Kilbride, County Wicklow
|• Total||46.9112 km2 (18.1125 sq mi)|
|• Density||21/km2 (54/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||IST (WEST) (UTC-1)|
Kilbride (Irish: Cill Bhríde), or Manor Kilbride, is a village, civil parish and District electoral division in County Wicklow, Ireland, located at the western edge of the Wicklow Mountains in the barony of Talbotstown Lower.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Early Medieval
- 2.3 Anglo-Norman settlement
- 2.4 Later medieval
- 2.5 Early Modern
- 2.6 Nineteenth and twentieth centuries
- 2.7 Principal houses
- 2.8 Churches
- 2.9 Roads and transport
- 2.10 Industry
- 2.11 Kilbride Army Camp
- 3 Kilbride today
- 4 Online sources
- 5 References
Kilbride village is situated in the eponymous townland at the center of the civil parish, occupying a valley formed by the convergence of the Brittas River and the River Liffey, north of Poulaphouca Reservoir. The valley is bounded by Goldenhill, Cromwellstownhill and Cupidstown Hill to the west with Butterhill and Ballyfoyle to the east.
The civil parish of Kilbride covers 11,591 statute acres, containing the following townlands:
|Townland||Acreage||Irish Name||Earliest record of placename or variant|
|Ballyfolan||848||Baile Uí Fhaoláin||1700*|
|Ballyfoyle||433||Baile an Phuill*||1618|
|Butter Mountain||935||Sliabh an Bhóthair||1655|
|Carrignagower||205||Carraig na (n)Gabhar*||1760|
|Knockatillane||579||Cnoc a' tSeithleáin/Cnoc an tSaileáin*||1700*|
|Scurlocksleap||630||Léim an Scorlógaigh||1655|
|Tinode||1250||Tigh Nód  *||1540 *|
Much of the parish consists of mountain and blanket bog; the boundaries are formed by the southwest-northeast ridge of Cromwellstownhill and Cupidstown Hill to the west, the Brittas River to the north, the peaks of Seefin (621m), Seefingan (723m) and Kippure (757m) to the northeast, the upper reaches of the Liffey to the southeast and a small stream to the southwest. The parish borders with the counties of Kildare and Dublin to the west and north and the parishes of Blessington and Calary to south and east. The N81 road from Dublin to Baltinglass runs southwest through a valley between Cromwellstownhill and Goldenhill, across the townlands of Moanaspick and Tinode. The R759 road, one of two routes crossing the Wicklow Mountains, runs southeast above the Liffey through Kilbride, Knockatillane, Cloghleagh, Scurlocksleap, Athdown and Kippure.
A cluster of four cairns of Neolithic or Bronze Age origin are located at the summit of Golden Hill west of the village. Two enclosures of prehistoric or early medieval date, and four cairns of Neolithic or Bronze Age date are situated atop the Dowry Hill in Kilbride townland. A pit-burial of likely Bronze Age date was excavated in Kilbride townland. Six cairns of likely prehistoric date are located in the eastern half of Cloghleagh. Two cairns are located in Ballyfollan. Passage Tombs are located atop both Seefin and Seefingan. All are listed in the Record of Monuments and Places maintained by the Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. A polished stone axehead was recovered from the townland of Knockatillane in 1866.
Liam Price speculated that the townland and parish name indicated an Early Christian church was located in the townland of Shankill, under the jurisdiction of St. Bridget's Monastery of Kildare. Ringforts of likely early medieval date are located atop Golden Hill, below Cloghleagh Church, and adjacent to the deserted settlement at Lisheens. A 'perforated stone, found at an earthen fort, adjoining Kilbride Parish Church' presented to the Royal Irish Academy in 1866, may have been a quern stone, presumably taken from the ringfort below Cloghleagh Church. While there are no visible medieval remains in the immediate vicinity of Kilbride village, the townland of Lisheens contains the remains of a possible early medieval horizontal watermill.
The medieval history of Kilbride is obscure. West Wicklow was densely forested in the medieval period; the barony of Talbotstown, is described as 'Coillacht' in the 12th century and the church of Kilbride is described as 'Kylbryde in the Colach' in 1291 when the area formed part of the estates of the Archbishop of Dublin. Despite later references to the manor and lordship of Kilbride, it is unclear if the townland or parish contained a manorial centre; the likely site would be close to the graveyard or in the grounds of Kilbride Manor, but no evidence has been identified.
