Mapuche

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Mapuche
Mapuche people.jpg
LautaroRayen Quitral • Mapuche woman from Chile • Ceferino Namuncurá
Total population
ca. 1,700,000
Many Chileans and Argentines have some Mapuche ancestry
Regions with significant populations
Chile, Argentina
 Chile 1,508,722 (2012)[1]
 Argentina 113,680 (2004-2005)[2]
Languages
Mapudungun, Spanish
Religion
Christianity (Catholicism and Evangelicalism) adapted to traditional beliefs
Related ethnic groups
Picunche, Huilliche, Chileans, Benei Sión

The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers. Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago and spread later eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, and about 9% of the total Chilean population[1] They are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. Many have migrated to the Santiago area for economic opportunities.

The term Mapuche is used both to refer collectively to the Picunche (people of the north), Huilliche (people of the South) and Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía, or at other times, exclusively to the Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía. The Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture; their traditional social organisation consists of extended families, under the direction of a lonko or chief. In times of war, they would unite in larger groupings and elect a toki (meaning "axe, axe-bearer") to lead them. They are known for the textiles woven by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before European encounter.

The Araucanian Mapuche inhabited at the time of Spanish arrival the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers. South of it, the Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mapuche groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas, fusing and establishing relationships with the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups. The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization.

Historically the Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the Mapuche people as Araucanians (araucanos). However, this term is now mostly considered pejorative[3] by some people. The name was likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco), meaning "clayey water".[4][5] The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is probably not the root of araucano.[4]

Some Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, and their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile. But, Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Since then Mapuches have become subjects, and then nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.

History[edit]

Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)

Pre–Columbian period[edit]

Archaeological finds have shown the existence of a Mapuche culture in Chile as early as 600 to 500 BC.[6] Genetically Mapuches differ from the adjacent indigenous peoples of Patagonia.[7] This suggests a "different origin or long lasting separation of Mapuche and Patagonian populations".[7]

Troops the Inca Empire are reported to have reached Maule River and had a battle with Mapuches from Maule River and Itata River there.[8] The southern border of the Inca Empire is believed by most modern scholars to be situated between Santiago and Maipo River or somewhere between Santiago and Maule River.[9] Thus the bulk of the Mapuche escaped Inca rule. Through their contact with Incan invaders Mapuches would have for the first time met people with state organization. Their contact with the Incas gave them a collective awareness distinguishing between them and the invaders and uniting them into loose geo-political units despite their lack of state organization.[10]

At the time of the arrival of the first Spaniards to Chile the largest indigenous population concentration was in the area spanning from Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago—that is the Mapuche heartland.[11] The Mapuche population between Itata River and Reloncaví Sound has been estimated at 705,000–900,000 in the mid-16th century by historian José Bengoa.[12][note 1]

War with the Spanish for 300 years[edit]

The Spanish arrived to Mapuche territory from Peru. Their expansion into Chile was an off-shot of the conquest of Peru.[13] Pedro de Valdivia arrived to Chile from Cuzco in 1541 and founded Santiago that year.[14] The northern Mapuche, better known as Promaucaes or Picunches, unsuccessfully tried to resist the Spanish conquest. Little is known about their resistance.[15]

In 1550 Pedro de Valdivia, who aimed to control all of Chile to the Straits of Magellan, traveled southward to conquer Mapuche territory.[16] Between 1550 and 1553 the Spanish founded several cities[note 2] in Mapuche lands including Concepción, Valdivia, Imperial, Villarrica and Angol.[16] The Spanish also established the forts of Arauco, Purén and Tucapel.[16] Following these initial conquests by the Spanish the Arauco War, a long period of intermittent war, between Mapuches and Spaniards broke out. Contributing factors were the lack a tradition of forced labour like the Andean mita among the Mapuches who largely refused to serve the Spanish.[18] On the other hand the Spanish, in particular those from Castile and Extremadura, came from an extremely violent society.[19] Since the Spanish arrival in the Araucanía in 1550 the Mapuches frequently laid siege to the Spanish cities during the period 1550–1598.[17] The war was mostly a low intensity conflict.[20] Mapuche population decreased following contact with the Spanish invaders. Epidemics decimated much of the population as did also the war with the Spanish.[15] Others died in the Spanish gold mines.[18]

A watershed event happened in 1598. That year a party of warriors from Purén were returning south from a raid against the surroundings of Chillán. In their way back home they ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops that were sleeping without any night watch. It is not clear if they found the Spanish by accident or if they had followed them. The warriors, led by Pelantaro, killed both the governor and all his troops.[21]

In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising developed among the Mapuches and Huilliches. The Spanish cities of Angol, La Imperial, Osorno, Santa Cruz de Oñez, Valdivia and Villarrica were either destroyed or abandoned.[22] Only Chillán and Concepción resisted the Mapuche sieges and attacks.[23] With the exception of Chiloé Archipelago all the Chilean territory south of Bío Bío River became free of Spanish rule.[22]

