|mannose receptor, C type 1|
|Locus||Chr. 10 p13|
|mannose receptor, C type 2|
|Locus||Chr. 17 q23|
The mannose receptor is a C-type lectin carbohydrate binding protein primarily present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells. It also can be found on skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes It involves in the recognition of pathogens and viruses which compromises in immunological recognition and reaction from mannosylated surface in both pathogen and cells in human body. The immunological reaction from mannose receptor also involve in one pathway of the complement system.
The function of this receptor is to recognize complex carbohydrates that are located on glycoproteins that are a part of many different biological processes. Some of those processes include cell–cell recognition, serum glycoprotein turnover, and neutralization of pathogens. The protein also functions as a type 1 membrane immune receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. The structure of these proteins allows it to bind to high mannose structures on the surface of potentially pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi so that they can be engulfed by the cell.
Humans express two types of mannose receptors, each encoded by its own gene:
|MRC1||Macrophage mannose receptor 1||C-type mannose receptor 1,
C-type lectin domain family 13 member D (CLEC13D),
|MRC2||Macrophage mannose receptor 2||C-type mannose receptor 2,
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein,
The MRC1 gene is in close proximity to MRC1L1 and has a gene loci that includes the gene, MRC1L1, as well as LOC340843 and LOC340893. The gene also consist of nearly two identical regions, some think that they are duplicated regions. Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be subject to increased addition of mannose, in patterns different from those of a human cell. Dendritic cells of the immune system possess a mannose receptor that enables them to take up mannosylated proteins, and utilize fragments of them for antigen presentation.
The macrophage mannose receptor also interacts with HIV gp120 envelope protein, allowing uptake of the virus. These interactions affect gp120 and its ability to bind to the B cells through MRC1 receptors and an increase production of matrix mannose receptors. The HIV protein Nef interacts with MRC1 by down regulating the receptors on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells. The tat protein represses the transcription of MRC1 promoters by down regulating the expression of MRC1. All of these proteins interact with MRC1 so that the virus can continue to spread and more research is being conducted trying to understand how stop these interactions from occurring.
- Szolnoky, G., Bata-CsoÈrgoÈ, Z., Kenderessy, A. S., Kiss, M., Pivarcsi, A., Novák, Z., ... & Kemény, L. (2001). A mannose-binding receptor is expressed on human keratinocytes and mediates killing of Candida albicans. Journal of investigative dermatology, 117(2), 205-213.
- Sheikh, H., Yarwood, H., Ashworth, A., & Isacke, C. M. (2000). Endo180, an endocytic recycling glycoprotein related to the macrophage mannose receptor is expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells and macrophages and functions as a lectin receptor. Journal of cell science, 113(6), 1021-1032.
- "MRC1 mannose receptor, C type 1 [Homo sapiens]". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
- Keler T, Ramakrishna V, Fanger M (2004). "Mannose receptor-targeted vaccines". Expert Opin Biol Ther 4 (12): 1953–62. doi:10.1517/147125126.96.36.1993. PMID 15571457.
- Vlahopoulos S, Gritzapis AD, Perez SA, Cacoullos N, Papamichail M, Baxevanis CN (July 2009). "Mannose addition by yeast Pichia Pastoris on recombinant HER-2 protein inhibits recognition by the monoclonal antibody herceptin". Vaccine 27 (34): 4704–8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.063. PMID 19520203.
- Shimizu K, Fujii S (2008). "An adjuvant role of in situ dendritic cells (DCs) in linking innate and adaptive immunity". Front. Biosci. 13: 6193–201. PMID 18508653.
- Lai, J.; Bernhard, O. K.; Turville, S. G.; Harman, A. N.; Wilkinson, J.; Cunningham, A. L. (17 December 2008). "Oligomerization of the Macrophage Mannose Receptor Enhances gp120-mediated Binding of HIV-1". Journal of Biological Chemistry 284 (17): 11027–11038. doi:10.1074/jbc.M809698200.
- mannose receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Macrophage Mannose Receptor