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|— District —|
|Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.|
|Province||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province|
|• Deputy Commissioner||Zulfiqar Ali Shah|
|• Assistant Commissioner||Ali Shahzad|
|• Total||4,579 km2 (1,768 sq mi)|
|• Density||272/km2 (700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|Number of Tehsils||3|
Mansehra District (Hindko/Urdu: مانسہرہ) is in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, an area known as the Northwest Frontier. Mansehra district and town are named after Man Singh, a leading general of Mughal Emperor Akbar. The Kaghan Valley area and the Karakoram Highway pass through the district.
- PF-53 (Mansehra-1)
- PF-54 (Mansehra-2)
- PF-55 (Mansehra-3)
- PF-56 (Mansehra-4)
- PF-57 (Mansehra-5)
- PF-58 (Mansehra-6)
The district is represented in the National Assembly of Pakistan by two elected MNAs who represent the following constituencies:
- NA-20 (Mansehra-1)
- NA-21 (Mansehra-2)
Language and demographics 
Mansehra is home to a diverse group of people: Swatis, Dhund Abbasi, Gujjars, Syeds, Awans, Rajputs, Kashmiris, Maliars, Yusufzais, Tanolis, Hassanzai, Qureshi, Karlugh Turks, Afghans and other ethnic groups. Its population in 1998 was 1,152,839.
Alexander the Great and Ashoka 
Alexander the Great, after conquering a small part of Punjab up to the Jhelum river, established his rule over a large part of Mansehra District. In 327 B.C., Alexander handed this area over to Abisaras (Αβισαρης), the Raja of the Poonch state. Mansehra remained a part of Taxila during the rule of the Maurya dynasty. Ashoka the Great was the Governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of his father, Bindusara, around 272 B.C., Ashoka inherited the throne and ruled this area as well as Gandhara. Today, the Edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three large boulders on the side of a rocky outcrop near Bareri Hill serve as evidence of his rule here. The Mansehra rocks record fourteen of Ashoka's edicts, presenting aspects of the emperor's dharma or righteous law, and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia. Dating to middle of the third century BC, they are written from right to left in the Kharosthi script.
The name Mansehra is a modified form of the name Maan Singh, who once ruled over this area.
Hindu Shahi dynasty and Kashmiris 
In the 2nd century CE, a mythical Hindu king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, brought the area under his control. The local people consider him as their hero and, even today, parents tell their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan on winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the control of Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmir.
The Turkish Shahi and Hindu Shahi Dynasties ruled Mansehra consecutively. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mehmood of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala during his first Indian campaign. There is no historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Mansehra. After the fall of the Hindu Shahi dynasty, in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership of Kalashan (from 1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Mansehra.
Turkish rule 
In 1399, the great Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers, a sub tribe of Karlugh Turks, in Manshera to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Karlugh Turks of central Asian origin, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose Gulibagh Village as his capital. During the Mughal rule, these local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Mansehra (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During the last days of Emperor Akbar's rule, the Turkish Chief Sultan Hussain Khan revolted against the Mughals. He claimed that the Mughals were interfering with his internal affairs. After this complaint, he was exiled by the Mughals, but later was pardoned and given back his land. Now, descendants of these Turkish rulers live in the villages of Behali, Bararkot and some other villages of Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur districts.
Afghan (Pashtun) rule 
Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Pashtuns (then called the Afghans) and their allied forces. In 1646, the Turks came under attack by the Swatis under the leadership of Akhund salak, who was the "mureed" of Syed Abdul Wahab Akhund panju baba, forefather of (Akhunkhels Miangan), whose tomb is in Akbarpura, and succeeded to overthrow the Turks from the throne of Pakhli Sarkar. The Turks were pushed towards the mountainous areas of Tanawel (Behali) and other parts of Hazara, including Haripur (Manakrai). The Turks remained in control of certain small areas, assuming the title of Raja. Raja Amanulla of Manakrai, Haripur, one of the descendants of the Turkish rulers of Hazara, rose to prominence during the post-independence era, when he became the Speaker of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa assembly in 1985.
