Mansehra

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Mansehra .
مانسہرہ
Town and Union council
Mansehra   . is located in Pakistan
Mansehra   .
Mansehra .
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200
Country Pakistan
Region Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
District Mansehra District
Elevation 1,088 m (3,570 ft)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
View from Lughmani Hills, Mansehra, Picture credit Waleed Khan Swati


Mansehra / Hindko dialect Urdu: مانسہرہ) city is located at 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200Coordinates: 34°20′N 73°12′E / 34.333°N 73.200°E / 34.333; 73.200[1] in Mansehra District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is very near Abbottabad city. It is a major stop for tourists on the Karakoram Highway which leads to China. It is also a major transit point to the northern areas and locations such as the Kaghan Valley, Naran, Shogran, Lake Saiful Mulook and Babusar Top.

History[edit]

The word Mansehra is actually the Hindi word "Mahaan Sehra" means the flowers in abundance

The area of Mansehra has been under the rule of various emperors and governments, including Alexander the Great, Ashoka the Great, the Afghans, the Turks and the British Empire.

Alexander period[edit]

Alexander the Great conquered and established his rule over a large part of northern India, including the Mansehra area. In the year 327 B.C. Alexander handed the area over to the Indian king Abisares. Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Pashtuns and their allied forces. In 1646, the Turks came under attack by the Swatis under the leadership of Akhund salak, who was the mureed of Syed Abdul Wahab Akhun panju baba forefather of (Akhunkhel Miangan), whose tomb is in Akbarpura, and succeeded to overthrow the Turks from the throne of Pakhli Sarkar. The Turks were pushed towards the mountainous areas of Tanawel (Behali) and other parts of Hazara, including Haripur (Manakrai). The Turks remained in control of certain small areas, assuming the title of Raja. Raja Amanulla of Manakrai, Haripur, one of the descendants of the Turkish rulers of Hazara, rose to prominence during post-independence era, when he became the speaker of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa assembly in 1985.

Maurya dynasty[edit]

During the Maurya dynasty, Mansehra was a part of Taxila. Ashoka the Great was the governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of his father, the Mauryan emperor Bindusara, Ashoka ascended to the throne around 272 B.C. and made this area one of the major seats of his government. The Edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three large boulders on the side of a rocky outcrop near Mansehra serve as evidence of his rule. The Mansehra rocks record fourteen of Ashoka's edicts, presenting aspects of the emperor's dharma or righteous law, and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia. Dating to middle of the third century BC, they are written from right to left in the Kharosthi script.[2]

Mansehra valley

Mansehra (Hazara) under Turks[edit]

The Turkish Shahi and Hindu Shahi dynasties ruled Mansehra one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mahmud of Ghazni defeated him during his first Indian campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mahmud of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Mansehra.

After the fall of the Hindu Shahi dynasty in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Mansehra.

In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Mansehra to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin a descendant of Amir Taimur, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose the village of Gulibagh as his capital.

During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Mansehra (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir.

In the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swathis and their allied forces. The most crucial attack was that of the Swatis in collusion with Syed Jalal Baba in 1703. Syed Jalal Shah was the son in law of the last ruler of Turkic dynasty, Sultan Mehmud Khurd. During the absence of the Sultan Syed Jalal Shah (Jalal Baba) took advantage of the situation, conspired with Swatis, invited them to attack Pakhli Sarkar and succeeded to overthrow the Turkish rulers from the Sarkar. Thus Swatis ousted the Turks and captured this area. The descendents of this Turkic dynasty still live in various parts of Hazara, such as Tumbah, Behali, Bararkot, Manakrai, Girwal, Mohar,

Durranis[edit]

When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.

Sikh rule[edit]

The fall of the Durranis led way for the Sikhs to rise to power under Ranjit Singh. The Sikhs gained control of Mansehra in 1818, after stiff resistance from its inhabitants. When Mansehra fell under Sikh control, it was annexed to Punjab. Syed Ahmad Barelvi, with the help of the Mujahadeen, led many revolts and attacks against the Sikhs. At last, in 1831 during a fierce battle at Balakot, Syed Ahmad was killed. This allowed the Sikhs to consolidate their control of Mansehra. After Ranjit Singh's death, the Sikh empire began to disintegrate. At this time, the British gained control of Punjab, and, through this, gained control of Mansehra.

