Manjakani or "Oak galls" comes from oak trees indigenous to Asia Minor and Persia. They are produced when the leaves of the oak tree (Quercus infectoria) are penetrated by stinging wasps. The spontaneous chemical reaction caused by the penetration stimulates the leaves to produce a roundish hard ball called an oak gall.
- Basri DF, Fan SH. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2005;37:26-9