Manuel Zelaya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Manuel Zelaya
Zelaya en Brasil Agosto 2009.jpg
President of Honduras
In office
27 January 2006 – 28 June 2009
Vice President Elvin Ernesto Santos
Arístides Mejía (as Vice-Presidential Commissioner)
Preceded by Ricardo Maduro
Succeeded by Roberto Micheletti (de facto)
Porfirio Lobo Sosa (de jure)
Deputy of the Olancho Department
Incumbent
Assumed office
25 January 2014
In office
25 January 1986 – 25 January 1998
Personal details
Born José Manuel Zelaya Rosales
(1952-09-20) 20 September 1952 (age 62)
Catacamas, Olancho, Honduras
Political party Liberal Party (until 2011)
LIBRE (2011–present)
Spouse(s) Xiomara Castro
Alma mater National Autonomous University of Honduras (Incomplete)[1]
Religion Roman Catholicism
Manuel Zelaya was deposed on 28 June 2009 and the National Congress swore in Roberto Micheletti.

José Manuel Zelaya Rosales (born 20 September 1952)[2] is a politician who was President of Honduras from 27 January 2006 until 28 June 2009. The eldest son of a wealthy businessman who inherited his father's nickname "Mel", he was, before entering politics, involved in his family's logging and timber businesses.

Elected as a liberal, Zelaya shifted to the political left during his presidency, forging an alliance with the ALBA.[3] On 28 June 2009, during the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis,[4] he was seized by the military and sent to Costa Rica and this was the cause of the 2009 Honduran coup d'état.[2][5] On 21 September 2009 he returned to Honduras clandestinely and resurfaced in the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa.[6] In 2010 he left Honduras for exile in the Dominican Republic, an exile which lasted more than a year.[7]

He now represents Honduras as a deputy of the Central American Parliament.[8] Since January 1976 Zelaya has been married to Xiomara Castro de Zelaya who was, with his full support, a presidential candidate in the Honduran general election, 2013, but lost to Juan Orlando Hernandez.

Background[edit]

The surname 'Zelaya' is a word from the Basque language, meaning 'field'.

Zelaya was born the first of four children in Juticalpa, Olancho.[citation needed] Two of his brothers remain alive. Zelaya's mother, Ortensia Rosales de Zelaya, has been described as his best campaigner. His family first lived in Copán, then they moved east to Catacamas, Olancho.

He attended Niño Jesús de Praga y Luis Landa elementary school and the Instituto Salesiano San Miguel. He studied civil engineering in The National University of Honduras (UNAH), but left after four years with 11 courses completed, in order to engage fully in the agri-forestry business sector.[1] He has engaged in various business activities, specifically timber and cattle, which were handed down to him by his late father. He is now a landowner in the department of Olancho. In 1987, Zelaya became manager of the Honduran Council of Private Enterprise (COHEP), as well as the National Association of Wood Processing Enterprises.[9] The COHEP occupies a particularly important role in Honduran politics, as the Constitution delineates that the organization elects 1 of the 7 members of the Nominating Board that proposes members of the Supreme Court of Honduras.[10]

Zelaya's father was given a 20-year prison sentence for his role in the Los Horcones massacre, which took place in the Zelaya family ranch Los Horcones in 1975, but, as a result of an amnesty decree, served less than two.[11][12]

He has four children with his wife Xiomara. Two of them are married.

Political career[edit]

Zelaya joined the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras, PLH) in 1970 and became active a decade later. He was a deputy in the National Congress three consecutive times between 1985 and 1998. He held many positions within the PLH and was Minister for Investment in charge of the Honduran Social Investment Fund (FHIS) in a previous PLH government. Under the administration of Zelaya the FHIS lost $40 million, and Zelaya was accused of financial embezzling but escaped being prosecuted.[13] In the 2005 presidential primaries, his faction was called Movimiento Esperanza Liberal (MEL). He received 52% of the 289,300 Liberal votes, to 17% for Jaime Rosenthal Oliva and 12% for Gabriela Núñez, the candidate of the Nueva Mayoría faction.[14]

Presidency[edit]

