traditional Sagol Kangjei. Manipur has produced players of outstanding calibres like Jubaraj Bir Tikendraji (Senapati of Manipur Army) as legendary player described by Mrs. Grimwood (1887–90). After 1891, Manipur produced outstanding players like (L) Ojha Tombi and Shyamjai Sharma who never had the chance to play in international tournament. From the history it is an established fact and accepted that Manipur is the birthplace of Polo of the World.

Yubi lakpi[edit]

Yubi lakpi is a traditional game played in Manipur, India, using a coconut, which has some notable similarities to rugby. Despite these similarities, the name is not related to the game of rugby or Rugby School in England, it is in fact of Manipuri origin, and means literally "coconut snatching".

Oolaobi[edit]

Oolaobi (Woo-Laobi) is an outdoor game mainly played by females. Meitei mythology believes that UmangLai Heloi-Taret (seven deities–seven fairies) played this game on the Courtyard of the temple of Umang Lai Lairembi. The number of participants is not fixed but are divided into two groups (size as per agreement). Players are divided as into Raiders (Attackers) or Defenders (Avoiders).

The Raiders say "oo" without stopping as long as they can continue and try to touch the Avoiders. If a Raider touches an Avoider is out, the Avoider is out. This process goes on till Avoiders are out or surrender. If a raider fails to say "oo" or is out of breath, the Raider is out. Points are counted on the elimination of Raiders/Defenders.

If Raiders are tired they declare for change and a time limit is decided on. The principles of Oolaobi are very similar to Kabaddi in India. The ground (court) is not marked; normally the open space in the premises of the house or temple is used for the game. Oolaobi is very popular with girls and a source of talent in Kabaddi.

Hiyang Tannaba[edit]

Hiyang Tannaba in progress

Hiyang Tannaba (Boat Race) : Hiyang tannaba (Hi Yangba Tannaba) is a traditional function of the Panas. This is held during the month of November. This was introduced during the time of Ningthourel Khunjaoba, the second son of King Khagemba, who dug the Kangla Moat around the Palace to make it impregnable in the year of 1660 after he ascended the throne in 1652.In the traditional function two boats "Tanahi" (Race Boat) are detailed for leaders known as "Tengmai Lappa". In each boat forty Hiroys (Boatsman) operate the boat. The boat which reaches the finishing line is the winner and all boatsman raise their (Now) oars high in the air as a sign of reaching the finishing line first and thus the winner of the race is declared. The leader pays his respect to the deity and the King of Manipur.

Arambai Hunba[edit]

People of Manipur are very fond of riding horses specially those who are in the village near the breeding areas. Since the ponies are easily available, the young boys get the chance of riding ponies without saddle on horse back. Sometimes they ride horse using a rope in place of regular bridle throwing branches of small trees in place of Arambai. This practice helped the Manipur Arambai force as a martial art which was very much required during the advance and withdrawal of forces. This art was very popular as an indigenous game of the youth of Manipur. This game is displayed even now, during the festival "Kwak Jatra" after Durga Puja.

Apart from these games, some outdoor games, which are played by children, are in a position of extinction. The games like Khutlokpi, Phibul Thomba, Chaphu Thugaibi etc. are very popular game in Cambodia. Such games are played especially during the Khmer New Year.[21]

Indoor Indigenous Games[edit]

Kang[edit]

Kang game

Kang is played by both male and female Meities of Manipur. Manipuris believe Kang is a game played by deity " Panthoibi". It is also believed that Manipuris began to play this game well before Vaishnavism came to Manipur. It is culturally a fine game of Manipur specially of Meiteis. It is played under a shed of building on an earth ground (court) smoothly levelled to suit the course of the 'Kang' the target on the court. It is well marked for the respective positions of the players of both to hit the target on the court. It has rules and regulations formed by the associations to suit the occasions of the games either for tournaments or Friendly. The dignitaries of the Palace, even Queen and King also participated on social functions. In olden days 'Kang' was played during summer, starting from Cheiraoba (Manipur New Year) to Kang Chingba. Presently the game is played in several tournaments throughout the year, organised by the Associations. Rules and regulations have been modified to suit the improved process of the game.

Festivals[edit]

The various festivals of Manipur are Lui-ngai-ni Ningol Chakouba, Yaoshang, Ramjan ID, Kut, Gan-ngai, Chumpha, Christmas, Cheiraoba, Kang and Heikru Hidongba. Most of these festivals are usually celebrated on the basis of lunar calendar. Almost every festival celebrated in other states is observed here and it makes Manipur a mini metropolis.

