Manuel Godoy, Prince of the Peace
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Don Manuel Francisco Domingo de Godoy (di Bassano) y Álvarez de Faria, de los Ríos y Sánchez-Zarzosa, also Manuel de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria de los Ríos Sánchez Zarzosa (May 12, 1767 – October 4, 1851), was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808. He received many titles including Prince of the Peace (Príncipe de la Paz) by which he is widely known. He came to power at a very young age as the favorite of the king and queen. Despite disaster after disaster he used corruption to maintain power. Many Spanish leaders blamed Godoy for the disastrous war with Britain that cut off Spain's Empire and ruined its finances.
Birth and family background
Godoy was born in Castuera (Badajoz), the third son of noble parents but without fortune. His father was José de Godoy y Sánchez de los Ríos, de Cáceres y Méndez or José de Godoy y Sánchez de los Ríos Cáceres Morillo y Rodríguez, an impoverished army colonel of aristocratic background born in Badajoz on November 14, 1731 and baptized in his P. del Sagrario nine days old, who later became Governor of the Council of Treasure (Gobernador de Consejo de Hacienda), Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III and Saint Fernando since 1794, Colonel of the Provincial Militia of Extremadura and Perpetual Regedor (Rector) of the City of Badajoz, his homeland. His mother was María Antonia Justa Álvarez de Faria y Sánchez, Pimienta y Zarzosa or Antonia Justa Álvarez Serrano de Faria y Sánchez Zarzosa, who became Dame of Honor of the Queen. His paternal grandparents were Luis Vicente de Godoy y Cáceres and wife Antonia de los Ríos y Méndez. His maternal grandparents were Diego Álvarez de Faria y Pimienta, native of Yelbes, descendant of the great House of the de Faria of Portugal, and wife Juana Sánchez y Zarzosa, native of Alburquerque. His parents got married in 1757. His brothers and sisters, all of them older, were:
- José de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, born in Badajoz, Canon of Badajoz and of Toledo;
- Luis de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria (Badajoz – Rome, 1761), Knight of Santiago (since 1787), married to Juana de Armendáriz, daughter of the Marqueses de Castelfuerte; Lieutenant-General (Teniente-General) of the Royal Armies
- Diego de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria de los Ríos Sánchez Zarzosa (as so he is called in his el exp. of Charles III of Spain, nr 1178, of 1803), 1st Duque de Almodóvar del Campo, Knight of Calatrava since 1794, twice married to Pascuala Paes and to Josefa Olazábal, without issue; Josefa Joaquina de Olazábal y Murguía (Santa María del Juncal, Irún, baptized July 18, 1761 – Irún, October 12, 1799) was 25th Noble Dame of the Royal Order of Queen María Luisa
- María Antonia de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria (Badajoz – Genoa, July 25, 1836), 21st Noble Dame of the Royal Order of Queen María Luisa, married in Madrid, August 15, 1790 to Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, Knight of Santiago and Charles III and Viceroy of New Spain
- Ramona de las Mercedes de Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, 87th Noble Dame of the Royal Order of Queen María Luisa, married to Manuel José Cándido de Moreno Cidoncha, 1st Conde de Fuente Blanca, born in 1753 at Calera de León; it is given a note of his ascendance and descendance in the work of Antonio del Solar
The nobility of his four surnames was emphasized by the entry of his brother Luis in the Order of Santiago, and his brother Diego in the Order of Calatrava. His father José entered, with proofs, in the Order of Charles III in 1794, and two of his mother's brothers, José and Juan Manuel Álvarez de Faria y Sánchez, Pimienta y Zarzosa, adopted the Habit of the Order of Santiago in 1792, and the first at the Cross of Charles III in 1801. This noble family always had Knights, Commanders and even Masters in the Order of Santiago.
The House of de Godoy is one of the noblest and most illustrious of the Spanish Extremadura and came from the House of the same name in Galicia, to which belonged Pedro Ruíz de Godoy, son of Rodrigo Alfonso. This Knight married Teresa, daughter of Juan Muñiz, and through her their descendants surnamed themselves Muñiz de Godoy. Don Pedro Muñiz de Godoy was one of the most valiant Knights of his time and the one who distinguished himself the most in the reign of King Henry II of Castile, of whom he was an intimate, exercising the high charges of Adelantado-Mayor and Capitán-General of the Frontier of Portugal; he died in 1387 at the Battle of Valverde, having been Master of the Order of Calatrava, and also of the Order of Santiago. His descendants, connected to the most illustrious Extremeñas families, exercised the highest posts in the lands they inhabited, a testimony of their splendor.
