Manuel Candamo

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Manuel González de Candamo e Iriarte
Manuel Candamo.jpg
President of the Provisional Government Junta of Peru
In office
March 20, 1895 – September 8, 1895
Preceded by Andrés Avelino Cáceres
Succeeded by Nicolás de Piérola
30th President of Peru
In office
September 8, 1903 – May 7, 1904
Preceded by Eduardo López de Romaña
Succeeded by Serapio Calderón
Personal details
Born (1841-07-14)July 14, 1841
Lima, Peru
Died May 7, 1904(1904-05-07) (aged 62)
Arequipa, Peru
Nationality Peruvian
Political party Civilista Party
Spouse(s) Teresa Álvarez-Calderón

Manuel González de Candamo e Iriarte (14 July 1841 – May 7, 1904) was President of Peru from September 8, 1903 until May 7, the following year, when he died in office.

Early life and family[edit]

Born in a wealthy family (Manuel was the son of Pedro Español González de Candamo y Astorga (Puerto de Valparaiso, Chile, 30 June 1799 - Lima, 22 January 1866), Peruvian Ambassador - then the richest man in Peru -, and wife (1825) María de las Mercedes Iriarte y Odria[1]); paternal grandson of Alfonso González de Candamo y Prieto (born in Asturias the son of Gaspar González de Candamo and wife Eulalia Prieto) and wife Petronila de Astorga y Urizar (born in Valparaiso) and maternal grandson of Pedro Ignacio Iriarte y Velasco-Patiño, Mine owner from Huancayo, who bought the Hacienda Lobatón in 1819 and half of the Hacienda Cónsac, and wife Paula Odria y Granados, daughter of the owners of Hacienda Rumichaca Juan Ignacio Odria and wife Manuela Granados, sister of Marcelo Granados (La Asunción de Mito, 1758 - ?), Governor of La Trinidad de Huancayo.

Manuel Candamo spend his early years in the "Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe". After graduating from High School, he was accepted in the National University of San Marcos, where he obtained a bachelor's degree on Jurisprudence.

Early political career[edit]

Pezet and the Chinchan Islands War[edit]

In 1863, Cándamo started to work for "El Comercio", one of the oldest newspapers in the capital. From there, he was a harsh critic of President Juan Antonio Pezet and the "Vivanco-Pareja Treaty", specifically for the way of how the government was handling the diplomatic crisis with Spain. For his actions, he was exiled to Chile, returning only after Mariano Ignacio Prado's successfully launched a coup against Pezet.

After the revolution, he was an active supporter of Prado during the Chincha Islands War. When the Peruvian Congress refused to recognize Prado's government, Cándamo traveled to Chile as part of the Peruvian diplomatic mission. He did not stay on Chile, and left that country for Europe and Asia.

Civilista Party[edit]

Manuel Cándamo, together with Manuel Pardo, was among the founding members of the Civilista Party. The party itself achieved public notoriety for being the first organized political party in Peru, and because it was also the first one to be composed primarily of civilians. During this period, Cándamo successfully started once again his political career and several economic businesses.

War of the Pacific and Reconstruction[edit]

After the collapse of the Peruvian Southern Armies and the imminent invasion of Lima, Cándamo took part in the defense of the city, fighting in the Battles of San Juan and Miraflores. When the city is occupied by the Chilean Army, Cándamo and several other prominent politicians are deported to Chile due to their opposition to any peace proposal that involved ceding Tarapacá, Tacna and Arica to the Chileans.

Candamo returned to Peru after the Treaty of Ancón was signed and the war over, and is once again deported for his opposition to President Miguel Iglesias and support to Andrés Avelino Cáceres. Once Iglesias is overthrown and Cáceres is in power, Candamo was elected to the Senate, reaching its presidency in 1888, 1890 and 1892.

Later political career[edit]

President of the Junta[edit]

A member of the Civilista Party, Candamo served as mayor of Lima. After Andrés Avelino Cáceres was forced to resign from the Presidency in 1894, Candamo was selected to head a "Provisional Government Junta" and to call for new elections. Nicolás de Piérola, allied with the Civilista Party, won the election.

President of the Senate[edit]

During the administion of Eduardo López de Romaña, he was elected President of the Peruvian Senate. This was done after the Civilista and Democratic parties reached a compromise and divided their political influence in the government.

For the Election of 1903, Cándamo was regarded as a moderate candidate and the more trusted political figure in the Civilista Party. After being elected President, Cándamo became ill and died in office. He was married to Teresa Alvarez-Calderón.

Following a brief interim government headed by Serapio Calderón, Cándamo was succeeded by his foreign minister José Pardo.

Personal life[edit]

Manuel Candamo married Teresa Álvarez-Calderón, and had two daughters. One of them, Teresa De La Cruz, founded the convent Canonesas de La Cruz, and was given the title of Servant of God in 1981 by the Catholic Church, which means her life is being studied in order to eventually grant her the title of Saint.

References[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Andrés Avelino Cáceres
Interim President of Peru
1895
Succeeded by
Nicolás de Piérola
Preceded by
Eduardo López de Romaña
President of Peru
1903 – 1904
Succeeded by
Serapio Calderón