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Mansehra also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly at the beginning of the 18th century.
Sikh rule 
The Tanolis had already established their authority over Tannawal. The Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara compiled by Major Wace in 1872 contains many passages in its historical resume of the area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis, the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great Afghan invasions of India. Their leader, Nawab Khan (Father of Painda Khan), never accepted the Durrani rule and used to only pay them simple liege homage, whilst retaining titular independence in their own area.
The fall of the Durranis led the way for the Sikhs to rise to power under Ranjit Singh. The Sikhs gained control of Mansehra in 1818, after stiff resistance from its inhabitants. When Mansehra fell under Sikh control, it was annexed to Punjab. Syed Ahmad Shaheed, with the help of the Mujaheddin, led many revolts and attacks against the Sikhs. At last, in 1831, during a fierce battle at Balakot, Syed Ahmad Shaheed was killed. This allowed the Sikhs to consolidate their control of Mansehra. After Rajit Singh's death, the Sikh empire began to disintegrate.
Painda Khan Tanoli was the tribal chief of the Tanolis at the time of the invasion of Hazara by the Sikhs. Painda Khan is famed for his staunch rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Governors of Hazara. From about 1813, he was involved in a lifelong rebellion against the Sikhs. When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 his son, Jehandad Khan, blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire.
In the meantime other Chiefs of Hazara rushed to arms to exterminate the Sikhs who were in their country. They invited Syud Akbur, of Sitana, to be King over Hazara, and make a holy war with them. Nuvab Khan of Shingri, and Sardar Ghulam Ahmad Khan Tarin (or Tareen) became Syad Akbur's "Wazirs", whilst Pir Khan came down to join with the Jaduns, Khan i Zeman brought the Tarkheylies; the Swatis of Publi, and the Mushwanis, contributed to the battle. For two months they besieged Diwan Mulraj, the Kardar, in the fort of Harkishengarh (at Haripur); and at last, after several gallant repulses, forced the garrison to evacuate by cutting off the water.
On 19 March 1846, a peace treaty was signed between the Sikhs and the British according to which Raja Gulab Singh took Kashmir and Hazara from the British for 75,00,000 rupees. But due to widespread civil disorder the Raja asked the British government to take over Hazara in exchange of the Jammu-Jhelum belt. The British accepted this offer and took over Hazara from him. They deputed James Abbot to Hazara to restore peace. He defeated Chuttar Singh, a Sikh general, after coming to Hazara and thus completely ousted the Sikhs from power.In 1849, it was, as part of the ex Sikh Lahore/Punjab kingdom, formally annexed to British India.
British rule 
By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra. However, the western Pashtun tribes remained rebellious. These tribes included the clans of Allai Valley and Nandhiar Valley, and the tribes inhabiting both slopes of the Black Mountain of Hazara.
In 1852, after three years of relative peace, Zaman Shah of Kaghan turned against the British. James Abbot sent an expedition to Kaghan which deprived Zaman Shah of his territory and he was exiled to Pakhli plain. After four years the British forgave him and he was permitted to get back his lost territory.
However, the British sent many expeditions against the Pashtun tribes to crush the rebellion between 1852 and 1892, especially against the Black Mountains.
To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures by co-opting the local rulers.
The British divided Hazara District into three Tehsils (administrative subdivisions): Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) was created, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of it. The British accepted the independence of the Nawab of Amb; within his own territory and thus no formal writ of the British Government was enacted therein. The smaller Tanoli State of Phulra, which was granted by Painda Khan to his brother Madad Khan, was also acknowledged by the Britishers as a semi-independent state.
When the Muslim League in Pakistan started its movement for a separate land, the local people joined and struggled for liberation under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam. Their eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of the sub-continent in August 1947.