Manuel Zelaya in 2007

During Zelaya's time in office Honduras became a member of ALBA, an international cooperation organization based on the idea of social, political, and economic integration between the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It marked his turning to a left-of-center politics, the first such case of right to left policy switch as he had been in elected in a conservative platform.[15] Political opponents, particularly business elites, opposed his foreign policy, including his alliance with Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, and friendship with Cuba's Raúl Castro.[16]

In spite of a number of economic problems, there were a number of significant achievements under Zelaya's presidency. Under his government, free education for all children was introduced,[17] subsidies to small farmers were provided, bank interest rates were reduced,[18] the minimum wage was increased by 80%, school meals were guaranteed for more than 1.6 million children from poor families, domestic employees were integrated into the social security system, poverty was reduced by almost 10% during two years of government, and direct state help was provided for 200,000 families in extreme poverty, with free electricity supplied to those Hondurans most in need.[19]

Alliance with ALBA[edit]

On 22 July 2008, Zelaya sought to incorporate Honduras into ALBA, an international cooperation organization based on the idea of social, political, and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Conflict with media[edit]

Zelaya said that the main media outlets in Honduras, owned by wealthy conservatives, are biased against him and did not provide coverage of what his government was doing: "No one publishes anything about me. . . . what prevails here is censorship of my government by the mass media."[20] Inter Press Service says that the vast majority of radio and TV stations and print publications are owned by just six families.[21]

According to a paper written by Manuel Orozco and Rebecca Rouse for the Inter-American Dialogue think tank in the United States, the Honduran media operate as arms of political parties.[22] Honduran journalists say that most of the news media there are unabashedly partisan, allied with political parties and local power brokers.[23]

On 24 May 2007, Zelaya ordered ten two-hour cadenas (mandatory government broadcasts) on all television and radio stations, "to counteract the misinformation of the news media".[24] The move, while legal, was fiercely criticized by the country's main journalists' union, and Zelaya was dubbed "authoritarian" by his opposition.[25] Ultimately, the broadcasts were scaled back to a one-hour program on the government's plans to expand telephone service, a half-hour on new electrical power plants and a half-hour about government revenues. According to the University of New Mexico's electronic bulletin NotiCen, "Zelaya's contention that the media distort his efforts is not without merit", citing reports which gave the public the impression that murder rates were rising, when they actually fell by 3% in 2006.[24]

A journalist who often criticized Zelaya was murdered by unknown gunmen in 2007.[26] Inter-American Press Association (IAPA) and the United Nations criticized the threat to journalists in Honduras.[27] Other critical journalists, such as Dagoberto Rodriguez and Hector Geovanny Garcia, fled into exile because of constant murder threats.[28]

Corruption investigations of Hondutel[edit]

Manuel Zelaya appointed his nephew Marcelo Chimirri as General Manager of the state-owned telecom Hondutel.

According to the Mexican newspaper El Universal, relying on information supplied by the Arcadia Foundation, Hondutel's income decreased 47% between 2005 and 2006, the first year of President Manuel Zelaya's administration, despite Hondutel's monopoly on international calls[29] In April 2009, Latin Node Inc., an American company, pleaded guilty to making improper payments to Hondutel, "knowing that some, or all of those funds, would be passed on as bribes to officials of Hondutel".[30][31] Chimirri who resigned in 2007, was arrested following the coup, and remains in prison on charges of abuse of authority and embezzlement, charges which he denies. Apart from Chimirri, Oscar Danilo Santos (the former manager of Hondutel), Jorge Rosa, and James Lagos are all charged in connection with allegedly committing crimes of abuse of authority, fraud and bribery having received bribes of $1.09 million U.S. from an international carrier in exchange for Hondutel providing that carrier lower rates than other firms. Auditor Julio Daniel Flores was charged for the lesser crime of violation of duties of officers.[32]

Attempts to modify the constitution[edit]

President Zelaya came to international attention in June 2009 when he was overthrown in a military coup and forced into exile. The crisis that led to his removal from office centered around the question of whether changes would be made to the 1982 Honduran Constitution. Zelaya proposed a national poll to gauge interest in constitutional change, which provoked a fierce reaction from opposition parties. Those responsible for the coup justified their actions on the grounds that Zelaya's interest in potentially convening a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution was illegal, and alleged that his real motive was to increase his time in office. Zelaya denied that his motive was to stay in office, stating that he intended to step down in January 2010 as scheduled, noting that his successor would be elected at the same time the vote on whether to convene a constituent assembly would occur.[33]

