Manuel de Falla
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Manuel de Falla y Matheu (23 November 1876 – 14 November 1946) was a Spanish composer. With Isaac Albéniz and Enrique Granados he is one of Spain's most important musicians of the first half of the 20th century. His image was on Spain's 1970 100-pesetas banknote.
Falla was born Manuel María de los Dolores Falla y Matheu in Cádiz. He was the son of José María Falla, a Valencian, and María Jesús Matheu, from Catalonia (Hess 2001a). His early teachers in music were his mother and grandfather. At the age of nine he was introduced to his first piano teacher, Eloísa Galluzo. Little is known of that period in his life, but his relationship with his teacher was soon ended after she decided to enter a convent, Sisters of Charity, to become a nun.
In 1889 he continued his piano lessons with Alejandro Odero and learned the techniques of harmony and counterpoint from Enrique Broca. At age 15 he became interested in literature and journalism and founded the literary magazines El Burlón and El Cascabel. In 1893 he was inspired by a concert of Edvard Grieg's works, later saying that at the time he felt that "my definitive vocation is music".[this quote needs a citation]
In 1896 he moved to Madrid where he attended the Real Conservatorio de Música y Declamación. He studied piano with José Tragó, a colleague of Isaac Albéniz and composition with Felipe Pedrell. In 1897 he composed Melodia for cello and piano and dedicated it to Salvador Viniegra, who hosted evenings of chamber music that Falla attended. In 1899, by unanimous vote, he was awarded the first prize at the piano competition at his school of music. He premiered his first works: Romanza para violonchelo y piano, Nocturno para piano, Melodía para violonchelo y piano, Serenata andaluza para violín y piano, and Cuarteto en Sol y Mireya. That same year he started to use de with his first surname, making Manuel de Falla the name he became known as from that time on. When only the surname is used, however, the de is omitted.
In 1900 he composed his Canción para piano and various other vocal and piano pieces. He premiered his Serenata andaluza y Vals-Capricho para piano in the Ateneo de Madrid. Due to the precarious financial position of his family, he began to teach piano classes.
It was from Pedrell, during the Madrid period, that Falla became interested in native Andalusian music, particularly Andalusian flamenco (specifically cante jondo), the influence of which can be strongly felt in many of his works. Among his early pieces are a number of zarzuelas like La Juana y la Petra and La casa de tócame Roque. On 12 April 1902 he premiered Los amores de la Inés in the Teatro Cómico de Madrid. The same year he met the composer Joaquín Turina and saw his Vals-Capricho y Serenata andaluza published by the Society of Authors.
The following year he composed and performed Allegro de concierto for the Madrid Royal Conservatory competition. Enrique Granados took first prize with his composition of the same title, but the Society of Authors published Falla's works Tus ojillos negros and Nocturno. Falla then began his collaboration with composer Amadeo Vives on the zarzuelas Prisionero de guerra, El cornetín de órdenes and La cruz de Malta (only fragments of these works survive).
His first important work was the one-act opera La vida breve (Life is Short, or The Brief Life, written in 1905, though revised before its premiere in 1913). With a libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw, La vida breve won Falla first prize in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando musical competition, with a prize of 2500 pesetas and a promise of a production at the Teatro Royal in Madrid—a pledge which unfortunately was not fulfilled (Harper 1998, 17). In April 1905 he won the first prize in a piano competition sponsored by the firm of Ortiz and Cussó. On 15 May his work Allegro de concierto premiered in the Ateneo de Madrid and on 13 November the Real Academia presented him with his prize for La vida breve.
On the advice of Joaquín Turina (Harper 2005, xxxvi) and Víctor Mirecki Larramat, Falla moved to Paris in 1907, where he remained for seven years. There he met a number of composers who had an influence on his style, including the impressionists Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy and Paul Dukas, as well as Igor Stravinsky, Florent Schmitt, Isaac Albéniz, and the choreographer Sergei Diaghilev (Hess 2001a). In 1908 King Alfonso XIII awarded him a royal grant that enabled him to remain in Paris while he finished his Cuatro piezas españolas. In 1910 Falla met Stravinsky and in 1911–12 traveled to London, Brussels, and Milan, to give concerts and investigate possible venues for La vida breve. which he had composed shortly after his arrival in Paris in 1907 but which, despite the support of Dukas and Falla's own best efforts, was not finally performed until 1 April 1913 at the Municipal Casino in Nice, with the libretto translated into French by the dramatist Paul Milliet. A second production was given the following year at the Opéra-Comique, to acclaim from critics such as Pierre Lalo and André Coeuroy (Hess 2001a). He wrote Siete canciones populares españolas, which he finished in mid-1914. Shortly after, World War I began, forcing Falla to return to Madrid (Hess 2001a). While at no stage was he a prolific composer, it was then that he entered into his mature creative period.