MANSEHRA – AN INTRODUCTION Mansehra, a place of scenic beauty, was upgraded to a district level on Oct. 1, 1976. Before that Mansehra was a tehsil of Hazara district. The district derives its name from its headquarters town Mansehra which is named after Man Singh, a Sikh governor under Ranjit Singh. (1) It consists of Mansehra, Oghi and Balakot tehsils and also includes PATA (Provincially Administered Tribal Area) of Kaladhaka. During summer, people come here for recreation from far flung areas of Pakistan as well as rest of the world. They feel peace and tranquillity here.
The ancient history of Mansehra is not traceable because it is shrouded in the mists of innumerable centuries. The historians have recorded different traditions among the people to construct its history. The district Mansehra seems to have been inhabited by man from times immemorial.
Mansehra has very old history in the sub-continent. Its geographical boundaries had constantly been changed in the times of various Rajas, Maharajas and kings in the past. Alexander the Great after conquering the north-western India established his rule over a large part of it. Historians are of the opinion that in the year 327 B. C. Alexander handed over this area to Abisaras, the Raja of Poonch state.(2)
During the Maurya dynasty Mansehra remained a part of Taxila. The Great Ashoka was the Governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of his father, Bindusara, Ashoka ascended the throne and made this area along with Gandhara valley a major seat of his government. (3) The famous edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three rocks in Mansehra town are the evidence of his rule here. These edicts prove that this area was a famous religious centre where pilgrims used to come for performing pilgrimage. For ages the devout Hindus after climbing up the Bareri peak performed religious obligations to “Sheva”.(4)
In second century A. D. a mythical Hindu king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, brought this area under his sway. The local people consider him as their hero and even today parents narrate to their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan in the winter nights. (5)
When the Chinese pilgrim Hiun-Tsang visited Indo-Pakistan this area was under the control of Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmir.(6) It is also said that Turkey Shahi and Hindu Shahi dynasties ruled Mansehra one after another. Among the rulers of Hindu Shahi dynasty Raja Jaipala was the most eminent ruler. Mehmud of Ghazna defeated him during his (Mehmud) first Indian campaign. Mehmud paid no attention to Mansehra for establishing a Muslim rule over here except using it as his approach to Kashmir. (7)
Again in the 11th century A. D. after the fall of Hindu Shahi dynasty, the Kashmiris occupied this area under the leadership of Kalashan (1063-89 A. D.). From 1112-1120 A.D. king Susala ruled this area. In the last quarter of the 12th century A. D. Asalat Khan, a general of Mohammad Ghuri, captured this area from Kashmiris but soon after Ghuri’s death the Kashmiris once again occupied it. (8)
Thereafter the history of Mansehra is obscure up to 1399 A.D. when the great Muslim warrior Taimur, on his return to Kabul, left here some soldiers for the protection of this important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By this time, the Muslim ousted the Hindus from power and established their authority. But in 1742 AD Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk prince, came from Kabul and established his rule here. He founded the state namely Pakhly Sarkar and chose village Gulibagh as his capital. (9)
During the Mughal period the local Turk chiefs acknowledged the authority of the Mughals. Since Mansehra provided main route to Kashmir, therefore, Emperor Akbar and later on Jehangir went to Kashmir via Mansehra. (10)
The first quarter of 18th century AD became miserable for the Turks because their rule came to an end due to the decay of their vitality and the increasing aggression of the Swatis and their allied forces . Under Jalal Baba the most crucial attack was that of 1703 AD when the Turks lost power to them. (11)
When Ahmad Shah Durrani extended his kingdom to Punjab and Kashmir, Mansehra also came under the control of this new invader. The Durranis controlled Mansehra through local khans. In the beginning of the 19th century AD their power weakened which opened the way of revolt against them. They sent many detachments of troops to maintain law and order but their control decreased day by day. When the Sikhs arose in power under Ranjit Singht (1777-1838 AD) they asserted themselves independent of the Durranis. Ranjit Singh organised his “Khalsa” army on modern lines and then started to extend his regime over a vast area. (12)
The Sikhs got hold of Mansehra in 1818 AD after a stiff resistance from its inhabitants. Soon after the Sikh annexation of Mansehra to Punjab, Syed Ahmad Shaheed along with the Mujahideen appeared on the soil of Mansehra. He, with cooperation of local people, fought many battles against the Sikhs. At last in 1831 AD in a fierce battle at Balakot the Sikhs got the upper hand and martyred Syed Ahmad along with his number of followers. Thus the Sikhs hold strengthened in Mansehra. (13)
After the death of Ranjit Singh, disintegration of the Sikh state started due to which the British annexed the Sikhs state to their dominion.