Under constitutional law, the President of Honduras can amend the constitution without any referendum given that a congressional majority exists. However, eight articles cannot be amended, including those related to term limits, the permitted system of government, and the process of presidential succession.[34]

Because the president can amend 368 of 375 articles without any constituent assembly, some suspected that Zelaya's true intention was to extend his rule.[34] One-time Christian Democrat presidential candidate Juan Ramon Martinez argued that Zelaya was attempting to discredit parliamentary democracy, saying, "There appears to be a set of tactics aimed at discrediting institutions... he has repeated on several occasions that democratic institutions are worthless and that democracy has not helped at all".[34]

Referendum[edit]

On 11 November 2008, following requests from many Honduran groups for the convening of a constituent assembly,[35] Zelaya issued a decree organizing a poll to decide whether the electorate wanted a fourth ballot box installed at polling places for the upcoming 29 November 2009 General Election – an addition to the usual three for Presidential, Congressional, and municipal candidates. The fourth ballot would be to ask voters whether they would consider convening a National Constituent Assembly for the purpose of writing a new constitution. Later, in March 2009, Zelaya announced that first he wanted to have a preliminary poll – he suggested 28 June 2009 as a date – to ask voters whether they wanted the fourth ballot to be included in the November 2009 election.

There has been considerable debate as to whether Zelaya's call for a poll about whether to organize a constituent assembly was legally valid according to the 1982 Constitution. Article 373 of the Constitution states that the Constitution can be amended by a two-thirds majority of the normal National Congress. Only eight articles cannot be amended in this fashion; they are specified in Article 374 of the Constitution and include term limits, system of government that is permitted, and process of presidential succession.[36] Because the congress can amend 368 of 375 articles without any constituent assembly, some observers charged that Zelaya's true intention of holding a referendum on convening a constitutional convention on the same date as his successor's election was to extend his term of rule.[37] In a newspaper interview shortly before his removal from office, Zelaya stated that he had every intention of stepping down when his term ends in January 2010.[33]

The Associated Press, citing Manuel Orozco of the Inter American Dialogue, said that "His [Zelaya's] campaign for changing the constitution has energized his support base of labour groups, farmers and civil organisations who have long felt marginalized in a country where a wealthy elite controls the media and much of politics."[38]

Violation of Supreme Court rulings[edit]

The Supreme Court, without deciding on the constitutionality of the poll, ruled that a lower court ruling blocking the referendum was lawful[39]

The Supreme Court's ruling was supported by Congress, the country's attorney general, top electoral body, and the country's human rights ombudsman, who all said that Zelaya violated the law.[40] Despite the opposition of the other branches of the government, Zelaya moved forward with his plan to hold a consultative poll on 28 June 2009. In Honduras it is a function of the military to assist with election logistics; accordingly, in late May 2009, Zelaya issued a request to the military to distribute ballot boxes and other materials for the poll. The chief of the military, General Romeo Vásquez Velásquez, refused to carry this out. In response, Zelaya dismissed Vásquez on 24 May. Subsequently, defense minister Edmundo Orellana and several other military commanders resigned in support of Vásquez. Both the Honduran Supreme Court and the Honduran Congress deemed the dismissal of Velásquez to be unlawful.[39][41]

By 25 June, the newspaper La Tribuna reported that the military had deployed hundreds of troops around Tegucigalpa, to prevent possible disturbances by organisations that support Zelaya and with the exception of leftist organizations, "all sectors are publicly opposed to the consultation, which has been declared illegal by the Prosecutor and the Supreme Court". The troops were deployed from the First Infantry Battalion, located 5 km East of the city, to the vicinity of the presidential residence in the West, and the airport, in the South.[42]

There is some doubt, however, that Zelaya ever actually fired Vásquez. CNN news on 27 June reported that Zelaya on 24 June had said that he would fire Vásquez; but that on 26 June Zelaya said that he had never carried out his threat and the general had not been fired. "I didn't do it", CNN quoted him as saying.[43]

The Congress, the attorney general, and the top electoral tribunal declared Zelaya's proposed referendum to be illegal.[40][44][45] Congress began to discuss means to impeach Zelaya.[46] On 27 June and again on 30 June 2009, thousands of protesters opposed to Zelaya's rule marched through the capital city.[46]

Constitutional crisis[edit]

Coup[edit]

On 28 June 2009, the country's Supreme Court issued an order to detain President Zelaya, who was subsequently captured by the military.[47] He was then brought to the air force base Hernan Acosta Mejia,[48][49][50] and taken into exile in Costa Rica,[51] precipitating the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis.