Price speculated that the graveyard in the village contained an Anglo-Norman parish church founded before 1250. The graveyard is listed as a church site in the Record of Monuments and Places and the Catholic church contains a font reputedly removed from the earlier church. An early medieval cross-slab removed from the graveyard was presented to the National Museum of Ireland in 1970. In 1630 the impropriations of Kilteel and Kilbride churches were held by the Alen family of St. Wolstan's and the 'church and chauncels' were described as 'very ruinous'. Foundations of the original church may have been identified during th excavation of a grave in the 20th century. A 2009 survey showed the earliest legible gravestones, from the first decades of the 18th century, clustered around a raised area at the centre of the graveyard, likely the site of the medieval church.
Athdown contains the sites of a church and graveyard and the site of a possible Anglo-Norman motte; the latter site, removed by quarrying, presumably controlled the fording point across the River Liffey to the southwest. The two sites were originally connected by a lane or road, both ford and lane are visible on the OS maps. Liam Price speculated the church was the 'Ecclesia de Villa Reysin' noted in the 13th century extent Crede Mihi. Scurlocksleap, the name of the next townland to the east, recorded in 1655, may also indicate the presence of an early Anglo-Norman settler or landowner.
A possible deserted medieval settlement, two hut sites and three enclosures of uncertain date are located in Ballyfolan.
The name Brittas suggests a bretasche, an earth and timber fortification from the first phase of Norman settlement, though such a site is more likely to have been located in the adjoining townland of the same name in the parish of Tallaght.
In 1317 the 2nd Earl of Kildare granted the church of Rathmore and its subordinate chapels, including Kilbride and the church of 'Villa Reysin' to the prior of the Hospitaller Preceptory of Kilmainham. Rathmore and Kilbride churches and the lordship of Kilbride were iheld by the Preceptory of Kilteel at the time of its dissolution. However the uplands of County Wicklow were a 'land of war' beyond the boundaries of the English Pale defined by the fortified settlements at Rathmore and Kilteel to the west, with continual conflict between the Gaelic O'Toole and O'Byrne families who held the Wicklow uplands and the settled communities of the adjoining lowlands. The Alen family of St. Wolstans held a lease of the preceptory and its possessions from at least 1539; a lease of the preceptory dated 12 July 1539 describes Thomas Alen as 'of Kilheele'. The preceptory's possessions included the "Lordship of Kilbride". The status of the area as a disputed marchland is highlighted in an early grant:
|“||"in consideration that the Preceptory, lordship or manor of Kilheale, in Kildare county, is situated in the marches thereof near the Irish enemies, the Tholes (O'Tooles), where resistance and defence are required, grant to Thomas Alan and Mary his wife, the said lordship."||”|
Large areas of west Wicklow nominally under the control of the Earls of Ormond were occupied by the O'Tooles in the 15th century. The 8th Earl of Kildare later claimed these areas, using a statute of 1482 which allowed him to occupy uninhabited lands. A tower house at Threecastles in Blessington parish, three kilometres west of Kilbride, controls a fording point across the River Liffey and may have been built by the Earl before his death in 1513 to protect the territory against the O'Tooles. In 1524 the 8th Earl of Ormond seized Threecastles and installed a garrison in response to the Fitzgeralds' murder of Sir Robert Talbot. In 1538 a force under John Kelway, Constable of Rathmore, was ambushed and slain at Threecastles by a force under Turlough O'Toole. In 1547, Turlough's son, Brian O'Toole of Powerscourt, sheriff of Dublin, defeated an alliance between FitzGerald rebels and the O'Tooles of Imaal at Threecastles. The Annals of the Four Masters describes the battle:
|“||The rebel[s] Fitzgeralds sustained a great defeat at Baile-na-dtri-gCaislen from the English, and from Brian-an-chogaidh, the son of Turlough O'Toole, in which the two sons of James, son of the Earl, namely, Maurice-an-fheadha and Henry, with fourteen of their people, were taken prisoners. They were afterwards conveyed to Dublin, and all cut into quarters, excepting Maurice, who was imprisoned in the King's castle, until it should be determined what death he should receive. Thus were these plunderers and rebels dispersed and scared; and although their career was but of short duration (one year only), they committed vast depredations.||”|
Lisheens townland, 2 km north of Kilbride village, contains a deserted settlement of medieval or early modern date, close to two circular enclosures, a ringfort and a cross-inscribed stone. The ringfort suggests the site may have been continuously settled from the early medieval period. The cross-inscribed stone may be a Mass rock dating from the era of the Penal Laws. The field system associated with the settlement is distinct from that depicted on the 1838 Ordnance Survey maps, suggesting it was abandoned before 1800. A second deserted settlement of possible medieval date lies northeast of Cloghleagh bridge.