On 19 March 1846 AD a peace treaty was signed between the Sikhs and the British according to which Raja Gulab Singa, Hindu Rajput general, took Kashmir and Hazara from the British for Rs. 75,00,000. Later on exchanged Hazara with Jamu-Jehlum belt. The British took over Hazara from him and deputed James Abbot to make settlement. He brought peace to the area with little difficulty. (14)
Unlike the people of settled areas, the tribes of Kaladhaka, remained a constant source of trouble for the British till 1892 AD. The British sent more than four expeditions against them and ravaged Kaladhaka many times. To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measure having conferred titles on leading persons.(15)
After their advent the British declared Hazara a district, divided into three tehsils i.e. Mansehra, Abbottabad & Haripur, and annexed it with the Punjab. In 1901 when NWFP province was formed, Hazara became the part of new province of NWFP. (16)
During the British period Mansehra remained in the forefront of various religio-political movements in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent. The people of this area joined the ranks of those Muslim freedom fighters who wanted to strengthen the cause of Islam. They joined the Khilafat movement zealously. Consequently Mansehra became quite unruly. The British had to take strict measures to control the situation.(17)
When the Muslim League started its movement for a separate homeland, the local people joined it and struggled for liberation from the alien rulers under the leadership of Quaid-i-Azam and got triumphant victory against them, culminating in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of sub-continent.
Mansehra is located between 34o – 14’ and 35o – 11’ north latitudes and 72o – 49’ and 74o – 08’ east longitude. (18) It is bounded in the north by Batagram and Kohistan districts, in the east by Muzafarabad district of Azad Jamu and Kashmir, in the south by Abbottabad and Haripur districts and in the west by Swat district.
The leading distinctive features of Mansehra are its mountain ranges, the plains, the valleys and the lakes. The area has been blessed with the rich and harmonious combination of tall and stately fine trees, high mountains, plains, beautiful valleys and lakes which make it a heaven of peace.
The mountain ranges which enter Mansehra district from Kashmir are the offshoots of the great Himalayan system. In Kaghan valley the mountain system is the highest of the area including the Babusar top. This range flanks the right bank of the Kunhar, contains a peak (Malika-e-Parbat) of over 17,000 feet (19), the highest in the district. On the mountains the grasslands are also found where Gujars and other nomads migrate during summer for grazing their sheep, goats and other animals.
On the northern side there are mountains which are the extension of the same mountain system as that of Kaghan mountains. This range diverges from the eastern side at Musa-ka-Musalla a peak (13,378 feet) (20), which skirt the northern end of the Bhogarmang and Konsh valleys, and sends down a spur to divide the two. Here also, like Kaghan, thick forests are found especially on the higher slopes. Due to extensive exploitation only in unapproachable areas the thick forests are found.
In the west of the Siran valley the mountain ranges of Richari and Tanglai run towards the Chuttar plain. This plain is surrounded by the high mountains of Hilkot. The Batagram valley totally consists of mountains and hills. Towards the west there is Black Mountain range and on the north the mountains of Allai are also important because of thick forests and grasslands on the higher slopes and like the Kaghan valley the Gujars and other nomads migrate to this area which is called Malian in the local dialect. On the south of Chutter and Batagram is the Agror valley separated by the Tanglai mountain from Pakhli through a gap which is called Sosal Galli. From Agror southward are the Tanawal mountains, Bhingra (8,500 feet) (21) being the highest.