Ningol Chakouba (November)[edit]

A social festival of the Meiteis and many communities of Manipur where the married women (Ningol) are invited (Chakouba-literally calling to a meal; for dinner or lunch) to a feast at their parental house along with their children. Besides the feast, gifts are given to the women/invitees and to their children. It is the festival that binds and revives the family relations between the girls married away and the parental family. Nowadays, other communities have also started celebrating this kind of a family-bonding festival. It is held every year on the 2nd lunar day of Heyangei (mostly during the month of November. Sometimes it falls in October).

"Ningol" can mean a family's woman or a girl child and is not necessarily married.

Yaoshang (February/March)[edit]

Yaoshang is one of the colourful and biggest festival of Manipur now it is mixed up with holi festival. The actual name of Yaoshang is "Yawol Shang" in remembrance of Manipuri god "Pakhangba" play often in a small hut. It is celebrated for five days starting from the full moon of "Lamta tha" the last month of Manipuri month (February/March). At the first day of Yaoshang "Yawol Shang" will make and burn just after the sunset with a spiritual function in every "Leikai" that is village or sub villages that have their names that is called "Yawol Shang Mei Thaaba", and just after burned "Yawol Shang" the children beg for some moneys in every house that is called "Nakatheng". In the second and third days girls goes to their relatives for their "nakatheng" and block roads with ropes for some moneys. In the fourth and fifth days boys starting to pour or splash water one another etc.. Another feature of this premiere festival is the Thabal Chongba (Dancing in the Moonlight). The boys from various places will come to the site of the festival and dance with the girls by holding on to their hands and moving in circles.

Christmas (December)[edit]

The Hill dwellers consisting of various tribes (Kuki, Naga, Hmar, Paite and other Zomi etc.)in Manipur are Christians and celebrate Christmas for two days with prayers, reading of gospels, eating, singing of hymns, lectures on Christ, sports etc. It is usually observed on 24 December and 25. The Nagas are the second largest people in terms of population next to the Meitei people. Few of them living in the plain area but most of them living in the hill area from generation to generation. Nowadays, one can find a small but rapidly expanding Meitei Christian population both in the urban and rural areas.

Kut (Post Harvest festival) (November)[edit]

A post harvest festival predominantly celebrated by Kuki-Chin-Zomi tribes in Manipur has become one of the leading festivals of the state. Kut is not restricted to a particular community or tribe but the whole state populace participates in merriment. On 1 November of every year the state declared holiday for Kut celebration. The festival is marked by various cultural events such as traditional dances, folk dances, songs, sports and the most popular Miss Kut contest. It is a festival of peace and thanksgiving to the Almighty for the harvests.

Gaan-Ngai[edit]

Gaan-Ngai is the greatest festival of the Zeliangrong people. Its a 5-day long festival and is usually performed on the 13th day of the Meitei month of Wakching as per the Meitei Calendar of the lunar year.

Ramzan Id-ul-Fitr[edit]

The Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) observed this festival in the very spirits of joy and festivities as in other Muslim world. During this month of Ramazan (Ramadan), Pangals practice denial by taking a fast, abstaining from eating and drinking, from pre-dawn till sunset and offer prayers for all. After the thirtieth day of Ramadan, when the new moon is visible they break fast which is also popularly known as Id-Ul-Fitr. They offer prayers at the mosques, have delicious dishes, exchange greetings and call on the friends and relatives. Ramzan is the ninth month of the Hijri year. Children playing crackers, balloons, toy-guns with friends and going from one house to another house asking for money to buy sweets and toys for Id in the name of "Id ki Paisa" from the elders is a common tradition. Married women go to their maternal homes in the evening along with their families which strengthen family bonds and evokes love.

Id-ul-Adha[edit]

This is the second most important festival of the Pangals in Manipur. Like any other places where the followers of the Islam offer sacrifices in the name of God (Allah) and celebrate throughout the day, here in Manipur too the Pangals celebrate this festival with happiness, joy and in a total festive mood. Here having delicious dishes with family, friends, relatives, etc. and sharing joys and happiness with neighbours in the locality are some of the most memorable parts of the festival. Friends and family members visit their relatives' places.