Although the Mapuches did not allow the free transit of huincas (whites) into the zones that they considered their own land, from about 1780 and in the relations at the end of the 18th century, the associated Mapuche peoples began to accept the limited presence of Spaniards and Creoles in their territories. Also, with the passage of time the Mapuches slowly entered into more frequent interaction with the Hispanic-Creole culture. Thus they would adopt many of their customs and form of life, thanks to the schools for natives, ambassadors, fairs and the parliaments. The Parliament of Negrete of 1803 was the last great parliament of the colonial period of Chile, in which both sides solemnized their peace and alliances. The commerce and unions between Spaniards and Mapuche, generated in addition a mestization that acted like a bridge between both cultures. Thus a coexistence was established between the Spanish, Creoles, and Mapuches, in which things remained nearly the same over most of the next century. Risings and malons were less and less frequent, but among the Mapuches opposition understandably remained towards total integration.

To the finalize of the colony, Spain could never conquer the Araucanian territory despite many attempts during the 300 years of war. On direccion to Strait of Magellan the Spanish had to go around of the province of the Araucanía and seek settlement on the island of Chiloe. Until today the Araucanian people have a reputation for being unbeaten and brave. Famous were his warrior weichafes they were able to fight with the arms cut off. Famous was also the military genius of Lautaro that enclosed to the Spanish cavalry until the surrender. The red of the Chilean flag represents the Araucarian bloodshed.[24]

Incorporation into Chile and Argentina[edit]

Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869

In the 19th century Chile experienced a fast territorial expansion. Chile established a colony at the Strait of Magellan in 1843, settled Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue with German immigrants and conquered land from Peru and Bolivia.[25][26] Later Chile would also annex Easter Island.[27] In this context Araucanía begun to be conquered by Chile due to two reasons. First, the Chilean state aimed for territorial continuity[28] and second it remained the sole place for Chilean agriculture to expand.[29]

Between 1861 and 1871 Chile incorporated several Mapuche territories in Araucanía. In January 1881, having decisively defeated Peru in the battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, Chile resumed the conquest of Araucanía.[30][31][32]

Historian Ward Churchill has claimed that the Mapuche population dropped from a total of half a million to 25,000 within a generation as result of the occupation.[33] The conquest of Araucanía caused numerous Mapuches to be displaced and forced to roam in search of shelter and food.[34] Scholar Pablo Miramán claims the introduction of state education during the Occupation of Araucanía had detrimental effects on traditional Mapuche education.[35]

In the years following the occupation the economy of Araucanía changed from being based on sheep and cattle herding to one based on agriculture and wood extraction.[36] The loss of land by Mapuches following the occupation caused severe erosion since Mapuches continued to practise a massive livestock herding in limited areas.[37]

Modern conflict[edit]

Land disputes and violent confrontations continue in some Mapuche areas, particularly in the northern sections of the Araucanía region between and around Traiguén and Lumaco. In an effort to defuse tensions, the Commission for Historical Truth and New Treatments issued a report in 2003 calling for drastic changes in Chile's treatment of its indigenous people, more than 80 percent of whom are Mapuche. The recommendations included the formal recognition of political and "territorial" rights for indigenous peoples, as well as efforts to promote their cultural identities.

Composite of Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.

Though Japanese and Swiss interests are active in the economy of Araucanía (Mapudungun: "Ngulu Mapu"), the two chief forestry companies are Chilean-owned. In the past, the firms have planted hundreds of thousands of acres with non-native species such as Monterey pine, Douglas firs and eucalyptus trees, sometimes replacing native Valdivian forests, although such substitution and replacement is now forbidden.

Chile exports wood to the United States, almost all of which comes from this southern region, with an annual value of $600 million and rising. Forest Ethics, a conservation group, has led an international campaign for preservation, resulting in the Home Depot chain and other leading wood importers agreeing to revise their purchasing policies to "provide for the protection of native forests in Chile." Some Mapuche leaders want stronger protections for the forests.

In recent years, the delicts committed by Mapuche activists have been prosecuted under counter-terrorism legislation, originally introduced by the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet to control political dissidents. The law allows prosecutors to withhold evidence from the defense for up to six months and to conceal the identity of witnesses, who may give evidence in court behind screens. Violent activist groups, such as the Coordinadora Arauco Malleco (an extremist Chilean Communist Party branch), use tactics such as burning of structures and pastures, and death threats against people and their families. Protesters from Mapuche communities have used these tactics against properties of both multinational forestry corporations and private individuals.[38][39] In 2010 the Mapuche launched a number of hunger strikes in attempts to effect change in the anti-terrorism legislation.[40]

Culture[edit]

Flag of the Mapuche

At the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Mapuche organized and constructed a network of forts and complex defensive buildings. They also built ceremonial constructions such as some earthwork mounds recently discovered near Purén.[41] They quickly adopted iron metal-working (they already worked copper[42]) They learned horseback-riding and the use of cavalry in war from the Spaniards, along with the cultivation of wheat and sheep. In the long 300-year coexistence between the Spanish colonies and the relatively well-delineated autonomous Mapuche regions, the Mapuche also developed a strong tradition of trading with Spaniards and Chileans. Such trade lies at the heart of the Mapuche silver-working tradition, for they wrought their jewelry from the large and widely-dispersed quantity of Spanish and Chilean silver coins. They also made kokoshnik-type headdresses with coins, which were called trarilonko, etc.