The Down Survey for Kilbride and Blessington parishes, completed c.1655, does not record any buildings in the parish of Kilbride, but Threecastles is described as containing a garrison, presumably installed to secure the area following the Cromwellian Conquest of Ireland. Despite the nominal conclusion of the conflict in 1653, Wicklow continued to serve as a refuge for the remnants of the Confederate forces or Rapparees. The Cromwellian government excluded Wicklow from military protection, proclaimed the county a free-fire zone and sought to remove the Catholic Old English and Gaelic Irish population.
The Allen family appear to have lost their lands under the Interrugnum but successfully petitioned for their return. Patrick Allen obtained a grant of Kilbride and other lands in Wicklow and Kildare in 1685. In 1702 Francis Allen of St. Wolstans leased the 'Manor and Lordship of Kilbride', coterminous with the civil parish, to Henry Fitzpatrick of Friarstown for a term of 299 years. The leasehold interest changed ownership several times before its purchase in 1796 by George Ponsonby, later Lord Chancellor.
In 1766, Robert Green, vicar of Rathmore, Kilteel and Kilbride recorded three Protestant families and 85 Roman Catholic families within the parish of Kilbride.
Nineteenth and twentieth centuries
In 1821 the population of Kilbride parish was estimated at 1,049 people, with 165 families inhabiting 154 houses. The Ordnance Survey Name Books describe Kilbride in 1838:
|“||In the Parish and Townland of Kilbride about three miles North of Blessington. It is a very small village, with a neat Roman Catholick Chapel, and two publick houses.||”|
Between 1841 and 1851 the population of the parish declined from 1324 to 897, and the number of inhabited houses declined from 188 to 125.
A Royal Irish Constabulary station marked south of the chapel on the 1853 Primary Valuations passed out of use before 1900. In 1827 the police station had one constable and three sub-constables. The police station may be incorporated within an existing private dwelling. A police station present in Kippure in 1834 is depicted on the 1838 OS map. Two sub-constables were stationed there in 1877. A third station in Tinode in 1838 had passed out of use by 1843 when recorded in the Valuation House Books.
A National school marked adjacent to the first station on the 1853 Valuations map also passed out of use before 1900. The schoolhouse was replaced by a new building in Knockatillane built by the Moore family. In 1868 the latter school had 94 pupils. The original national school may be incorporated within an existing private dwelling.
A small public house described in the 1901 Census, then run by Mary Lalor, may have been one of those mentioned in 1838. It survives in extended form as Mooney's Public House. The Kildare Observer described it in 1904:
|“||At the corner of the Manor demesne stands Lalor's Inn, a[n] hostelry where the traveller will find every comfort and accommodation to strengthen him for his tour, which properly only commences there.||”|
In April 1923, During the Irish Civil War, Free State troops arrived at what was then Mooney's Public House, in search of John Moore, a former British Army soldier and a member of an Irregular flying column operating in the area. Moore fled from the back of the house, but was shot and killed before he could reach cover.
A corn mill depicted in 1838 at the south end of the village, recorded in the 1853 Primary Valuations lies under or within a later dwelling. The millrace survives as a field boundary to the west of the village.
