Mansur Shah of Malacca

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Mansur Shah
منصور شه
Sultan of Malacca
Reign Malacca Sultanate: 1459–1477
Predecessor Muzaffar Shah
Successor Alauddin Riayat Shah
Consort Hang Li Po and others
Father Muzaffar Shah

Sultan Mansur Shah was the sixth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled Malacca from 1459 to 1477. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, Muzaffar Shah.

Expansions of Malaccan Empire[edit]

Mansur Shah implemented a policy of expansionism during his rule. Many territories in Peninsular Malaysia and eastern Sumatra and the surrounding islands were under the control of Malacca during his rule such as Selangor, Bernam, Kampar, Siak, Manjung, Rupat, Singapore, and Bintan.[citation needed] Mansur Shah also ordered the attack of Pahang by Tun Perak, the Bendahara of Malacca, to secure the defense of Malacca on the east coast. Siantan and Inderagiri in Sumatra were also given to Malacca as dowry for his marriage to the princess of Majapahit.[citation needed]

Marriage alliances[edit]

Mansur Shah also used marriage alliances between princesses of Malacca and the rulers of conquered states to strengthen Malacca’s control over those states, such as marriage between the king of Siak to Mansur Shah's daughter, Princess Mahadewi.[citation needed] Such alliances was a factor in Islam's expansion in maritime Southeast Asia.

Three of Mansur Shah's daughters became queens of the kingdom of Patani, including Ratu Biru.

Princesses of conquered states were also married to sons of Malaccan ministers, such as Princess Wanang Seri of Pahang and Raden Galoh Candra Kirana, were married to sons of ministers like Tun Putih Nur Pualam.[citation needed]

According to historian Tomé Pires, Mansur Shah also married concubines who were foreign princesses such as Hang Li Po and daughters of merchants from India and Pasai to strengthen trade relationships. These princesses were also converted to Islam. Following the lead of the sultan, others married foreigners as well making foreign marriage customs a not uncommon sight in Malacca.[citation needed]

Economic policy[edit]

Mansur Shah reduced taxes on trade items during his reign, which increased the interest of merchants in trading through Malacca. A preferential tariff system was introduced whereby a 6% tax was levied on the trade of merchants from west of Malacca, such as Arabia and India, and a 3% tax was levied on the trade of merchants’ from Maritime Southeast Asia. Merchants from China, Japan and Java were not taxed at all.[citation needed] Another economic advantage of Malacca was the easy access to labourers.[citation needed]

Spread of Islam[edit]

Mansur Shah, who had an interest in Islam, encouraged scholarship in Islamic theological studies, and studied tasawuf himself. He studied under Maulana Abu Bakar, who brought the Ab Darul Manzum scriptures to Malacca. He ordered the translation of the scripture to Malay by Makhdum Patakan. Mansur Shah referred to scholars from Pasai on religious issues due to their expertise.[citation needed]

Mansur Shah of Malacca
House of Malacca
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Muzaffar Shah
Sultan of Malacca
1456–1477
Succeeded by
Alauddin Riayat Shah