The reason given for the arrest order were charges brought by the Attorney General, and the order was to enable a statement to be made to the Supreme Court. The decision to expatriate him was, however, taken by the military themselves, knowing full well that it violated the constitution; the military offered the justification that exiling Zelaya was done "to avoid mob violence".[52][53]

Following the coup, Zelaya spoke to the media from his forced exile in San Jose, and identified the events as a coup and a kidnapping. He stated that soldiers pulled him from his bed and assaulted his guards. Zelaya stated that he would not recognize anyone named as his successor, and that he wanted to finish his term in office.[54] He also stated that he would begin to meet with diplomats,[55] and attended the Summit of Central American presidents held in Managua, Nicaragua, two days later (30 June 2009).

The National Congress voted unanimously to accept what they said was Zelaya's letter of resignation, but Zelaya said he did not write the letter.[56]

National Congress President Roberto Micheletti, the next person in the presidential line of succession and a centre-leftist,[57] assumed the presidency following Zelaya's removal from office.[58] The event was greeted with applause in the national Congress, which produced Zelaya's successor in the form of its own Speaker.[59]

The world – including international bodies like the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and the European Union – publicly condemned the events. U.S. President Barack Obama said, "We believe that the coup was not legal and that President Zelaya remains the President of Honduras."[60][61] Hugo Chávez threatened to invade Honduras if the Venezuelan embassy or ambassador were attacked.[62] Venezuela has said it would suspend oil shipments, and Honduras's neighbors—El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua—suspended overland trade for two days.[63] A one-page United Nations resolution, passed by acclamation in the then 192-member body, condemned the events and demanded Zelaya's "immediate and unconditional restoration" as president.[64] The resolution calls "firmly and categorically on all states to recognise no government other than that" of Mr. Zelaya.[65]

During the first five days out of country, Zelaya spent 80,000 dollars of Honduran public money on goods including hotels, food and clothing, continuing to spend on his expenses as the president of the country.[66][67][68]

Zelaya's wife, Xiomara Castro de Zelaya, charged that the exiling of her husband was a violation of the Honduran Constitution.[69] Article 102 of the Honduran Constitution forbids expatriating or handing over of Hondurans to foreign countries.[70][71][72]

Return to Honduras[edit]

On 21 September 2009, Zelaya and his wife arrived at the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa. Zelaya stated that to reach the embassy he travelled through mountains for fifteen hours, and took back roads to avoid checkpoints. Zelaya did not state from which country he entered Honduras. Hundreds of Zelaya's supporters surrounded the Brazilian embassy. Zelaya chanted "Restitution, Fatherland or Death!" to his supporters, raising fears[who?] that Zelaya was attempting a violent confrontation.[73][74][75][76]

Michelletti initially denied Zelaya had returned, but later admitted he had done so, stating that it "changes nothing of our reality". Michelletti later issued a curfew and asked the Brazilian government to place Zelaya in Honduran custody to be put on trial. Brazilian foreign minister Celso Amorim stated that Brazil did not aid Zelaya's return. Security Vice Minister Mario Perdomo ordered checkpoints to be placed on highways leading to Tegucigalpa, to "stop those people coming to start trouble".[77] Defense Minister Lionel Sevilla suspended all air flights to Tegucigalpa.[73][74][75]

Costa Rican President Óscar Arias and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton urged both sides to begin a dialogue toward a peaceful solution[73] and Eulogio Chavez, leader of a 60,000-member teachers union, announced that his organization would go on strike to back Zelaya.[73] Shortly thereafter, Zelaya claimed that Israeli mercenaries had installed a mobile phone jammer.[78][79]

On 27 September 2009 Honduras gave Brazil a ten-day deadline. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said that he would ignore the deadline, stating that "Brazil will not comply with an ultimatum from a government of coup-mongers".[80] Honduran interim president Roberto Micheletti warned that his government would take action if Brazil did not determine Zelaya's status soon. President Lula requested an apology.[80]

Hundreds of Honduran soldiers and Police Officers surrounded the Brazilian embassy, where protests against the coup continued.