Return to Madrid
In Madrid he composed several of his best-known pieces, including:
- The nocturne for piano and orchestra Nights in the Gardens of Spain (Noches en los jardines de España, 1916)
- The ballet El amor brujo ("The Bewitched Love", 1915) which includes the much excerpted and arranged Ritual Fire Dance ("Danza Ritual Del Fuego")
- The ballet The Magistrate and the Miller's Wife (El corregidor y la molinera) which, after revision, became The Three-Cornered Hat (El sombrero de tres picos, 1917) and was produced by Serge Diaghilev with set design and costumes by Pablo Picasso.
From 1921 to 1939 Manuel de Falla lived in Granada, where he organized the Concurso de Cante Jondo in 1922. In Granada he wrote the puppet opera El retablo de maese Pedro (Master Peter's Puppet Show, 1923) and a concerto for harpsichord and chamber ensemble (Harpsichord Concerto, 1926). The puppet opera marked the first time Falla included the harpsichord in his orchestra. Both of these works were written with Wanda Landowska in mind. In these works, the Spanish folk influence is somewhat less apparent than a kind of Stravinskian neoclassicism (Hess 2001a; Hess 2001b, 234, 239; Hess 2004, 139, 146, 151).
Also in Granada, Falla began work on the large-scale orchestral cantata Atlántida (Atlantis), based on the Catalan text L'Atlàntida by Jacint Verdaguer. Falla considered Atlántida to be the most important of all his works; posterity has not agreed with this verdict, and performances of the piece have been extremely rare. Verdaguer's text gives a mythological account of how the submersion of Atlantis created the Atlantic Ocean, thus separating Spain and Latin America, and how later the Spanish discovery of America reunited what had always belonged together.
Falla continued work on Atlántida after moving to Argentina in 1939, following Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War. (The orchestration of the piece remained incomplete at his death and was completed posthumously by Ernesto Halffter.) He also premiered his Suite Homenajes in Buenos Aires in November 1939. In 1940, he was named a Knight of the Order of King Alfonso X of Castile. Franco's government offered him a large pension if he would return to Spain, but he refused.
Falla did spend some time teaching in exile. Among his notable pupils was composer Rosa García Ascot. His health began to decline and he moved to a house in the mountains where he was tended by his sister María del Carmen de Falla. He died of cardiac arrest on 14 November 1946 in Alta Gracia, in the Argentine province of Córdoba. In 1947 his remains were brought back to Spain and entombed in the cathedral at Cádiz. One of the lasting honors to his memory is the Manuel de Falla Chair of Music in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at Complutense University of Madrid. His image appeared on Spanish currency notes for some years. Manuel de Falla never married and had no children.
Recordings by Falla
- Manuel de Falla 1876-1946 Grabaciones históricas; Centro de Documentación Musical de Andalucía. (Almaviva, HOM13080) (ref)
- Rollos de Pianola (Obras de Albéniz, Granados, Turina, Ocón, Chapí, Alonso y Otros) (Almaviva, DS - 0141) ASIN B000GI34D6
Performed by Carrie Rehkopf
Performed by John Michel
Performed live by John Michel
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- Falla by Manuel Orozco Diaz (Barcelona: Salvat, 1985).
- "Falla (y Matheu), Manuel de" by Carol A. Hess. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
- Manuel de Falla: A Bibliography and Research Guide by Andrew Budwig with preface by Gilbert Chase; Garland Composer Resource Manuals 4; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 561 (New York: Garland Publishers, 1986). ISBN 9780824087852.
- Manuel de Falla: A Bio-Bibliography by Nancy Lee Harper; Bio-Bibliographies in Music 68 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998). ISBN 9780313302923.
- Manuel de Falla and Modernism in Spain by Carol A. Hess (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).
- Manuel de Falla and the Spanish Musical Renaissance by Burnett James (London: Gollancz, 1979). ISBN 9780575026452.
- Manuel de Falla: His Life and Music by Nancy Lee Harper (Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2005). ISBN 9781461669548.
- Sacred Passions: The Life and Music of Manuel de Falla by Carol A. Hess (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). ISBN 978-0-19-972428-4.
- The Manuel de Falla Foundation in Spanish and English
- Free scores by Manuel de Falla at the International Music Score Library Project
- Nana by Manuel de Falla from his Siete Canciones Populares Españolas (played by Duo Roldan)
- Arthur Rubinstein in De Falla's "Ritual Fire Dance" on YouTube performed by Arthur Rubinstein
- Concert version for cello on YouTube performed by Julian Lloyd Webber (cello)
- Free scores by Manuel de Falla in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)