Towards the west from Oghi the important Black Mountain range runs northwards. This area is termed as the tribal area and notorious for the outlaws and criminals. The mountains are generally covered with forests only on the higher places. From Mansehra town’s westward the area is covered with low lying hills, the Bareri hill being prominent of them.
Some plains of Mansehra worth mentioning are Pakhli, Chuttar, Agror and Mangal. Pakhli tract is 3,000 feet above the sea level, 11 mile from north to south and ten mile from east to west. It is the most fertile and intensively cultivated plain, especially on the western side and is irrigated by bourns and nullahs and the Siran river. The Chuttar plain lies on the north of the Pakhli plain and is 5,5000 feet above the sea level, smaller in size than the former. The Agror tract is also popular in the area where rice, barley, wheat, maize and other crops are cultivated. (22)
There are many valleys in Mansehra among which the Kaghan valley, Konsh valley, Agror valley, Bhogarman valley and Pakhal valley are most popular. These large valleys have, taken together, produced holiday resorts such as the Kaghan valley. This particularly earned the reputation of having the most enchanting tourist resorts of Pakistan. Agror is a small valley lying at the foot of Black Mountain and is separated from Pakhli by the ridge of Tanglai. Konsh and Bhogarmang are also famous valleys.
Siran and Kunhar (Nain Sukh§) are well known rivers of the district. The Siran issues from Panjool and flows through the western plain of Pakhli. Two canals have been taken out from the Siran river, the upper Siran canal at Dharial and lower Siran canal at Shinkiari. From Pakhli the Siran runs into the Tanawal hills and joins the Indus at Tarbela in the north west. Its total course is between 70 to 80 miles, and it irrigates 6,273 acres of land.
The Kunhar bursts out from the lake Lulusar at the head of Kaghan valley and after a turbulent courses of 110 miles falls in the river Jehlum at Pattan. Since the land upon its bank is little level therefore, its water is not used for irrigation purposes. Some other notable bourn and nullahs which flow in district Mansehra are Pootkattha (Mansehra), Nadi Unhar (Shergarh), Butkus (joins the Siran near Icharian) and Ichar.
There are three beautiful lakes in Mansehra district. These are encircled by snow clad peaks of the mountain range in the Kaghan valley. The names of these lakes are Lulusar, Dudupatsar and Saiful Maluk Sar. The former two lie near Babusar top while the latter one near Naran. The word “sar” is used with the name of each lake meaning lake. In the summer when the water of these lake reflects like a mirror a large number of visitors from different areas of the country come to watch the enchanting views of these lakes. With Saiful Maluk Sar a legend of mythical fairy Badri Jamal and Prince Saiful Maluk is associated while Lulu Sar is the reminiscent of those 55 participants of 1857 war of independence who had been arrested near Lulu Sar. (23)
FLORA AND FAUNA:
The flora of Mansehra is a very interesting study. Due to the diversity of local topography and climate, particularly of rainfall, the flora varies from place to place. Tree species are well represented by the deciduous and evergreen types. The commonest broad leaved trees are walnut, asanthus, traikun, eucalyptus, acacia, chestnut, birth-cherry, yew, barmi, peshor, wild olive, ash, plane tree, alder, Persian lilac, elm, mulberry, and many species of willow and poplar Birch and occasionally juniper are found in the higher parts. Among the conifers there are pine, deodar, blue pine spruce and silver fir. The best known forests of pine in Mansehra, are the forest of Batrasi, Jaba, Dadar and Paraziarat. Deodar and blue pine grow in stony slopes like fir and spruce.
The general vegetation is of the shrub type which includes the shrubs or medium size trees. The common shrubs and herbs of the area are sanatha, grund, phulah, wild indigo, valerian, peony, sorrel, timar, phitni, hawthorn, oleaster, wayfaring, barberry, bamble, kamila and others. In the upper area as the snow melts by the approach of the spring followed by summer, the whole area gives the appearance of a vast flower bed, dominated by the number of annual and perennial herbs.