British period[edit]

By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra. People of Mansehra remained a constant source of trouble for the British for four decades (1852–92). The British sent many expeditions to crush the rebellion, especially in the Black Mountains. To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures by co-opting the local rulers.

The British divided Hazara District into three tehsils (administrative subdivisions): Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of it. Throughout their rule in Mansehra, the British met fierce resistance from the local tribes and declared martial law. Meanwhile, the many villages around Mansehra largely governed themselves. Many of Mansehra's citizens joined the Khilafat Movement.

During British rule, Mansehra was still a village; its population according to the 1901 census was 5,087.[3] During the British period Mansehra was the headquarters of Mansehra Tehsil, then a subdivision of Hazara District.

When the Muslim League in Pakistan started its movement for a separate land, the local people joined and struggled for liberation under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam. Their eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

During Bhutto's regime, Mansehra was upgraded to a district, containing two subdivisions: Mansehra and Battagram. Later, the Mansehra district was divided into two districts namely Mansehra and Battagram, and tow subdivisions Balakot and Oghi were added to the Mansehra district.

Literacy[edit]

Mansehra is in a province with a literacy rate of 35.41%. In comparison, Pakistan as a whole has literacy rate of 43.92%, while Islamabad leads the nation with 72.4% literacy.[4]

First schools[edit]

The first primary schools in Mansehra district were established in village Behali (1872) and Baffa (1874)and subsequently in Mansehra town in 1892. Nawansher and Sherwan in Hazara also had primary schools con-temporarily( 1870s).

Subdivisions[edit]

The city of Mansehra is administratively divided into four Union Councils:[5]

  • Mansehra City Ward No 1
  • Mansehra City Ward No 2
  • Mansehra City Ward No 3
  • Mansehra City Ward No 4
  • Mansehra (Rural)/suburban

Each union council is divided into Mohallas.

Language[edit]

Hindko a dialect of Punjabi Language and Pashto are the mainly spoken languages.Gujari is also spoken in many areas of mansehra District.

Academic Institutions[edit]

The district has one university, the Hazara University Mansehra and several colleges. Both Government and private colleges had played a major role in the literacy of Mansehra.

Cultural festival[edit]

In Durgashtami in Chetr and in Assu,[6] at the locality of Bareri, Hindus from the vicinity, to the number of about 400, assemble at the top of Bareri hill to worship Devi (as Durga)and to present offerings, which are taken by a Brahmin of Mansehra.[6] The assembly on each occasion lasts only one day.[6] The boulders near the base of Bareri Hill are notable because they contain Ashokan inscriptions.[7] At the nearby village of Chitti Gatti, there is an old temple dedicated to Shiva and probably one of the oldest Shiva Lingas in the region.

Tourism[edit]

All of the Mansehra district is bestowed with enarmous natural beauty along with cultural diversity. The region was one of hotspot for international tourists in past. However, with the recent security issues, the number of foreigner toursit has decreased. The Pakistani tourists, however, are highly attracted by the region.

Places[edit]

Atter Shisha - Baffa - Khawajgan - Balakot - Old Mansehra City - Township Mansehra - Reerh - Siran valley - Kaghan Valley - New Balakot - Naran - Shogran - Oghi

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Location of Mansehra". Falling Rain. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  2. ^ "UNESCO world heritage Centre - Mansehra Rock Edicts". Whc.unesco.org. 2004-01-30. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  3. ^ "Mānsehra Village - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 203". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  4. ^ Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan[dead link]
  5. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mansehra - Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved 2011-03-30. 
  6. ^ a b c Report of the land revenue settlement of the Hazara district of the Punjab By E. G. Wace. Central Jail Press. Retrieved 2007-11-03. "In the nearby locality of Bareri, Hindus from the vicinity, to the number of about 400, assemble at the top of Bareri hill to worship Devi (Durga) and to present offerings, which are taken by a Brahmin of Mansehra. The assembly on each occasion lasts only one day." 
  7. ^ "Around Abbottabad by S.A.J. Shirazi". Travelers Digest. Retrieved 2007-11-03. "Further north; go to the black mountain near Oghi or to see the Asokan inscriptions on boulders near base of Bareri Hill close to Mansehra." 

External links[edit]