Manzhouli

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Manzhouli
满洲里市 · ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Sub-prefecture-level city
Manzhouli Center
Manzhouli Center
Manzhouli is located in Inner Mongolia
Manzhouli
Manzhouli
Location in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 49°36′N 117°26′E / 49.600°N 117.433°E / 49.600; 117.433Coordinates: 49°36′N 117°26′E / 49.600°N 117.433°E / 49.600; 117.433
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Prefecture-level city Hulunbuir
Area
 • Total 696.3 km2 (268.8 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 300,000
 • Density 430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 021400
Area code(s) 0470
Website http://www.manzhouli.gov.cn/

Manzhouli (Chinese: 满洲里 Mǎnzhōulǐ; Mongolian: Manǰuur ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Манжуур хот); Russian: Маньчжурия) is a sub-prefecture-level city located in Hulunbuir prefecture-level city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is China's busiest land port of entry. It has an area of 696.3 square kilometres (268.8 sq mi) and a population of more than 300,000 (in 2010).

History[edit]

In ancient times the area was inhabited by many tribes that lived in Manchuria including the Donghu, the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Khitan, the Jurchen, and the Mongols. During the decline of China's last dynasty, the Russian Empire forced the house of Qing (1644–1912) to cede the Outer Manchurian territory in the 1858 Treaty of Aigun. That treaty effectively made the Argun River, which originates in this area, the border between the China and Russia.

In 1901, the China Far East Railway was completed in accordance with the Sino-Russian Secret Treaty of 1896, linking Siberia, northeast China ("(Inner) Manchuria"), and the Russian Far East. A settlement then formed around Manchzhuriya Station, the first stop within Manchuria for Russians. It was the beginning of the modern city of Manzhouli and the name of Manzhouli came from Russian Manchzhuriya (Маньчжурия i.e. Manchuria).

In 1905, Manzhouli was designated a trading center in the Sino-Japanese Treaty of 1905, greatly boosting Manzhouli's growth. In 1908 the Manzhouli customs was set up. Under the Republic of China, Manzhouli came under the jurisdiction of the province of Hsingan. In 1927, Manzhouli was designated as a city. Although with Hsingan and surrounding areas, Manzhouli came under Japanese control in 1931, and was part of the Empire of Manchukuo from 1932 to 1945. It became part of Inner Mongolia under the People's Republic of China from 1946.

In 1992, Manzhouli became one of the first land border cities opened up by the People's Republic of China. It has since experienced somewhat of a boom as a center of border trade between China and Russia.[1]

Matryoshka Square

Geography and climate[edit]

Manzhouli is located in the western part of the Hulunbuir prefecture-level city. To the east, south and west it borders New Barghu Left Banner and New Barghu Right Banner, also in Hulunbuir, and Russia to the north, with which it shares a border 54 kilometres (34 mi) long. The Russian townlet of Zabaykalsk is situated immediately north of Abagaitu Islet and Manzhouli.

Manzhouli is located on the Hulunbuir grasslands. Lake Hulun to its immediate south is the PRC's fifth largest freshwater lake with an area of 2,600 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi) and an average depth of just 5 metres (16 ft).

Manzhouli has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwb), with temperatures in winter capable of plummeting below −40 °C (−40 °F). However, in each month there is more than 55% of possible sunshine, and over three-fourths of annual precipitation occurs from June to August.

Climate data for Manzhouli
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
8.1
(46.6)
18.4
(65.1)
30.0
(86)
34.3
(93.7)
37.8
(100)
37.9
(100.2)
36.6
(97.9)
32.9
(91.2)
25.6
(78.1)
11.0
(51.8)
1.2
(34.2)
37.9
(100.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.3
(−9.9)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−9.9
(14.2)
1.8
(35.2)
10.9
(51.6)
17.4
(63.3)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
9.6
(49.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−12
(10)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−0.63
(30.68)
Record low °C (°F) −40.5
(−40.9)
−40.5
(−40.9)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−11.6
(11.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.5
(36.5)
0.8
(33.4)
−9.5
(14.9)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−34
(−29)
−39.4
(−38.9)
−40.5
(−40.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.8
(0.031)
0.8
(0.031)
2.4
(0.094)
6.7
(0.264)
16.3
(0.642)
59.0
(2.323)
98.5
(3.878)
76.7
(3.02)
32.6
(1.283)
6.0
(0.236)
1.9
(0.075)
1.7
(0.067)
303.4
(11.944)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 1.7 2.7 3.5 5.3 10.8 13.9 12.1 8.1 3.6 2.8 3.6 69.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186 198 248 270 279 300 279 279 240 217 180 155 2,831
Percent possible sunshine 63 72 70 63 61 60 56 59 61 68 63 59 64
Source: Weather China, World Climate Guide (sun only)

Administration[edit]

Manzhouli is divided into ten subdistricts and one town. Six of the subdistricts of Manzhouli are grouped into a district. Technically however, only a prefecture-level city (half a level higher than Manzhouli) can have districts, so Manzhouli's lone district is not officially listed.

Culture[edit]

Manzhouli Ice & Snow Festival takes place every winter from some time in February to early March. This is a smaller version of Harbin's Ice and Snow Festivals.

Economy[edit]

Manzhouli is China's busiest land port of entry, and is responsible for 60% of all imports from and exports to Eastern Europe.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1990 137,000 —    
2004 160,000 +16.8%
2007 163,441 +2.2%
2010 249,473 +52.6%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

Ninety-five percent of Manzhouli's population is Han Chinese. The remainder are Buryat, Russian, Mongol, Manchu, or of other ethnicities.

Transportation[edit]

Railway[edit]

Trains being loaded and unloaded just south of the Russian border. The Chinese 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge changes here to the Russian 1,524 mm (5 ft).

Trains from Beijing to Moscow on the Trans-Manchurian branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway pass through Manzhouli Railway Station. There are also tourist lines to Chita, Krasnokamensk, Irkutsk, and Ulan Ude.

A break of gauge multi-modal transshipment facility is being completed in 2008 across the Russian border in Zabaikalsk.

Air[edit]

Manzhouli Airport is located in the western part of the city. Passengers can fly to Beijing and Inner Mongolia's capital city Hohhot from the airport as well as the Russian city of Chita and the Mongolian capital city Ulaanbaatar via Choibalsan.[2]

Highway[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Manzhouli is twinned with the following sister cities.[3]

City State Country
Chita Zabaykalsky Krai Zabaykalsky Krai Russia Russia
Krasnokamensk Zabaykalsky Krai Zabaykalsky Krai Russia Russia
Ulan-Ude Buryatia Buryatia Russia Russia

References[edit]

External links[edit]