Manchukuo National Airways
|Founded||September 26, 1931
|Ceased operations||August 1945|
|Destinations||Domestic, Empire of Japan, Germany|
Manchukuo National Airways (満州航空株式会社 Manshū kōkū kabushikigaisha or MKKK; hángkōng zhūshì huìshè?) was the name of the national airline of Manchukuo. It is sometimes referred to as Manchukuo Air Transport Company.
Manchukuo National Airways was established on 26 September 1931 in Fengtian by order of the Japanese Kwantung Army, out of the Manchurian branch office of Japan Air Transport, the forerunner of Imperial Japanese Airways. It officially adopted the name Manchukuo National Airways on the proclamation of the “independence” of Manchukuo. Major shareholders were the Manchukuo government, the South Manchurian Railway Company and the Sumitomo zaibatsu.
From the beginning, the Manchukuo National Airways was a paramilitary airline, whose primary purpose was to provide transport and logistical support for the military, and for the transport of mail. Civilian passengers were carried and charter operations undertaken on a lower priority.
The airline had a "hub" in Hsinking and was linked by regular flight routes from Harbin, Shamussi (Kiamusze), Kirin, Mukden, Antung, Chinchow, Chengde, Tsitsihar, Hailar, and the Kwantung Leased Territory and Korea areas, for connections with Imperial Japanese Airways (Dai Nippon Koku KK) to Japan itself or foreign routes. A long distance route between Hsinking and Berlin was also pioneered in 1938.
The Manchukuo National Airways ceased operations in August 1945 during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, however wartime fuel and equipment shortages had previously curtailed its operations considerably. Remaining aircraft, goods and equipment were confiscated, to the benefit of the Soviet Union and Communist Chinese, after the conflict.
- 30x Manshū MT-1 Hayabusa airliner
- 27x de Havilland DH.80 "Pussmoth"
- 15x Messerschmitt Bf 108A/B "Taifun" liaison aircraft
- 12x Nakajima Ki-34 "Thora" transports
- 10x Mitsubishi Ki-57 "Topsy" transports
- 10x Junkers Ju 86Z-1 transports/bombers
- 10x Junkers Ju 86Z-2 transports/bombers
- 2x Heinkel He 116A communications planes
- 2x Fokker F.VIIb-3m/M transports
- 1x Tachikawa Ki-54 "Hickory" transport
- 1x de Havilland DH.85 "Leopardmoth"
- 1x General Aviation GA-43 transport
- ?x Tachikawa Type LO "Thelma" transport (license build Lockheed Model 14-38 Super Electra)
- ?x Airspeed Envoy (license build Mitsubishi Type Hinazuru transport)
- ?x Manshū Super Universal (license built Fokker Super Universal)
- ?x Nakajima AT-2 airliner
- ?x Kawasaki Ki-56 transport
- ?x Kokusai Ki-59 transport
- Jowett 2005, pp. 90.
- Jowett, Philip. Rays of the Rising Sun, Volume 1: Japan's Asian Allies 1931-45, China and Manchukuo. Helion and Company Ltd., 2005. ISBN 1-874622-21-3.
- Mikesh, Richard C. and Shorzoe Abe. Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0=85177=840=2.