Apple, apricot, plum, fig, pear, wild pear, mango, orange, damson, litchi, and persimmon are worth mentioning fruit trees of the area. Sunflower, rose, jasmine, jasmine-zambak, narcissus, tulip, lily, dog violet, brush flax, iris and must-rose are included in the flora of Mansehra.
Mansehra district sprawling over an area of 4579 km2. had been traditionally the home of variety and plenty from faunistic point of view. The expansion in agricultural activities has affected the natural habitats of the area.
The fresh water fauna is directly or indirectly dependent on the local rainfall, natural springs, and mostly the Kunhar and Siran rivers. The Kunhar river abounds in trout fish, a hot favourite for amateur fishing zeal. A trout fish hatchery has been established at Shinu (Kaghan) to supplement the fish numbers. China corp. gold fish, mullah, chukar and eel are found in the Siran. For the former two a hatchery has been established in Ichrian while the latter are commonly found in the rivers and nallahs.
Reptiles like the lizards and snakes are the master creepers and runners among the terrestrial fauna. In avian fauna are included several species of herons, teals, doves, cuckoos, bee eaters, wood peckers, larks, shrikes, bulbuls, finches and wagtails are widely dispersed in gardens, cultivated fields, streams and hill slopes. Swallows, parrots, mainas, pigeon, sparrows, hoopoe, kingfishers and crows are also found, while western horned tragopan, imperial monal pheasant, and kokla pheasant are found only in hilly areas, whereas black and grey partridges as well as quails are also common. The birds of prey are shikra, sparrow hawk, owl and several species of vulture.
Mansehra still has varied mammalian fauna despite the fact that the mammals had the hardest time directly or indirectly through man’s persecution. The rhesus monkeys and the common lungur are dwelling in large numbers. Among the carnivores, lion and cheetah became extinct while the snow leopard and leopard are endangered species. The snow leopard moves up and down the mountains with its favourite prey like markhor. The other animals found in Mansehra are wolf, red fox, black and brown bears, jackal, leopard, leopard cat, Himalayan lynx, mongoose, musk deer, grey goral and ibex. The pet animals are camel, buffalo, cow, horse, donkey, sheep and goat.
The natural scenery and climate of Mansehra has a great attraction for the tourists. Low and bare hills that fringe the level tracts have attraction of their own, panoramic view of widespread plain and invigorating fresh air in all seasons and the higher hills with pine covered slopes, the snow capped peaks of Kaghan, Bhogarmang, Konsh, Allai and the regions beyond the mountains are torrents and water-falls. The peaceful lakes of Kaghan, the villages perched on almost inaccessible heights and the green valleys are appealing to the lovers of beauty.
These lovers of beauty rejoice when they walk on mountain crests and see the mists sweeping up. They can listen to the roars of water from behind the great grey curtain, and look at the torrent at their feet tumbling over the rocks down gully and glen. The stillness of the dawn, of noon and of evening as well as the winds pure and austere are really most enchanting for the lovers of beauty.
The climate of the district is warm in summer and cold in winter. The northern part where there are high mountains is cold in summer due to snow clad mountains and is very cold in winter. The total annual rainfall of the district according to 1972 census report is 72 inches. Temperature ranges from 2oC to 36oC in the district. (24)
IMPORTANT AND HISTORICAL PLACES:
There are a number of important and historical places in Mansehra. Kaghan is famous for its pleasant climate in summer when tourists come to watch its beautiful views. Then comes Balakot which has a great significance in the history of Hazara with special reference of Syed Ahmed Shaheed’s movement. The other well-known villages and towns are Mansehra, Baffa, Shinkiari, Dhodial, Battal, Bhogarmang, Phulra (chief village of the former Phulra state), Oghi, Shergarh (the summer headquarters of the former Nawab of Amb), Darband (former centre of Amb state), Gulibagh (capital of former Pakhli Sarkar), Ichrian, Ghari, Habibullah, Jabori, Chutter, Dadar, Khaki and Kaladhaka.