Cheiraoba (Sajibugi Nongma Panba), March/April)[edit]

Cheiraoching Kaba

Cheiraoba (Chei=stick;raoba (derived from laoba= announce)) is the new year of Manipur. It is observed on the first lunar day of the lunar month Sajibu (March/April) and so it is also popularly known as Sajibu Cheiraoba. In olden days, where proper knowledge of time keeping was not there in every houses of Manipur, a King's horse-man announced the beginning of the new year with a stick on hand. And hence the name "Cheiraoba".

People of Manipur clean and decorate their houses and make a sumptuous variety of dishes to feast upon after offering food to the deity on this day. After the feast, as a part of the rituals, people climb the "CHEIRAOCHING" located in Chingmeirong or the nearest hill tops; in the belief that it would excel them to greater heights in their worldly life.

Security[edit]

AFSPA[edit]

Manipur is an area that bind by The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958 - AFSPA - under Indian Forces, for more than 50 years. The formulated provisions of the Act grant extraordinary powers to the Indian armed forces in the “disturbed areas” where it is applicable. The Act has been at the heart of concerns about human rights violations in the region, such as arbitrary killings, torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and enforced disappearances. Its continued application has led to numerous protests, notably the longstanding hunger strike by Irom Sharmila Chanu.

Separatist insurgency[edit]

A separatist insurgency began in 1964, although momentum to a more violent phase did not occur until 1978.[22] The Separatists demand a sovereign state separate from the Union of India, a claimed lack of development, plundering of local resources, and a general discontent is part of their argument.[22][23][23] The international Human Rights Watch, argues that human rights violations by Indian Security Forces have only fuelled the insurgency.[24][24] It adds that the Indian Army have at times acted with impunity as anti-terrorism laws in the state make prosecution of human rights violators difficult.[17][25][26][27]

There are currently 34 groups, including non-violent ones, that demand independence from India.[22] In 1999, some of these groups coalesced into an alliance organization called the "Manipur People's Liberation Front." Of these, the three most prominent are the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), Peoples Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), and PLA of Manipur. The UNLF is estimated to have 2500 active militants, the PREPAK with 1500, and PLA with 3000.[22] The Indian news organization, Rediff, wrote in 2004:

As of today, Manipur is the worst case scenario in the north-east as far as militancy is concerned. Apart from the fact that there are more militant groups in the state than anywhere else – at least seven prominent groups operate in Manipur – the rivalries between these outfits often leads to greater violence.[28]

The Kuki insurgent groups want a separate state for the Kukis to be carved out from the present state of Manipur. The Kuki insurgent groups are under two umbrella organisation, Kuki National Organisation (KNO) and United Peoples Forum.[29]

The Zomi Revolutionary Army is a nationalist/separatist group dedicated to the defense of Zomis and the reunification of ethnic Zomi people in Burma (Chin State), Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tracts), and northeast India (Manipur and Mizoram). It aims to unite all Zomi people under one governing unit, known as a Zogam, meaning "land of the Zomi" under the Indian Union

The situation is further complicated because insurgent groups are not united in the same cause. The Nagas wish to annexe part of Manipur and merge with a greater Nagaland or Nagalim, which is in conflict with Meitei insurgent demands for the integrity of their vision of an independent state.[22] There were many tensions between the different tribes and have witnessed numerous clashes between Naga and Kukis, Meiteis and Muslims.

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

1. All India Radio, Imphal, Kangla channel(On AM).
2. All India Radio, Imphal, Sangai channel (On FM).
3. All India Radio, Akashvani Churachandpur(On FM)

Cinema[edit]

Motion Picture or Cinema was first introduced in Manipur in 1920. The first Motion Picture theatres in the state were established in Imphal after the Second World War.
Filmmaking in Manipur was pioneered by Shree Govindajee Film Company (SGFC) founded between 1946 and 1947.
MAINU PEMCHA (1948) was the result of the first attempt at making films by the Manipuris.

The first full fledged feature film MATAM-GI MANIPUR was screened on the 9th of April, 1972 at Usha Cinema, Friends Talkies in Imphal and Azad cinema in Kakching.
With the establishment of Film Society in 1966, Imphal Cine Club in 1979 and Manipur Film Development Council (MFDC) in 1980, Manipuri Cinema got the required momentum and made an indelible mark both at the National and International level.

Best Feature Film in Manipuri[edit]

The National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Manipuri is one of the National Film Awards given by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and Directorate of Film Festivals, India. It was instituted in 1972 and awarded at 20th National Film Awards and lately awarded at 60th National Film Awards in 2012. Per Constitution of India, Manipuri language is among the languages specified in the Schedule VIII of the Constitution.