On 29 October 2009, the government of "de facto" president Roberto Micheletti signed what United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called a "historic agreement" to let Manuel Zelaya serve the remaining three months of his term. "If Congress agrees", according to Elisabeth Malkin reporting for The New York Times, "control of the army would shift to the electoral court, and the presidential election set for 29 Nov. would be recognized by both sides. Neither Mr. Zelaya nor Mr. Micheletti will be candidates".[81]

When Micheletti announced he had, unilaterally, formed the unity government without input from Zelaya, Zelaya declared the agreement "dead" early on 6 November.[82] The United States sent diplomats to help to resurrect the pact,[83] but Zelaya insisted that he would not accept any deal to restore him to office if it meant he must recognize the elections of 29 November.[84]

Presidential Election of 29 November 2009[edit]

On 29 November 2009, a presidential election was held under a state of emergency declared in Decree PCM-M-030-2009.[85][86][87] According to the decree, the Secretary of State of the 'de facto' government was expected to participate in the military command for this state of emergency.[85] Five of the six presidential candidates retained their candidacies, while Carlos H. Reyes had withdrawn his candidacy on 9 November in protest at what he perceived as illegitimacy of the election.[88][89][90] Zelaya called for a boycott of the poll. Some Hondurans interviewed by Associated Press said that they "sought to move past the crisis with the elections", which had been scheduled previous to Zelaya's removal.[91] Early returns indicated that conservative Porfirio Lobo was elected with around 55% of the votes.[92] Official numbers for the turnout of the election falsely placed it at around 60%,[93][94] but subsequently revised the numbers to 49% turnout.[95]

Organisations and individuals in Honduras, including the National Resistance Front against the coup d'état in Honduras,[96] Marvin Ponce of the Democratic Unification Party,[96] and Bertha Oliva of COFADEH,[97] and internationally, including Mercosur,[98] President Cristina Kirchner of Argentina[98] and the Union of South American Nations,[99] said that elections held on 29 November under Micheletti would not be legitimate.

On 2 December, the National Congress began debate regarding the possible reinstatement of Zelaya to the presidency.[100]

On 4 December, Juan Barahona-led activists ended five months of daily protests demanding the reinstatement of Zelaya, saying they were moving on now that Congress has voted to keep Manuel Zelaya out of office. Juan Barahona, who had been leading protests since late June when Zelaya was forced out of the country, said that his supporters are "closing that chapter" of their struggle. Barahona said it was time for Hondurans who support policies in favor of the poor and other themes that Zelaya espoused to shift their focus to the 2014 elections.[101]

Exile[edit]

On 20 January 2010, the Dominican Republic and Honduran President-elect Lobo agreed to a deal that would allow Zelaya to be transported safely from the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa where he had been, to the Dominican Republic upon Lobo taking office on 27 January. Lobo stated that he would ensure Zelaya would leave safely and "with dignity."[102][103][104] Lobo negotiated with Dominican President Leonel Fernández. Lobo also discussed the situation with former presidential candidates who signed a statement on the agreement, as well as requesting that sanctions placed against Honduras as a result of the incident be lifted.[105] The next day, Zelaya agreed to the deal, while a close advisor said he would remain politically active and hope to later return to political activity.[106][107]

Zelaya, along with his wife, two children, and President Fernández of the Dominican Republic, left Honduras on 27 January 2010, for the Dominican Republic.[7] They continue to live in the Dominican Republic.[108] Zelaya continues to be seen as the legitimate head of state of Honduras by several countries in the region.[109]

Return from Exile[edit]