The lack of irrigation facilities in the district has affected the productivity of the soil in spite of its fertility. Total area of the district is 10,67,291 acres out of which 2, 58, 999 acres is cultivated and 8,08,292 acres is uncultivated. Irrigated land is 48, 571 acres only. Thus the land prove not much productive. Cultivation mainly depends on seasonal rainfall. The soil of Pakhli plain is very fertile and productive due to irrigation facilities. (25)
The mentionable crops of Mansehra are wheat, maize, rice, tobacco rape seed and mustard, barley and fodder, vegetables, soybeans and pulses. Tea growing experiments have also been made at Shinkiari, Baffa and Ichrian due to a suitable climate and congenial condition. These experiments have proved successful. Fruit orchards are also a source of income. Large number of people earn their livelihood through agriculture.
MINES AND MINERALS:
The mineral resources of Mansehra are mainly under-developed. Mica, marble, soap stone and chromites have been located as large deposits at Kaghan valley, Batrasi etc. Silica sand, topaz, brights, fulspar, tanbra and phosphate are acquired from Jabori, Butakundi, Butrasi, Oghi and Gidarpur while limestone is found everywhere in the district. A lot of minerals lie in an inaccessible area and if more attention is paid, the mineral wealth can contribute a lot for development of a number of industries. (26)
Mansehra district is inhabited by a large number of tribes as well as khels. The people are as mixed as the soil. Among them some are the oldest inhabitants while the other arrived here in different periods of time. The first arrival of the latter group is dated back to the medieval times. Some invaded this area and settled here while some others came to seek shelter.
In ancient times these people practiced Buddhism but later on they shifted to Hinduism when it gained power after a long while. In the medieval period the Muslims introduced Islam to them.
The inhabitants of Mansehra speak Hindko, Pashto, Gojri and Urdu languages. Hindko, Pashto and Gojri are the local languages while Urdu being the national language is spoken and understood throughout the district.
Gujars, Tanaolis, Swatis, Awans and Syeds are important and prominent tribes of the district. Except Awans all of them are politically sound and powerful. Swatis and Syeds have better economic status while majority of the other tribes have weak economic standing.
In addition to above mentioned tribes Dhunds, Qureshis, Gukhars, Mughals, Rajputs, Turks, Akhun Khels, Utmanzais, Hassanzais and Nusrat Khels are worth mentioning tribe and khels in district Mansehra. They live in different parts of the district but are small in number.
The population of the district according to the census of 1998 is 11,52,839. The current growth rate is 2.4 per cent. Density per square kilometre is 252 persons. The total area of the district is 4,579 square kilometres. (27)
According to the census of 1998, 45.5% of the population is under 15 years of age; 50.6% is between the age groups of 15 and 64 years, while 3.9% comprises persons of 65 years old and above. Literacy rate is 36.3%. (28
In 1947 Mansehra became part of Hazara region, NWFP, of nascent Pakistan. In due course, the Nawab of Amb, Sir Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession of his state and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan.
During Bhutto's regime, Mansehra was upgraded to a district, containing two subdivisions: Mansehra and Batagram. Later, the Mansehra district had the Balakot subdivision added to it. In 2011 it was further truncated as the Kala Dhaka or Tor Ghar district was also created herein.
Mansehra is located at the eastern border of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, four hours away from Peshawar and three hours away from Islamabad. The district is located at 34° - 12' and 35° - 50' and 47° - 07' longitude. It is closely linked to Afghanistan in the west, which has increased the number of Afghan refugees in Mansehra over the past years.
The district of Mansehra has been blessed with wonderful scenery. Some of Mansehra's main features are mountain ranges, plains, valleys, and numerous lakes and rivers 'Siran'.