In 1784, at the age of 17, Godoy moved to Madrid where he entered the royal bodyguard. He went to Madrid on a journey of adventure, and his accomplishments in chant and the playing of guitar, although he denied it in his Memoirs, led him to the Palace, where by his intelligence and audacity and, according to some, the favors of Queen María Luisa, he obtained the trust of Charles IV. In 1788 he met the heir to the Spanish throne, who later that year succeeded as King Charles IV.
Godoy quickly became a favourite of Charles IV and of his wife Queen Maria Louisa. On December 30, 1788 he was given the office of "Cadete supernumerario" in the royal palace, and in May 1789 he was promoted to the rank of colonel. In November 1789 he was named a knight of the Order of Santiago, and in August 1790 advanced to the rank of commander in the same order. In 1791 he was Adjutant-General (Ajudante-General) of the Bodyguard, in February he was named Field-Marshal (Mariscal de Campo), in March Gentleman of the Chamber (Gentilhombre de la Cámara), and in July Lieutenant-General (Teniente-General) and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III in 1791.
Prime Minister of Spain
Godoy's frequent promotions were external signs of his increasing influence over the king and queen. In 1791 the Prime-Minister Floridablanca accused Godoy of having an adulterous relationship with the queen. In January 1792 Floridablanca fell from office on account of Spain's relationship with the emerging French Republic. His successor Aranda fell from office the following November, and Queen Maria Louisa arranged for Godoy to be Prime Minister. Godoy's appointment seems to have been accomplished with the full acceptance of King Charles IV, who not himself having any talent for governing, was happy to employ somebody else who was competent and trustworthy.
Godoy was made Duke of Alcúdia, with grandeeship, in 1792 and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in the following year. The following year he was made Captain General and Duke of Sueca, Marquis of Alvarez, and Lord of Soto de Roma. He was also made the 15th Minister for Foreign Affairs of Spain on November 15, 1792.
Godoy continued the neutral policy of Spain towards the French Republic. In 1793 he failed to save King Louis XVI from the guillotine. Spain's protest against Louis' execution was met by a declaration of war by the French Republic. The French armies advanced far into Spain. In July 1795 Godoy negotiated the Peace of Basel with France, by which Spain's frontier was restored, but its portion of the island of Hispaniola was ceded to the French. Although Godoy was widely criticized for the treaty, he received after its conclusion the title Prince of the Peace (Principe de la Paz) and the grandeeship of Spain. In August 1796 Godoy negotiated and signed the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso with France which required that Spain declare war on Great Britain. This placed Portugal in a difficult position, as Spain turned from being an ally to being an enemy with its alliance with France, as Portugal was allied to Great Britain.
In 1797 Godoy had Charles IV grant the titles of 1st Condesa de Castillo Fiel with a Coat of Arms of de Tudó and 1st Vizcondesa de Rocafuerte (Letters of July 14, 1807) to Godoy's mistress Josefa Petra Francisca de Paula (Pepita) de Tudó y Cathalán, Alemany y Luecia, born in Cádiz on May 19, 1779, Dame of Her Royal Majesty the Queen and 385th Noble Dame of the Royal Order of Queen María Luisa, daughter of Antonio de Tudó y Alemany, Brigadier of the Royal Spanish Armies, Governor of the Royal Place of Buen Retiro, and wife Catalina Cathalán y Luecia. Some sources speak of a secret marriage between Godoy and Pepita supposedly celebrated June 22, 1797 in the Prado. Pepita had lived in Godoy's household for several years with her mother and two sisters.
In 1797 Queen Maria Luisa arranged a marriage for Godoy which she hoped would draw him away from his mistress, and at the same time act as a cover for her own relationship with Godoy. Doña María Teresa Carolina de Borbón y Vallabriga, Farnesio y Rozas, born at Velada on March 6, 1779 (some say January 26, 1780), Charles IV's cousin and the daughter of his exiled and disgraced uncle Luis de Borbón y Farnesio, 13th Count of Chinchón, was chosen to be Godoy's wife. Although she had not met Godoy, Maria Teresa acquiesced in the marriage which ensured the restoration of her family's fortunes. They married on September 11 or October 2 in the Escorial, Madrid. Godoy received a huge financial settlement as part of the marriage agreement, but he continued to have his mistress live in the same house as his wife.