Honduran President Porforio Lobo met with Zelaya in Cartagena, Colombia on 22 May 2011. They both signed an agreement that allowed Zelaya to return to Honduras from exile.[110] Six days later, on 28 May, Zelaya flew back to Honduras aboard a Conviasa jet and was greeted by thousands of his supporters at the airport.[111][112] He gave a conciliatory speech that called for political reconciliation and increased democracy in the country.[111]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Manuel Zelaya, en un sainete bananero". ABC. Spain. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, Manuel Zelaya
  3. ^ President Zelaya voted in as Liberal turned into ally of Chavez’ ALBA
  4. ^ "Timeline: The Honduran Crisis". AS/COA Online. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  5. ^ "Americas group suspends Honduras". BBC. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  6. ^ Ousted leader returns to Honduras
  7. ^ a b Zelaya goes into exile in Dominican Republic
  8. ^ Media-Newswire.com – Press Release Distribution – PR Agency
  9. ^ "Manuel Zelaya". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  10. ^ Constitution of Honduras, Article 301
  11. ^ "Zelaya hometown provides look at divided Honduras". The Guardian (London). 7 July 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Crisis in Honduras – What was really behind the removal of President Manuel Zelaya, and is he likely to be reinstated?". Poder. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. [dead link]
  13. ^ [1] "ASJ", 6 October 2009
  14. ^ "Honduras Election Results 1998–2007". U.C. San Diego Library. 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  15. ^ CUNHA FILHO, C. M.; COELHO, A. L.; PÉREZ FLORES, F. I. A right-to-left policy switch? An analysis of the Honduran case under Manuel Zelaya.
  16. ^ Honduras's Micheletti Says Zelaya Exile Was ‘Error
  17. ^ The History of Honduras – Thomas M. Leonard – Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  18. ^ The Road to Zelaya's Return: Money, Guns and Social Movements in Honduras
  19. ^ Xiomara Zelaya, New Statesman, 17 September 2009, My father has been punished for helping Honduras
  20. ^ IPS, October 2008, op cit., about 2/3 of the way down. Retrieved July 2009.
  21. ^ "Honduras: Government advertising allocation as 'subtle censorship'", IPS via Soros Foundation and Open Society Justice Initiative, October 2008. Retrieved July 2009.
  22. ^ "Honduras new government is censoring journalists", The Miami Herald, 1 July 2009. Retrieved July 2009[dead link]
  23. ^ "In Honduras, One-sided News of Crisis", The Washington Post, 9 July 2009. Retrieved July 2009.
  24. ^ a b "HONDURAS' PRESIDENT TAKES ON MEDIA MOGULS FOR ACCESS TO THE PEOPLE.". Access my library. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. [dead link]
  25. ^ Grant, Will (25 May 2007). "Honduras TV gets government order". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  26. ^ "Journalist murdered following threats, government harassment of critical radio station". International Freedom of Expression Exchange. 19 October 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2009. 
  27. ^ "Manuel Zelaya Rosales". Centro de Estudios Internacionales de Barcelona. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 14 December 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  28. ^ "Honduras". US State Department. 11 March 2008. 
  29. ^ "Revelan en EU presunto fraude en Honduras". El Universal. 8 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. 
  30. ^ Department of Justice Press Release
  31. ^ [2][dead link]
  32. ^ Jueza ratifica medidas cautelares a Marcelo Chimirri – Sucesos – ElHeraldo.hn
  33. ^ a b "Honduran President Ousted by Military", Carin Zissis, Council of the Americas, 28 June 2009; the interview was conducted with the newspaper El País.
  34. ^ a b c 21st Century Socialism Comes to the Honduran Banana Republic. Council on Hemispheric Affairs
  35. ^ Dangl, Benjamin (21 September 2009). "The Road to Zelaya's Return: Money, Guns and Social Movements in Honduras". Upside Down World. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  36. ^ Honduras Constitution
  37. ^ Canard d’Etat: Honduras and the U.S. Press
  38. ^ "Honduras heads toward crisis over referendum", Associated Press. Yahoo!! News , 26 June 2009. Retrieved July 2009.[dead link]
  39. ^ a b Cuevas, Freddy (26 June 2009). "Honduras heads toward crisis over referendum". Yahoo!. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  40. ^ a b De Córdoba, José (26 June 2009). "Honduras lurches toward crisis over election". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  41. ^ "Honduran leader defies top court". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  42. ^ The quote and other material are from "Militares se despliegan en capital hondureña en medio de agitación politica"[dead link], La Tribuna, 25 June 2009. Retrieved July 2009.
