List of manned spacecraft

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Manned spacecraft)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of manned spacecraft types, including space stations, sorted by nation and series in chronological order. Canceled programs are listed at the end.

Comparison[edit]

Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation
Scaled comparison of manned spacecraft, including names, manufacturers, and dates of operation

Current manned spacecraft[edit]

Soyuz-TMA spacecraft
Shenzhou spacecraft

Orbital[edit]

Russian[edit]

  • Soyuz (1967–present) 2 or 3 person Earth orbital;[1] fourth and fifth generations continued operation by Russian Federation...

Chinese[edit]

  • Shenzhou (2003–present) 3 person Earth orbital craft

Space stations[edit]

International Space Station
Main article: Space station

Former manned spacecraft[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Soviet/Russian[edit]

Apollo 17 spacecraft
  • Vostok (1961–1963) single-person Earth orbital craft[2]
  • Voskhod (1964–1965) 2 or 3 person Vostok derivative[3]
  • TKS (1970s; never flew manned) crew / supply shuttle for Almaz station[citation needed] (used only as additional modules for orbiting stations Salyut 6 and 7)
  • Buran (1988; never flew manned) russian reusable Space Shuttle, similar to the american one

American[edit]

Space stations[edit]

Suborbital[edit]

Proposed or in development[edit]

Orbital[edit]

Orion ground test article
Dragon spacecraft during an uncrewed cargo mission to the ISS

Russian[edit]

American[edit]

European[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Indian[edit]

Iranian[edit]

British[edit]

  • Skylon (unpiloted reusable spaceplane with possible Passenger Module, engine in development)

Manx[edit]

Suborbital[edit]

SpaceShipTwo with mothership in hangar

Russian[edit]

American[edit]

Canadian[edit]

  • DreamSpace Group's XF1 (suborbital, proposed)[13]

Romanian[edit]

  • Stabilo (suborbital, in development)
  • Orizont (suborbital, in development)

Danish[edit]

French[edit]

British[edit]

Argentine[edit]

AATE VESA (Spanish for Argentine Suborbital Space Vehicle) "Gauchito"[citation needed]

Uganda[edit]

African Space Research Program (Ugandian Suborbital Space Vehicle) "African Skyhawk" (in development), "Dynacraft Spaceship" (project)[citation needed]

Cancelled[edit]

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[edit]

Joint NASA / United States Air Force[edit]

Joint NASA / European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

  • X-38 (canceled 1999) lifting body crew-rescue vehicle for ISS

Soviet space program[edit]

  • Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda[14] (1962-1968; military researching ship)
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 (1967–1970) part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar flyby program[citation needed]
  • Soyuz L3 spacecraft (late 1960s to early 1970s); part of the abandoned Soviet manned lunar landing program (The LOK would carry two cosmonauts into orbit around the Moon, acting as "mother" spacecraft for the LK Lander, which would land one member of the crew to the surface)[citation needed]
  • Spiral-EPOS (also known as EPOS – Russian acronym for Experimental Passenger Orbital Aircraft – canceled 1976)[15]
  • Shuttle Buran (1976-1988) canceled after one unmanned orbital flight[16]
  • Strelec (Archer; 1979 - 1991) universal military 3 person spaceship - tank, which was created within the project of cosmical complex Sapfir (Sapphire, project canceled)[17]
  • Zarya (project canceled 1989)
  • MAKS (project canceled 1991)

Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA)[edit]

  • Kliper (government funding canceled 2006)

European Space Agency (ESA)[edit]

Space stations[edit]

China National Space Administration (CNSA)[edit]

UK[edit]

Japan[edit]

National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)[edit]

Other Japan[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gatland, pp.148-165
  2. ^ Gatland, pp.109-115
  3. ^ Gatland, pp.131-113
  4. ^ Gatland, pp.148, 151-165
  5. ^ Gatland, pp.166-185, 266-275
  6. ^ Gatland, pp.190, 278-280
  7. ^ Gatland, pp.191, 207, 283, 284
  8. ^ Gatland, pp.229-246
  9. ^ Long, Tony (2007-07-19). "July 19, 1963: Cracking the 100-Kilometer-High Barrier ... in a Plane". Advance Publications. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ a b c d Ferster, Warren (2011-04-18). "NASA Announces CCDev 2 Awards". Imaginova Corp. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "printer friendly page ATV evolution: Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV)". European Space Agency. 2010-03-35. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  13. ^ CBC News http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2010/11/12/spaceflight-x-prize-feeney-da-vinci.html#ixzz15AikHdWo |url= missing title (help). 
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ [3]
  16. ^ [4]
  17. ^ [5]

References[edit]