Godoy was removed from the office of prime minister in 1797, elevated to the position of Captain-General (Capitán-General). His position had been compromised by ongoing relationship struggles both with the French Republic and with Queen Maria Louisa and he ceased to be Minister for Foreign Affairs on March 30, 1798. In October 1800 Godoy's wife Maria Teresa, previously made 1st Marquesa de Boadilla del Monte (Letter of August 4, 1799), bore a daughter Carlota Luisa Manuela, an only daughter who later inherited her mother's titles and / or representations and all of her father's Spanish and Portuguese titles and / or representations; she was baptised at the Escorial with Charles IV and Maria Louisa standing as godparents. In the same day, along with her daughter and sister, she was also made the 96th Noble Dame of the Royal Order of Queen María Luisa, on October 10, 1800.
Prime Minister again 1801-1808
Godoy was reappointed prime minister in 1801. With support from France he declared war on Portugal. With the aforementioned post of Captain-General he led the army which in 1801 invaded Portugal in the successful campaign which the Spanish authors call War of the Oranges (Guerra de las Naranjas or Guerra das Laranjas). His army left from Badajoz on May 20. A writ of rendition he made to Elvas was energetically repealed by the Governor, Dom Francisco José Xavier de Noronha e Meneses of the Marqueses de Marialva Condes de Cantanhede, who maintained the fortified place until the end of the campaign. Godoy didn't besiege it, but Olivença and Juromenha surrendered without resistance, and the same manner fell Arronches, Portalegre, Castelo de Vide, Barbacena and Ouguela. Campo Maior capitulated, after a siege of seventeen days, in the night of June 6 to 7, when the Peace of Badajoz (June 6, 1801) had already been signed . Portugal went without Olivença.
In 1802, he negotiated the Treaty of Amiens with Great Britain; Spain ceded the island of Trinidad to Britain but recovered Minorca. The same year Napoleon wrote to King Charles IV telling him that Godoy was the de facto King of Spain and that he was also Maria Louisa's lover. The letter was intercepted by Godoy's staff, but so safe did Godoy feel in his position that he allowed the letter to be delivered to Charles.
Elevated to the dignity of Generalissimo of the Army of Land and Sea of Spain (1804), he was granted a private bodyguard. Meanwhile, his wife also became Heir to her brother's House with his entry to the clergy, and thus 15th Condesa de Chinchón Grandee of Spain First Class with a Coat of Arms of de Bourbon in 1803 (Letter of March 7, 1804) and 1st Duquesa de Sueca Grandee of Spain First Class (Letter of March 7, 1804).
In 1805 the British attacked some Spanish ships sailing from Peru to Spain, causing Godoy to declare war again on Britain. On October 21 the French and Spanish fleets suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar, ending Spain's last hopes to be a world power.
In 1805 he and his mistress bore a son, Manuel, and in 1807 another son, Luis. According to some genealogies they had an only son, who inherited his mother's titles and / or representations and solely his father's Italian title, the one which could only be used through male line, named Manuel Luis.
1807: Treaty of Fontainebleau
In 1807 he received the title of Most Serene Highness. But his ambition knew no limits, for in that very year of 1807 Godoy negotiated the Treaty of Fontainebleau with Napoleon, which eliminated Portugal from the list of nations and divided the country. Godoy was awarded the "Principality of the Algarves", with Alentejo and Algarve, under the protectorate of the King of Spain. It was this treaty which preluded the first French invasion of Portugal. Article 1 of the treaty promised the southern half of Portugal to Godoy as "Prince of the Algarves"; this would have ensured Godoy's future, which was already uncertain in Spain where he was hated by the heir to the throne, the future Ferdinand VII.
But the promises of the Treaty of Fontainebleau were empty ones. In December French troops invaded Spain. When Spanish naval power crumbled at Trafalgar and the revolt against the French spread through Spain and Portugal, in March 1808 Godoy, Charles IV, Maria Louisa, and the rest of the court abandoned the Escorial and fled to Aranjuez with the intention of escaping to Mexico and had to flee to Rome, while in Spain all his fabulous riches were confiscated.