  43. ^ "Honduras president: Nation calm before controversial vote" CNN, 27 June 2009. Retrieved July 2009.
  44. ^ Oppenheimer, Andres (27 June 2009). "ALBA bloc leaders' main obsession: indefinite rule". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  45. ^ O'Grady (29 June 2009). "Honduras Defends Its Democracy". The Wall Street Journal. 
  46. ^ a b Luhnow, David (27 June 2009). "Honduras crisis opens regional rift". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  47. ^ Lacey, Marc (2 July 2009). "Leader's Ouster Not a Coup, Says the Honduran Military". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  48. ^ "Ejército captura a "Mel" y lo lleva a Costa Rica". El Heraldo. 28 June 2009. 
  49. ^ Flores, Alex (28 June 2009). "Presencia de nicas y venezolanos en Honduras aceleró captura de Zelaya". El Heraldo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  50. ^ "Secretary: Soldiers arrest Honduran president". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 28 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  51. ^ Cuevas, Freddy; Weissert, Will (28 June 2009). "Honduran military sends president into exile". Toronto Star. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  52. ^ Spanish Interview with the legal counsel of the Honduran armed forces, Colonel Herberth Bayardo Inestroza, Dada, Carlos; José Luis Sanz (2 July 2009). "Cometimos un delito al sacar a Zelaya, pero había que hacerlo" (in Spanish). El Faro.net. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. 
  53. ^ English summary of interview with the legal counsel of the Honduras armed forces, Robles, Frances (3 July 2009). "Top Honduran military lawyer: We broke the law". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. 
  54. ^ "Exiled Zelaya insists he is rightful Honduran president". Yahoo!. Agence France-Presse. 28 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  55. ^ "Honduran president calls arrest a 'kidnapping'". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 28 June 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  56. ^ Weissert, Will; Cuevas, Freddy (28 June 2009). "Honduran military ousts president ahead of vote". Yahoo!. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 June 2009. [dead link]
  57. ^ Stern, Stephanie (2007), Military Intervention and the Question of Democratization and Inter-Ethnic Peace, Governance, Conflict Analysis and Conflict Resolution (Ian Randle Publishers): 252 
  58. ^ Bremer, Catherine; Kerry, Frances (28 June 2009). "Q+A: Honduras president ousted in military coup". Reuters. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  59. ^ New Honduran leader sworn in
  60. ^ "Obama says coup in Honduras is illegal". Reuters. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  61. ^ "Obama Says Coup in Honduras Would Set a 'Terrible Precedent'". ABC News. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  62. ^ Venezuela's Chavez threatens invasion of Honduras[dead link]
  63. ^ "Two Hondurans Headed for Clash". The Washington Post. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  64. ^ Lacey, Marc (30 June 2009). "U.N. Backs Ousted Honduran Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  65. ^ "UN backs Honduras leader's return". BBC News. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  66. ^ "Manuel Zelaya gastó L 1.5 millones en 5 días". La Prensa. 4 July 2009. 
  67. ^ "Government Removes Zelaya's Perks". Honduras News. 4 July 2009. [dead link]
  68. ^ "Asustados costarricenses por lujos de Zelaya". El Heraldo. 13 July 2009. 
  69. ^ "National Exclusive…Xiomara Castro de Zelaya, Wife of Ousted Honduran President, Calls on US to Aid Her Husband's Return Home: "We Want Justice, We Want Peace, We Demand the Return to Democracy"". 27 July 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  70. ^ Honduran Constitution "Republic of Honduras: Political Constitution of 1982 through 2005 reforms; Article 102". Political Database of the Americas (in Spanish) (Georgetown University). 
  71. ^ ""Un regreso al país en este momento podría desatar un baño de sangre": Rodríguez hizo enfásis que hasta el día de hoy no ha muerto ni un solo hondureño.". La Prensa (in Spanish). Honduras. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  72. ^ "Honduran Episcopal Conference's Communiqué". El Heraldo. Honduras. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  73. ^ a b c d Honduras coup[dead link]
  74. ^ a b Google hosted news[dead link]
  75. ^ a b Malkin, Elisabeth (21 September 2009). " Ousted Leader Returns to Honduras". The New York Times
  76. ^ Crisis in Honduras – What was really behind the removal of President Manuel Zelaya, and is he likely to be reinstated?[dead link]
  77. ^ Ousted Honduran leader makes defiant return
  78. ^ Ordaz, Pablo (24 September 2009). "Mercenarios israelíes, ultrasonidos y suicidios fingidos". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 