Bordering districts 
Mansehra shares its borders with numerous other districts: the Kohistan and Diamir districts to the north, Abbottabad District to the south, the Neelum District of Azad Kashmir to the east, and the Swat district to the west and Batagram District to the northeast.
There are three lakes in the district: Lulusar Lake, Dudipatsar Lake and Saiful Muluk Lake. All three are located in the beautiful Kaghan Valley and act as a mirror reflecting the snow-clad mountains surrounding them.
Lulusar Lake is approximately 48 kilometres away from Naran and has an altitude of 3325 meters. Surrounded by wildflowers in almost all colours imaginable, this lake is the main source for the Kunhar River. Lake Lulusar is said to be one of the most tranquil spots on the Kaghan Valley, the lake is fenced by snowcapped mountains whose image is reflected on the standstill blue-green waters of the lake.
Dudipat Lake is enclosed with beautiful, high, snow-drizzled peaks, it is one of the hardest places to reach, requiring a tough hike lasting four to seven hours. The hike is rewarding, as tourists are greeted with green pastures and the lake's blue-green waters.
The most famous of the district's many lakes is Lake Saiful Muluk, named in a folktale—the Qissa Saiful Muluk—about a romance between a Persian prince and a fairy princess. In the folktale, the lake was the meeting site for the two lovers. Lake Saiful Muluk is located at the northern end of the Kaghan valley. At an altitude of 10,578 feet (3,224 m) above sea level, it is one of the highest lakes in Pakistan. The water is spectacularly clear with a slight green tone. It is accessible by a jeep road during the summer months or can be hiked up from the village below in four to six hours. The clarity of the water comes from the multiple glaciers all around the high basin feeding the lake.
Mansehra is considered a good place for education because of its natural beauty and climate, it is the location of Hazara University and also contains colleges and many good schools. The first primary school in the district was established in 1872 in Behali village. Almost at the same time in Baffa and in 1892 in Mansehra city.
There is some famous Army college named Pakistan Scouts Cadet College Batrasi, is located on Mansehra – Balakot Road, at a picturesque lush green spot in Batrasi Hills at a distance of 16 KM from Mansehra City. The students of this college take top position in inter board exams and most of the parents try and prefer this college for taking admission''.
There are some famous private colleges like Islamia Public School, Sky International, Mansehra Public School, Khyber Public School
The largest river is the Kunhar River, also known as the Kunnar (not to be confused with the Kunar River of the Chitral District). The river is the gateway to the Kaghan Valley and runs through Balakot. Siran is a largest river in the area of Pakhhal it comes from mountain namely Musa Da Masalla and ends in the lake of Tarbela Dam.
There are some streams named Boot '''Katha, Jogar Pul Kassi, Panjkoori Stream Lassa Nawab,..
There are some picnic spots near to River Siran like 'Shahzeb Lake.' Every person wants to come and enjoy the natural beauty.
Balakot Tehsil consists of 12 Union Councils:
Mansehra Tehsil consists of 37 Union Councils:
Tehsil Oghi consists of 11 Union Councils:
- Constituencies and MPAs - Website of the Provincial Assembly of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
- 1998 Census of Pakistan
- UNESCO world heritage Centre - Mansehra Rock Edicts
- Hazara Gazetteer 1883-84, Govt of Punjab, 1884
- In a Peshawar letter dated 10th December 1858, from Lt. Col. H. B. Edwards, Commissioner and Supdt, Peshawar Division, to the Financial Commissioner of the Punjab. extracted from "A Collection of Papers relating to the History, Status and Powers of The Nawab of Amb", pg 83, Published 1874, Punjab Secretariat
- Letter dated 21st March 1863. From Thomas Douglas Forsyth, Officiating Secretary to the Government Punjab to Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department, Collection of Papers Relating To The History, Status and Powers of the Chief of Amb, 97 Pages, Published 1874, Punjab Secretariat, pg 58
- Gazetteer 1883-84
- Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mansehra - Government of Pakistan