List of films, showing the year (award ceremony), producer(s), director(s) and citation
Year Film(s) Producer(s) Director(s) Citation
1972
(20th)
Matamgi Manipur Karam Manmohan Singh Deb Kumar Bose  –
1981
(29th)
Imagi Ningtham K. Ibohal Sharma Aribam Syam Sharma
1984
(31st)
Sanakeithel Th. Doren M. A. Singh
1991
(38th)
Ishanou[30] Aribam Syam Sharma Aribam Syam Sharma
1993
(41st)
Sambal Wangma Sobita Devi K. Ibohal
1994
(42nd)
Mayophy Gee Macha[31] Thouyangba and Thoungamba Oken Amakcham
1995
(43rd)
Sanabi[32] NFDC Aribam Syam Sharma
2000
(48th)
Chatledo Eidee Makhonmani Mongsaba Makhonmani Mongsaba
2011
(59th)
Phijigee Mani Takhelchangbam Ongbi and Medha Sharmi Oinam Gautam Singh
2012
(60th)
Leipaklei Aribam Syam Sharma Aribam Syam Sharma

Telecommunications[edit]

Television[edit]

1. Doordarshan, DD Imphal.

Cable Tv Network[edit]

Economy[edit]

Market in Imphal

Macro-economic trends[edit]

This is a chart of trends of gross state domestic product of Manipur at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in ten millions of Indian Rupees.[33]

Period Gross State Domestic Product (in Rupees, Crores***)
1999–2000 3260
2000–2001 3112
2001–2002 3369
2002–2003 3506
2003–2004 3979
2004–2005 4568
2005–2006 5066
2006–2007 5403
2007–2008 5848
2008–2009 6344

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://intercontinentalcry.org/peoples/meetei/
  2. ^ Laininghan Naoria Phulo, Meetei Haubham Wari (The Origin History of Meeteis), 1934.
  3. ^ Naorem Sanajaoba, Maipur Past and Present, Mittal Publication, Delhi, 2005
  4. ^ Ningthoujongjam Khelchandra, History of Ancient Manipuri Literature, Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, 1969
  5. ^ Gangmumei Kabui, History of Manipur, National Publishing House, Delhi, 1991.
  6. ^ http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/manipur/documents/papers/manipur_merger_agreement_1949.htm
  7. ^ http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend7.htm
  8. ^ http://indiacode.nic.in/acts-in-pdf/392012.pdf
  9. ^ [1], Manipur
  10. ^ a b c d Fate of Loktak Lake
  11. ^ Haokip, Shri Ngamthang (2007) "Basine Delineation Map of Manipur" Profile on State of Environment Report of Manipur, 2006–07 Ministry of Environment and Forests, Manipur, p. 4
  12. ^ Government of Manipur. "Irrigation And Water Management". Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  13. ^ Centre for Science and Environment (India). "The Arithmetic of Water in India". Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  14. ^ Director of Commerce and Industries, Manipur. "Soil and Climate of Manipur". Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  15. ^ a b Manipur - a slice of Switzerland in India - Times Of India. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (2013-07-22). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  16. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  17. ^ a b Datta, Tanya (8 August 2007). "India's 'forgotten' war". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Rail link from Manipur to Vietnam on cards: Tharoor – Times Of India". The Times of India. 
  19. ^ "Census of India – Religious Composition". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  20. ^ macks nigombam. "A Brief history of the Meiteis of Manipur". Themanipurpage.tripod.com. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  21. ^ Singh, Atom Sunil; Borderless Connectivity on Indigenous Games between Cambodia and Manipur, The Sangai Express, 4 June 2008.
  22. ^ a b c d e chandru. "MANIPUR- in a strange whirlpool of Cross-Current Insurgency". Southasiaanalysis.org. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  23. ^ a b "Insurgency in Manipur :: KanglaOnline ~ Your Gateway". Kanglaonline.com. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  24. ^ a b "India: Army Killings Fuel Insurgency in Manipur | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  25. ^ ibid
  26. ^ Manipur, The Hindu, 30 August 2009
  27. ^ "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  28. ^ "'Insurgency is biggest business in northeast'". Rediff.com. 4 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  29. ^ http://www.kukination.net
  30. ^ "38th National Film Awards (PDF)". Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  31. ^ "42nd National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  32. ^ "43rd National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved March 6, 2012. 
  33. ^ Statement: Gross State Domestic Product at current pricesGovernment of India, Ministry of Statistics retrieved: 16 December 2009

Further Reading[edit]

External links[edit]