Supporters of Ferdinand (who had for some time been considering a coup d'état against his father) spread the story that Godoy had sold out Spain to Napoleon. On March 18 a popular uprising known as the Mutiny of Aranjuez took place. A mob stormed Godoy's residence where at first they only found his mistress Pepita. Two days later Godoy was found; Charles had Godoy's property confiscated and then imprisoned him in the castle of Villaviciosa de Odón, a property owned by his wife Maria Teresa. To end the uprising and to save Godoy's life, Charles IV abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand VII.
Godoy spent the next few years living in exile with Charles, Maria Louisa, his daughter Carlota Luisa, his mistress Pepita, and their sons (his wife Maria Teresa had long since left him, having divorced in 1808). They lived for several months at Fontainebleau, then at Compiègne, and then at Aix-en-Provence. In October 1808 they arrived in Marseille where they spent the next four years. In July 1812 they moved to Rome where they lived in the Palazzo Barberini.
In April 1814 Ferdinand VII was restored as King of Spain (he had lived for six years in France). He refused to allow his parents or Godoy to return to Spain, and even had Pope Pius VII exile Godoy and his mistress to Pesaro. During the Hundred Days, Charles IV and Maria Louisa fled from the French to Verona where they were joined by Godoy and Pepita. Godoy petitioned the Emperor Franz I of Austria for asylum in Vienna, but Ferdinand forbade it.
After the final defeat of Napoleon, Charles IV, Maria Louisa and Pepita returned to Rome, but the Pope required that Godoy continue to live at Pesaro. In September 1815 Charles and Maria Louisa asked the pope to declare null the marriage between Godoy and Maria Teresa. Godoy was allowed to return to Rome, but in order to preserve appearances Pepita and her sons moved to Genoa. Ferdinand bribed the police to expel Pepita and her family from Genoa; the same thing happened in Livorno. Finally she found a home in Pisa.
In March 1818 Godoy's younger son Luis died. In October he himself became ill with malaria; he received the last rites of the Church, but recovered. At the end of the year Maria Louisa caught pneumonia; Charles IV was absent in Naples at the time, but Godoy stayed by her bedside until she died, on January 2, 1819. Five days later Charles IV wrote to Godoy asking him to vacate the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, but two weeks later Charles himself died in Naples.
Ferdinand VII continued to forbid Godoy to return to Spain and ensured that he did not receive any state pension. He also did not allow Godoy's daughter Carlota to marry into a sovereign house, but did agree to her marriage in 1821 to Don Camillo Ruspoli, the younger son of a Roman princely family.
On November 24, 1828 Godoy's wife Maria Teresa died at Paris. The following year or still in December of that year Godoy married his long-time mistress Pepita. The Pope made him 1st Principe di Paserano, but Godoy went to live in Paris in 1832, where they lived in somewhat straitened circumstances. Louis Philippe gave him a pension.
In 1836 and 1839 Godoy published his famous memoirs (Memórias del Príncipe de la Paz) in Paris; Charles IV had asked that he not do this until after the death of his son Ferdinand VII (who had died in 1833). Pepita returned to Spain in hopes of reclaiming the family properties. She died in Madrid on September 20, 1869.
In 1844 he was authorized to come back to his Motherland. In 1847 the Spanish government returned to Godoy part of his confiscated property and restored his titles. He died at Paris in 1851. His body was buried first in the Church of Saint-Roch, but the following year was transferred to the Père Lachaise Cemetery where it rests today.
The painting La maja desnuda by Francisco de Goya, which depicts a fully nude reclining woman, was once in Godoy's personal collection. It is believed by many to portray Cayetana, Duchess of Alba, who was Godoy's mistress.
