In contemporary discourse, these terms (especially the latter) are often used oppositionally by Muslims, Dalits, Buddhists, and others to contrast their positions, interests, and viewpoints with a society that is informed by and/or identifies with Manuvāda, particularly with respect to varna (caste).
The term came to the fore in the politics of India in the early 2000s, during the government of the nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party. A "Manawadi Party" was formed in 2000, and the term came to be used for the allegation of a hidden agenda of the nationalist parties by their opponents; in 2003, Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati remarked that "the Lok Sabha had been taken over by Manuvadi forces."
- Shashi Shekhar Sharma, Imagined Manuvād: the Dharmaśāstras and their interpreters, Rupa & Co., 2005
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