While no building is marked in Kilbride townland on Jacob Neville's 1760 map of Wicklow, houses are depicted at Tinode and Aghfarrell. The National Inventory of Architectural Heritage dates Talbotstown House in Buttermountain townland to c. 1750, suggesting it is the building marked as Aghfarrell House on Neville's map and the earliest surviving building in the parish. However the 1838 Ordnance Survey map depicts the ruins of 'Aghfarrell House' a short distance to the north of Talbotstown House, in Aghfarrell townland; the Record of Protected Structures for County Wicklow dates Talbotstown House to the early 19th century. Taylor and Skinner's 1777 map marks Aghfarrell as the residence of 'Allen Esq.'
In 1824 the lease of the Kilbride estate was purchased from George Ponsonby's widow by George Ogle Moore, a barrister who served as MP for Dublin from 1826 to 1831 and as Registrar of Deeds until 1846. Moore described by James Ambercromby 'an orange lawyer of doubtful fame ' and by Richard Lalor Sheil as 'sir Forcible Feeble' was an aggressive defender of the Protestant interest in Parliament, often mocked by his opponents for his intemperate opposition to Catholic Emancipation.
The current 'Manor' house, designed by Thomas Cobden in Tudor Revival style, was still under construction at the time of compilation of the Valuation House Books in 1843. It replaced or incorporated an earlier building, 'Kilbride House' depicted on the 1838 OS maps, possibly built before 1800. George Moore was living in Kilbride Manor in 1844, when James Frazer noted 'a new mansion and other improvements are in progress'.
After Moore's death in 1847 his property passed to his son, the Reverend William Ogle Moore, curate of the parishes of Blessington and Kilbride, whose financial difficulties are described in the contemporary diaries of Elizabeth Smith. Moore's Estate Act of 1853 allowed Elizabeth Brown and her husband Joseph Scott Moore to purchase the Kilbride estate. In 1876, Joseph Scott Moore held 8,730 acres in Wicklow. On his death in 1884 he was succeeded by Joseph Fletcher Moore, whose son, Colonel Joseph Scott Moore, died at Kilbride in 1950. All three served as Justices of the Peace and High Sheriff of Wicklow.
Located in a wooded demesne on the Sally Gap Road, a substantial farmhouse was present here from the late 18th century. First described as Kippure House or Kippure Park in the 19th century, it served as George Moore's residence from at least 1827 until he occupied Kilbride Manor. In 1842 the house was listed as the seat of William Jones Armstrong. The lease of the 1500 acre farm with 'gentlemanly residence and offices' was advertised in 1873. By 1891 it was serving as a residence for John Henry Leech. Leech died in 1900 and in 1901 the house and 1500 acres were purchased by Alfred Darley for £2050 to serve as a summer residence. It was occupied by Anti-Treaty forces in January 1923 during the Irish Civil War and burnt on 13 February 1923. The Darley family sold the estate to its current owners in 1978.
Kilbride Lodge or Kilbride Cottage, depicted a short distance north of the village in 1838, may have been built by the Tassie family, who held the lease of the adjacent quarry up to 1796, or their successors the Doyle family. In 1838 and 1844 the house was listed as the residence of William Ogle Moore. The house, in replaced or enlarged form, was renamed Glen Heste in the later nineteenth century. In the twentieth century Glen Heste served as a hotel until it was destroyed by fire on 6 May 1958.
Tinode house is close to the site of an earlier coaching inn, Horseshoe House, depicted in the 1838 OS maps, and described in the 1838 Ordnance Survey Name books, presumably the building marked in 1760 :
|“||In the Townland of Tinode on the West side of the Old Dublin road. It is a fine house, slated and well-sheltered with trees, occupied by Mr. Coogan & was formerly a fine Inn; on the old road from Blessington to Dublin.||”|
A branch of the Cogan family was resident in Tinode from at least 1764. William Henry Ford Cogan, Justice of the Peace, Whig MP for Kildare from 1852 until 1880 and High Sheriff of Wicklow in 1863, built Tinode House in 1864, demolishing the earlier buildings. The house was designed by William Caldbeck in Venetian Gothic revival style. The arms of the Cogan family are still visible on the building. After Cogan died in 1894 it was occupied by his cousin Thomas More Madden and his son Richard More Madden before its purchase by Colonel Eustace Maude in 1914 for £6,500. The building was burnt by an IRA flying column on 5 February 1923 during the Irish Civil War. It remained ruined until its partial restoration in the 1970s.
