Mannose

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Mannose
Mannose structure.svg
D-Mannopyranose
DL-Mannose.svg
Fischer projections
Identifiers
CAS number 31103-86-3 YesY
PubChem 18950
UNII PHA4727WTP N
MeSH Mannose
ChEMBL CHEMBL469448 N
Properties
Molecular formula C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.16 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Mannose is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates. Mannose is a C-2 epimer of glucose. Mannose is important in human metabolism, especially in the glycosylation of certain proteins. Several congenital disorders of glycosylation are associated with mutations in enzymes involved in mannose metabolism.[1]

Structure[edit]

Two of the cyclic mannose isomers possess a pyranose (six-membered) ring, while the other two possess a furanose (five-membered) ring.

D-Mannose isomers
Haworth projections
Alpha-D-Mannofuranose.svg
α-D-Mannofuranose
<1 %
Beta-D-Mannofuranose.svg
β-D-Mannofuranose
<1 %
Alpha-D-Mannopyranose.svg
α-D-Mannopyranose
67 %
Beta-D-Mannopyranose.svg
β-D-Mannopyranose
33 %

Metabolism[edit]

Metabolism of common monosaccharides and related reactions

While much of the mannose used in glycosylation is believed to be derived from glucose, in cultured hepatoma (cancerous cells from the liver) cells, most of the mannose for glycoprotein biosynthesis comes from extracellular mannose, not glucose.[2] Many of the glycoproteins produced in the liver are secreted into the bloodstream, so dietary mannose is distributed throughout the body. [3]

Mannose is present in numerous glycoconjugates including N-linked glycosylation of proteins. C-mannosylation is also abundant and can be found in collagen-like regions.

The digestion of many polysaccharides and glycoproteins yields mannose which is phosphorylated by hexokinase to generate mannose-6-phosphate. Mannose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-6-phosphate, by the enzyme phosphomannose isomerase, and then enters the glycolytic pathway or is converted to glucose-6-phosphate by the gluconeogenic pathway of hepatocytes.

Biotechnology[edit]

Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be subject to mannose addition in patterns different from those used by mammalian cells.[4] This difference in recombinant proteins from those normally produced in mammalian organisms may influence the effectiveness of vaccines.

Formation[edit]

Mannose can be formed by the oxidation of mannitol.

It can also be formed from glucose in the Lobry-de Bruyn-van Ekenstein transformation.

Etymology[edit]

The root of both "mannose" and "mannitol" is manna, which the Bible records as the food supplied to the Israelites during their journey in the region of Sinai. Several trees and shrubs can produce a substance called manna, such as the "manna tree" (Fraxinus ornus) from whose secretions mannitol was originally isolated.

Configuration[edit]

Mannose differs from glucose by inversion of the C-2 chiral center. Mannose displays a ^4C_1 pucker in the solution ring form.

This apparently simple change leads to the drastically different biochemistry of the two hexoses, as it does the remaining six aldohexoses.

Mannose PTS Permease[edit]

Mannose XYZ permease Complex Diagram: Entry of PEP which donates a high energy phosphate that gets passed through the transporter system and eventually assist in the entry of mannose (in this example otherwise it would any hexose sugar) and results in the formation of mannose-6-phosphate.
Video illustration of the MANXYZ sugar transporter complex transferring the high energy phosphate for PEP to the other subunits of the complex

The PEP-dependent sugar transporting phosphotransferase system transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its sugar substrates. Mannose XYZ permease is a member of the family, with this distinct method being used by bacteria for sugar uptake particularly exogenous hexoses in the case of Mannose XYZ in order to release the phosphate esters into the cell cytoplasm in preparation for metabolism primarily through the route of glycolysis.[5] The MANXYZ transporter complex is also involved in infection of E. Coli by bacteriophage Lambda, with subunit ManX and ManY being sufficient for proper Lambda phage infection.[6] MANXYZ possesses four domains in three polypeptide chains; ManX, ManY, and ManZ. The ManX subunit forms a homodimer that is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. ManX contains two domains IIA and IIB linked by a hinge peptide with each domain containing a phosphorylation site and phosphoryl transfer occurs between both subunits.[7] ManX can be membrane bound or non-membrane bound.[6] The MANY and MANZ subunits are hydrophobic integral membrane proteins with six and one transmembrane alpha helical spanner(s).[8] The phosphoryl group of PEP is transferred to the imported sugar via E1 (Enzyme 1), HPr (Histidine Protein) phosphate carrier and then to the MANX, MANY, and MANZ subunits of the MANXYZ transportation complex which phosphorylate the entering hexose sugar creating a hexose-6-phosphate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freeze, H. H.; Sharma, V. (2010). "Metabolic manipulation of glycosylation disorders in humans and animal models". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 21 (6): 655–662. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2010.03.011. PMC 2917643. PMID 20363348.  edit
  2. ^ Alton, G.; Hasilik, M.; Niehues, R.; Panneerselvam, K.; Etchison, J. R.; Fana, F.; Freeze, H. H. (1998). "Direct utilization of mannose for mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis". Glycobiology 8 (3): 285–295. doi:10.1093/glycob/8.3.285. PMID 9451038.  edit
  3. ^ Davis, J. A.; Freeze, H. H. (2001). "Studies of mannose metabolism and effects of long-term mannose ingestion in the mouse". Biochimica et biophysica acta 1528 (2–3): 116–126. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(01)00183-0. PMID 11687298.  edit
  4. ^ Vlahopoulos, S.; Gritzapis, A. D.; Perez, S. A.; Cacoullos, N.; Papamichail, M.; Baxevanis, C. N. (2009). "Mannose addition by yeast Pichia Pastoris on recombinant HER-2 protein inhibits recognition by the monoclonal antibody herceptin". Vaccine 27 (34): 4704–4708. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.063. PMID 19520203.  edit
  5. ^ Postma, P. W.; Lengeler, J. W.; Jacobson, G. R. (1993). "Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria". Microbiological reviews 57 (3): 543–594. PMC 372926. PMID 8246840.  edit
  6. ^ a b Erni, B.; Zanolari, B. (1985). "The mannose-permease of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Gene cloning and purification of the enzyme IIMan/IIIMan complex of Escherichia coli". The Journal of biological chemistry 260 (29): 15495–15503. PMID 2999119.  edit
  7. ^ Erni, B.; Zanolari, B.; Graff, P.; Kocher, H. P. (1989). "Mannose permease of Escherichia coli. Domain structure and function of the phosphorylating subunit". The Journal of biological chemistry 264 (31): 18733–18741. PMID 2681202.  edit
  8. ^ Huber, F.; Erni, B. (1996). "Membrane topology of the mannose transporter of Escherichia coli K12". European journal of biochemistry / FEBS 239 (3): 810–817. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0810u.x. PMID 8774730.  edit