  79. ^ Malkin, Elisabeth; Lacey, Marc (25 September 2009). "Battle for Honduras Echoes Loudly in Media". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  80. ^ a b Honduras spurns OAS, vows to close Brazil embassy
  81. ^ Thompson, Ginger; Malkin, Elisabeth (31 October 2009). "Deal Set to Restore Ousted Honduran President". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  82. ^ "Deal over Honduran crisis 'dead'". BBC. 6 January 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  83. ^ "US diplomat in Honduras trying to revive pact". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009. [dead link]
  84. ^ "Ousted Honduran president won't recognize vote". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2009. [dead link]
  85. ^ a b Centro de Investigación y Promocion de los Derechos Humanos (November 2009). "Gaceta No 21,069 Decreto estado de emergencia nacional proceso electoral 2009". Plataforma Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Democracia y Desarrollo. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  86. ^ "Honduran Presidential Elections 29 November: Basic Conditions for Free and Fair Elections Do Not Exist" (PDF). Latin America Working Group. November 2009. Archived from the original on 1 December 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  87. ^ Giordano, Al (24 November 2009). "Honduras Coup Regime Declares New State of Emergency Prior to Sunday "Election"". Narco News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  88. ^ Honduras: piden boicotear las elecciones
  89. ^ "Carlos H. Reyes anuncia su retiro de los comicios". La Tiempo (in Spanish) (Honduras). 8 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009. 
  90. ^ "Carlos H. Reyes oficializa su renuncia". La Tribuna (in Spanish) (Honduras). 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009. 
  91. ^ "Honduras hopes to move past coup with election (Version 1)". Yahoo News. Associated Press. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009. [dead link]
  92. ^ Tribunal confirma triunfo presidencial de Lobo Sosa
  93. ^ "Honduras voting for new president". BBC News. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  94. ^ "Honduras hopes to move past coup with election (Version 2)". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009. [dead link]
  95. ^ "Honduras revises down participation in disputed polls". Agence France-Presse. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009. [dead link]
  96. ^ a b "Pro-Zelaya organization issues ultimatum for Zelaya's restitution". Xinhua News Agency. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009. 
  97. ^ "Honduras' Most Prominent Human Rights Expert Calls on Obama Administration to Denounce "Grave Human Rights Violations"". Center for Economic and Policy Research. 5 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009. 
  98. ^ a b "Mercosur warns it rejects any attempt to call new elections in Honduras". Mercopress. 25 July 2009. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  99. ^ "Union of South American Nations rejects elections under Honduran de facto regime". Guelph Mercury/AP/The Canadian Press. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  100. ^ "Honduran lawmakers debate ousted leader's future". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009. "A vast majority of the lawmakers voted against Zelaya's reinstatement. Of the 128 members of congress, 111 voted against the reinstatement; only 15 voted in favor." [dead link]
  101. ^ "Zelaya supporters say it's time to move on". Yahoo!. Associated Press. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009. [dead link]
  102. ^ D.R., Honduras reach deal on Zelaya – Washington Times
  103. ^ "UPDATE 2-Zelaya says may leave Honduras at end of mandate". Reuters. 21 January 2010. 
  104. ^ The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2010/01/20/world/international-uk-honduras-zelaya.html?ref=global-home |url= missing title (help). [dead link]
  105. ^ Honduran president-elect promises to safeguard Zelaya to leave for Dominican Republic – People's Daily Online
  106. ^ "Zelaya to leave Honduras next week says adviser". Reuters. 21 January 2010. 
  107. ^ Malkin, Elisabeth (22 January 2010). "Honduras: Ousted President Agrees to Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  108. ^ "Manuel Zelaya, Honduras' former president in exile". Public Radio International. 15 July 2010. [dead link]
  109. ^ Neue Putschgerüchte, junge Welt, 14 June 2010 (German).
  110. ^ Honduras Deal a Watershed Moment for Latin America[dead link] Honduras Weekly, 26 May 2011.
  111. ^ a b Zelaya Ends Self-Exile and Returns to Honduras[dead link] Honduras Weekly, 29 May 2011.
  112. ^ Zelaya Returns to Honduras Almost 2 Years After Ouster Latin America Herald Tribune, 28 May 2011.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Ricardo Maduro
President of Honduras
2006–2009
Succeeded by
Roberto Micheletti
Acting