In 1833, the Church of Ireland parish of Kilbride, previously within the Union of Rathmore, was united with the parishes of Burgage and Boystown in the Union of Blessington under the Church of Ireland divisions. George Moore was responsible for the construction of St John's Protestant Church at Cloghleagh in 1834, built with a grant of £900 from the Board of First Fruits. His son served as curate of the parish.
A Catholic chapel, built in the village in 1776 and enlarged in 1835, was replaced by the current church in 1881. The existing church was built with the patronage of William Henry Ford Cogan, who is commemorated in the church windows.
Roads and transport
The route of the R759 road from Kilbride to the Sally Gap was laid down after 1760 and before 1778. The National Inventory of Architectural Heritage dates the stone bridge at Cloghleagh to c.1820. The 1838 OS maps depict an earlier road extending below the bridge to an ford across the River Liffey. Traces of the 'Old road' referred to in 1838 survive northwest of the N81 between Brittas and Tinode House. A comparison of John Taylor's 1816 map and William Duncan's 1821 map suggests the modern road was laid down between those dates. The relationship between the Hospitaller preceptory of Kilteel and the medieval lordship of Kilbride suggests the route from Kilbride to Kilteel may be of medieval origin. An eighteenth century bridge across the Liffey at Ballyward collapsed after flooding on 5 September 1986. The townland names Áth Dúin and Áth Fhearaíl recorded in the 16th century, indicate historic fording points across the Liffey, likely those marked on the 1838 OS map.
From 1888 to 1932 the Dublin and Blessington Steam Tramway ran along the current N81 Road between Terenure and Poulaphouca. The tram stopped at The Lamb Tram Station at the top of the Kilbride Road. Joyce's Neighbourhood of Dublin describes the site in 1912:
|“||"The Lamb" where there is now only a tram station and ticket office, but where in former times there stood an inn with the sign of "The Lamb" which has since left its name impressed on the locality.||”|
Neville's 1760 map marks the freestone quarry which provided granite for the construction of Nelson's Pillar, the General Post Office, The Custom House and the Four Courts. When George Moore acquired the Kilbride estate in 1824 the quarries fell out of use and were replaced by those at Ballyknockan. Their remains are still visible in the eastern face of Golden Hill.
Traces of an abandoned iron mine dating from the 1860s are visible north of Cloghleagh Bridge. Weston St. John Joyce described the site in 1912:
|“||Keeping to the pathway, we presently reach a curious-looking stone house, which was erected as a residence for the manager of the iron mine some fifty years ago. It would seem that no earnest attempt was ever made to work this undertaking to a successful issue as the great stone segments of the crushing wheel, now lying beside the river, and other machinery obtained from England, were never put together, so that the whole concern was a failure from the start. Just beside the house is the entrance to the mine, the shaft of which, now closed up, extended a considerable way under the hill||”|
While the crushing wheel is still visible, the house described, recorded in a Paddy Healy photograph, was demolished in the last decade. The ruined buildings of the Tinode Brick and Tile Company, incorporated in 1932, in receivership by January 1941, are visible next to the junction of the R759 and the N81.
Kilbride Army Camp
In 1894 lands Joseph Fletcher Moore was served with a compulsory purchase order for lands in Shankill to form 'an intended rife range and camp'. The Secretary of State for War entered into occupation of the lands in March 1895, but Moore contested the compensation offered. 1552 acres were ultimately leased in 1897 and a further 14 acres in 1899. The camp had accommodation for 8 Regimental Officers and 221 other ranks in 1904, but was not permanently occupied until the Irish War of Independence, when forty Black and Tan troops were quartered within. The Camp passed into the possession of Irish forces on 21 March 1922, was occupied by Anti-Treaty forces during the Irish Civil War, fell into disuse during the emergency and was abandoned in 1955. It was briefly leased to An Óige in 1965 and 1966, re-occupied by the Irish Army in the 1970s, established as a Permanent Staff Camp in 1982 and is still by in use by the Irish Army. Early photographs of the camp are accessible on the website of the National Library of Ireland.