Charges and Titles
Beside an immense number of decorations, in Spain he was: ?th Marqués de Alcúdia with the previous title of ?th Vizconde de Alto Castillo (titles dated 1722) (Royal Cedule of June 10, 1792), 1st Duque de Alcúdia Grandee of Spain First Class with a Coat of Arms of de Godoy (Letter of July 4, 1792), 1st Principe de la Paz (Letter of September 27, 1795), 1st Duque de Sueca Grandee of Spain First Class (Letter of March 7, 1804), 1st Barón de Mascalbó, in Catalonia, with a Coat of Arms of de Godoy (Letter of June 23, 1806) for being the Perpetual Decane Regedor (Rector) of Reus, and had the treatment of Most Serene Highness (1807). Beside that he was also the Lord of numerous Lordships, Alcalderías and honourable charges: Señor de los Estados de la Campana de Albalat y la Serena, de Lago de Albufera (Valencia), and of the Villages of Huetor de Santillan y Veas, Señor de los Sotos de Roma y Aldovea, Perpetual Regedor (Rector) of the Villages of Madrid, Nava del Rey and Reus, and the Cities of Burgos, Segovia, Valencia, Murcia, Ronda, Manresa, Guadalajara, Gerona, Barcelona, Peñíscola, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Lérida, Toledo, Toro, Zamora, Asunción de Paraguay, Buenos Aires and México; preeminent Veinte y Quatro (Twenty-Four) of Jerez de la Frontera, Sevilla and Jerez de los Caballeros; Almerante-Mayor (Admiral-Major) of Spain and the Indies; Captain-General of the Royal Armies, Captain of the Body Guards, Hermano Mayor (Greater Brother) and Perpetual Alcalde of the Holy and Royal Old Brotherhood of Toledo, with voice, vote and Presidency; President of the Royal Colegial Body of the Hidalgos of the Nobility of Madrid (1804), Gentleman of the Chamber of His Catholic Majesty, with exercise, Counsilor of State, Prime-Minister of King Don Carlos IV, Commander of Valencia del Ventoso, Rivera and Acheucal in the Order of Santiago, Knight of the Order of Santiago (1790), Knight of the Renowned Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, Bailiff of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, etc.
He was made 1st Conde de Évora Monte (Village of the Province of Alentejo, former Council of Vimieiro[disambiguation needed], Administrative District of Évora) in Portugal, with Honours of Relative and the Prerogative, unique in that country, of the title being de Juro e Herdade, with a perpetual dispensation from the Mental Law (Letter of Queen Maria I of Portugal through John, Prince Regent of October 2, 1797), and Grand Cross of the Real Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo. In Italy he was 1st Principe de Godoy di Bassano and Grand Cross of the Order of St. January and St. Fernando of Naples. And, in France, Grand Sash (Grand Cordon) of the Legion of Honour.
Lord Byron mentions Godoy in his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Canto the First, XLVIII) where a Spanish lusty muleteer... chants "Viva el Rey" / And check his song to execrate Godoy, / The royal wittol Charles... etc. and in the note to these lines he explains that it is to this man that the Spaniards universally impute the ruin of their country.
- As so he is named in his el exp. of Charles III of Spain, nr. 546.
- As so he is named in his expediente of Charles III; La Parra surnames him de Godoy de Cáceres y Ovando y Ríos.
- Exp. 779.
- La Parra, in his biography of Manuel, says Sánchez Zornoza and not Sánchez Zarzosa.
- Lord Byron: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, The Mershon Company, New York
- Chastenet, Jacques. Godoy, Master of Spain, 1792–1808. London: Batchworth Press, 1953.
- Herr, Richard. "Good, Evil, and Spain'S Rising Against Napoleon," in Ideas in History: Essays Presented to Louis Gottschalk by His Former Students (1965) pp 157-181
- Hilt, Douglas. The Troubled Trinity: Godoy and the Spanish Monarchs. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1987.
- D'Auvergne, Edmund. Godoy, The Queen's Favourite. London: Stanley Paul, 1912.
- Godoy, Manuel de. Memoirs of Don Manuel de Godoy, Prince of the Peace, Duke de Alcúdia, Count de Evoramonte, &c. London: R. Bentley, 1836.
- Affonso, Domingos de Araújo and Valdez, Rui Dique Travassos. Livro de Oiro da Nobreza (3 Volumes), Volume 1, p. 491-8, Lisbon, 1938.
- Zúquete, Afonso Eduardo Martins. Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil (3 Volumes), Volume Second, p. 569-71, Lisbon, 1960.
- Instituto de Salazar y Castro. Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles, Various (periodic publication).
- Zarzosa y Godoy
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