Manufacturing in Australia
Manufacturing in Australia peaked in the 1960s at 25% of the country's gross domestic product, and has since dropped below 10%.
The contribution of manufacturing to Australia's gross domestic product peaked in the 1960s at 25%, and had dropped to 13% by 2001–2 and 10.5% by 2005–6. In 2004–05, the manufacturing industry exported products worth $67,400 million, and employed 1.1 million people
In 2000–2001, $3300 million was spent on assistance to the manufacturing industry, with 40% going to the textile, clothing and footwear industry and the passenger motor vehicle industry. At that time, manufacturing accounted for 48% of exports, and 45% of Australian research and development.
|State||Fraction of manufacturing||Fraction of GSP|
|New South Wales||32||10|
|Australian Capital Territory||0.5||2|
Between 2001 and 2007, the approximate breakdown by industry changed as follows
|Industry||Percent in 2001||Percent in 2007|
|Food, beverages and tobacco||19||19|
|Textile, clothing and footwear||5||3|
|Wood and paper products||7||6|
|Printing, publishing and recorded media||10||10|
|Petroleum, coal and chemical products||15||14|
|Non-metal mineral products||4||5|
|Machinery and equipment||17||19|
The food and beverage manufacturing industry is the largest in Australia. The sectors include the following:
|Meat and meat products||17,836|
|Beverage and malt manufacturing||13,289|
|Sugar and confectionery manufacturing||6,456|
|Fruit and vegetable processing||4,672|
|Flour mill and cereal food manufacturing||3,692|
|Oil and fat manufacturing||1,547|
|Seafood processing||1,330 *|
|Other food manufacturing||8,554|
* Before the 2010 closure of the Port Lincoln Tuna cannery
Until trade liberalisation in the mid 1980s, Australia had a large textile industry. This decline continued through the first decade of the 21st century. Since the 1980s, tariffs have steadily been reduced; in early 2010, the tariffs were reduced from 17.5 percent to 10percent on clothing, and 7.5–10% to 5% for footwear and other textiles. As of 2010, most textile manufacturing, even by Australian companies, is performed in China.
Holden bodyworks are manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia and engines are produced at the Fishermens Bend plant in Port Melbourne, Victoria. In 2006, Holden's export revenue was just under A$1,300 million. In March 2012, Holden was given a $270 million lifeline by the Australian government. In return, Holden planned to inject over $1 billion into car manufacturing in Australia. They estimated the new investment package would return around $4 billion to the Australian economy and see GM Holden continue making cars in Australia until at least 2022. However, Holden announced on 11 December 2013 that Holden cars would no longer be manufactured in Australia from the end of 2017.
Until 2006, Toyota had factories in Port Melbourne and Altona, Victoria. Since then, all manufacturing has been at Altona. In 2008, Toyota exported 101,668 vehicles worth $1,900 million. In 2011 the figures were "59,949 units worth $1,004 million". On 10 February 2014 it was announced that by the end of 2017 Toyota would cease manufacturing vehicles and engines in Australia.
Many mining companies, such as BHP Billiton and Comalco, perform initial processing of raw materials. Similarly, Australia's agriculture feeds into the chemical industry. Tasmania produces 40% of the worlds raw narcotic materials; some of this is locally converted into codeine and other pharmaceuticals in Tasmania by Tasmanian Alkaloids, owned by Johnson and Johnson, while GlaxoSmithKline processes some of the resulting poppy straw in Victoria.
Currently Australian-made products
The following Australasian-made products are still fairly readily available. For more boutique products, see the search engines below.
- Toyota makes some medium-large cars (such as Camry) in Altona, Victoria (soon to end manufacturing cars in 2017, but import car sales will remain).
- Holden and Ford(also soon to end manufacturing cars in 2017 & 2016 respectively, but import car sales will also remain) make large cars at various factories around Australia
- Tomcar make their complete range in Melbourne, Victoria.
- Cleaning products
- Food: Many staples are still manufactured in Australia. However many manufactured products such as sauces are imported.
- White goods
- Luxury goods
Australian/NZ icons no longer made in Australia/NZ
Many brands which used to be manufactured in Australasia no longer are. The following are notable examples.
- Pacific Brands moved their manufacturing offshore in 2009, causing intense negative publicity.
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- Peter Anderson (1 January 2010). "ACCI Welcomes textiles and car tariff cuts (ACCI media release 003/10)". Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- Hassall, David (12 April 2012). "Tomcar - New local vehicle manufacturer". GoAuto. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
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- Dulux (27 August 2009). "Dulux investing $28m in Hutt factory" (Press release). New Zealand: Wellington Scoop. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Manufacturing – Electrolux and Geoff Hort Engineering". Orange City Council. Retrieved 30 January 2010.