Kilbride DED had a population of 975 at the 2011 census. St. Brigid's National School replaced the school at Knockatillane in 1969; the old schoolhouses survive as a private dwelling. St. Brigid's National School had 130 pupils in 2011.
Craul's Shop lies on the site of the first National School and RIC barracks, facing the entrance to the graveyard. The 1767 datestone of the old Burgage Bridge, demolished before the creation of Poulaphouca Reservoir, is incorporated into the adjacent wall. St. John's Church at Cloghleagh is in use by the Church of Ireland. Kippure estate is occupied by a holiday village; of the original buildings only the gate lodge and some traces survive. The Lamb Tram Station, Kilbride Manor and Tinode House, the last restored in 1973, survive in private ownership and are listed in the Record of Protected Structures for County Wicklow. The public house recorded in the 1901 Census survives in altered form as Mooney's Public House, run by descendants of Mary Lalor.
The village and parish of Kilbride is located within a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Record of Monuments and Places: http://www.archaeology.ie/ArchaeologicalSurveyofIreland/
Ordnance Survey Maps: http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,591271,743300,0,10
Primary Valuation of Ireland: http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/
1901 Census of Ireland: http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/
- Price, Liam 1953. The Place-Names of County Wicklow: IV - The Barony of Talbotstown Lower. Dublin. pp. 270-279
- National Archives M. 5690. Abstract of title of George Ogle Moore to lands in Kilbride, Co. Wicklow, formerly in the possession of the Allen family.
- Record of Monuments and Places WI005-002,WI001-039,WI001-019
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-026, WI001-027
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-028001, WI001-028002, WI001-040001, WI001-040002
- RMP WI001-036: WI001-036
- Record of Monuments and Places WI006-001001-6
- RMP WI001-010; RMP WI001-013
- Record of Monuments and Places WI006-003: "Description: Situated on the summit of Seefin Mountain. A circular cairn (diam. 24-6m; H 3m) defined by a contiguous kerb of large boulders partly removed at the E and W, covering a narrow lintelled passage (L 11m). The passage is orientated NE-SW, and opens into a rectangular corbelled chamber (dims. 4m x 1.5m) off which there are five recesses (two at each side and one at the end). Only the end and adjoining recesses are visible; the rest are buried under the collapsed cairn. There are two sidestones in the passage decorated with passage tomb art. Excavated in 1931 (Macalister 1932), it produced no evidence of burials or finds. (Herity 1974, 258; Rynne 1963, 85-6; Shee-Twohig 1981, 222-3) The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research."
- WI006-004: "Description: Situated on the summit of Seefingan Mountain. Circular cairn (diam. 20m; H 3m) said locally to have contained a 'cave', with a 'tunnel' leading into it (Price and Walshe 1933, 47). Herity (1974, 258) suggests it may be a passage tomb, but no kerb or structures are visible. The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research. "
- Moore, Joseph Scott 1867. 'On the discovery of a stone hatchet at Kilbride, County of Wicklow' in Journal of the Royal Geological Society of Ireland , Vol. I, pp. 250-252
- Price, Liam 1953. The Placenames of County Wicklow IV - The Barony of Talbotstown Lower. Dublin. p. 274
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-018: "Description: Situated on a very gentle SW-facing slope c. 200m SW of the summit of Golden Hill. Circular area (diam. 37m) defined by a stony bank (Wth c. 4m; int. H 0.7m) and an external fosse (av. Wth 6m; av. D 0.7m). There is a gap in the bank (Wth 5m) and causeway across the fosse (Wth 6m) at the NE with another causeway (Wth c. 12m) at the SE. There are some large stones in situ in the interior of the site and traces of a boulder revetment at the base of the bank. Possibly a modified prehistoric kerbed cairn. (Price 1934, 46) The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research."
- Record of Monuments and Places WI005-007: "Description: Situated on the SW extremity of a small natural promontory with short steep scarps on the N, S and W sides. An elongated D-shaped enclosure (dims. c. 30m E-W; c. 25m N-S) defined by an earthen bank (H 0.45-0.65m). The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research."
- WI001-008: "Description: Situated on a gentle W-facing slope. Circular enclosure (diam. c. 30m) visible on aerial photograph (CUCAP, API 12) defined by a bank and an external fosse with a possible counterscarp bank at the N and W. The bank and fosse were somewhat flattened along the SE (upslope) where there is a slight indication of an entrance causeway. Removed before 1973 (a possible trace is visible on aerial photographs (GSIAP, O 89-90)). Not visible at ground level. The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research."
- Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume IX, p. 550
- RMP WI001-043: Description: Situated in the western bank of the Brittas River, 200m upstream of Lisheens House. Three worked oak timbers in situ in the river bank at a depth of 1.2m. The basal timber (max. T 0.34m) is square-cut and has a rectangular mortisehole which does not perforate the entire depth of the timber. Resting on top of this is a radially split timber (H 0.28m; Wth 0.14m). The uppermost timber (max. H 0.05m; max. Wth 0.10m) is badly damaged and is unidentifiable from a surface inspection. It does not appear to be in contact with the lower timbers. Two sizeable stones rest on top of the basal timber but their function is unclear. The timbers are in a good state of preservation. (Sullivan 1994) The above description is derived from the published 'Archaeological Inventory of County Wicklow' (Dublin: Stationery Office, 1997). In certain instances the entries have been revised and updated in the light of recent research. Date of upload/revision: 17 December 2008
- Price 1953, 274
- Maginn, Christopher 2004, 'English Marcher Lineages in South Dublin in the Late Middle Ages' in Irish Historical Studies, Volume 34, No. 134, pp. 113-136, 116
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-022002
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-046
- Record of Monuments and Places WI001-022006; NMI Reg. No. 1970:189
- Ronan, M.V. 1941, 'Archbishop Bulkeley's Visitation of Dublin in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 8 pp. 56-98, p. 80
- Halligan, Elizabeth 2002. 'Churches: Blessington and Manor Kilbride' in Blessington Now and Then. Blessington Local and Family History Society. pp. 32-36, p. 35
- Halligan, Janet 2009. Manor Kilbride Graveyard Survey (Blessington History Society).
- Record of Monuments Places WI006-013
- Record of Monuments and Places WI006-012
- Price 1953, 275
- Price 1953, 269, 278
- RMP WI001-033 (deserted medieval settlement); RMP WI001-032 (hut site); RMP WI001-015 (hut site); RMP WI002-002 (enclosure); RMP WI002-011 (enclosure); RMP WI002-012 (enclosure); RMP WI002-002 (enclosure).
- Price 1953, 272
- Price, 1953, 402
- Aylmer, Hans Hendrick 1902, 'Rathmore' in Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, Volume III (1899-1902) pp. 372-381, p. 373.
- Lydon, J.F., 'Medieval Wicklow - 'A Land of War'' in Hannigan, Ken & Nolan, William (eds) 1994. Wicklow History and Society. 151-190.
- White, Newport B. 1943. Extent of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-41. Irish Stationery Office. p. 91
- Nicholls 1994.Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I. Dublin. Elizabeth No. 1087
- Morrin, James 1861. Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery of Ireland of the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth:Volume I. Dublin, p. 92
- Joyce, Weston St. John 1922. The Neighbourhood of Dublin: Its Topography, Antiquities and Historical Associations. Dublin. p. 387
- Price, Liam 'Place-Name Study as Applied to History' in Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, Vol. 79, 1949, pp. 26-38, p. 27
- Record of Monuments and Places WI005-031; http://www.independent.ie/regionals/wicklowpeople/news/site-was-scene-of-bitter-fighting-27863455.html
- Joyce, Weston St. John 1922. The Neighbourhood of Dublin: Its Topography, Antiquities and Historical Associations. Dublin. pp. 391-395
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- Butler Rev. Edward (Ed.) 1849. The Annals of Ireland by Friar John Clyn. Dublin. p. 42
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- THE QUEEN AT THE PROSECUTION OF J. F. MOORE v J. ABBOTT, AND IN THE MATTER OF AN INTENDED RIFLE RANGE AND CAMP AT KILBRIDE, IN THE COUNTY OF WICKLOW, AND THE DEFENCE ACTS, 1842 TO 1873, THE ORDNANCE BOARD TRANSFER ACT, 1855, THE RANGES ACT, 1891, AND THE LANDS CLAUSES ACTS  2 Irish Reports 362
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