Mapuche languages[edit]

The daughter of lonko Quilapán

Mapuche languages are spoken in Chile and to a smaller extent in Argentina. The two living branches are Huilliche and Mapudungun. Although not genetically related, lexical influence has been discerned from Quechua. Linguists estimate that only about 200,000 full-fluency speakers remain in Chile. The language receives only token support in the educational system. In recent years, it has started to be taught in rural schools of Bío-Bío, Araucanía and Los Lagos Regions.

Cosmology and beliefs[edit]

Central to Mapuche cosmology is the idea of a creator called ngenechen, who is embodied in four different components: an older man (fucha/futra/cha chau) and an older woman (kude/kuse) and a young man and a young woman. They believe in different worlds, known as the Wenu Mapu and Minche Mapu. Also, Mapuche cosmology is informed by complex notions of spirits that coexist with humans and animals in the natural world, and daily circumstances can dictate spiritual practices.[43]

The most well-known Mapuche ritual ceremony is the Ngillatun, which loosely translates "to pray" or "general prayer". These ceremonies are often major communal events that are of extreme spiritual and social importance. Many other different ceremonies are practiced, and not all are for public or communal participation but are sometimes limited to family.

The main groups of deities and/or spirits in Mapuche mythology are the Pillan and Wangulen (ancestral spirits), the Ngen (spirits in nature), and the wekufe (evil spirits).

Central to Mapuche belief is the role of the machi (shaman). It is usually filled by a woman, following an apprenticeship with an older machi, and has many of the characteristics typical of shamans. The machi performs ceremonies for curing diseases, warding off evil, influencing weather, harvests, social interactions and dreamwork. Machis often have extensive knowledge of regional medicinal herbs. As biodiversity in the Chilean countryside has declined due to commercial agriculture and forestry, the dissemination of such knowledge has also declined, but the Mapuche people are reviving it in their communities. Machis also have an extensive knowledge of sacred stones and the sacred animals.

Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.

Like many cultures, the Mapuche have a deluge myth (epeu) of a major flood in which the world is destroyed and recreated. The myth involves two opposing forces, Kai Kai (water, which brings death through floods) and Tren Tren (dry earth, which brings sunshine). In the deluge almost all humanity is drowned; the few not drowned survive through cannibalism. At last only one couple is left. A machi tells them that they must give their only child to the waters, which they do, and this restores order to the world.

Part of Mapuche ritual is prayer and animal sacrifice, required to maintain the cosmic balance. This belief has continued to current times. In 1960, for example, a machi sacrificed a young boy, throwing him into the water after an earthquake and a tsunami (tidal waves).[44][45][46]

The Mapuche have also incorporated the remembered history of their long independence and resistance from 1540 (Spanish and then Chileans), and of the treaty with the Chilean government in the 1870s. Memories, stories, and beliefs, often very local and particularized, are a significant part of the Mapuche traditional culture. To varying degrees, this history of resistance continues to this day amongst the Mapuche. At the same time, a large majority of Mapuche in Chile identify with the state as Chilean, similar to a large majority in Argentina identifying as Argentines.[citation needed]

Textiles[edit]

Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Proportion of a chemamull, Mapuche funeral statue, over a person.

One of the best-known arts of the Mapuche is their textiles. The oldest data on textiles in the southernmost areas of the American continent (southern Chile and Argentina today) are found in some archaeological excavations, such as those of Pitrén Cemetery near the city of Temuco, and the Alboyanco site in the Biobío Region, both of Chile; and the Rebolledo Arriba Cemetery in Neuquén Province (Argentina). researchers have found evidence of fabrics made with complex techniques and designs, dated to between AD 1300-1350.[47]

The oldest historical documents that refer to textile art among the indigenous peoples of southern Chilean and Argentine territory, date from the sixteenth century and consist of chronicles of European explorers and settlers. These accounts say that at the time of European arrival in the region of the Araucanía, local natives wore textiles made with camel's hair (alpaca and llamas), which they had made from the fur of these animals. Later, after the Spanish introduced sheep, the Indians began breeding these animals and using their wool for their weaving. Gradually it replaced the use of camelid hair. By the end of the sixteenth century, the indigenous people had developed sheep to have a more robust body and a thicker and longer wool than those imported by the Europeans. They bred higher quality animals for local conditions.[48]

The Mapuche women were responsible for spinning and weaving these textiles, and transmitted their knowledge and local patterns from generation to generation. This usually took place within the family, where women would tell and show their daughters how to do the work. Women were highly prized for their textile knowledge and skills: through the development of their woven textiles, women played important economic and cultural roles. A measure of the importance associated with this was that, at the time of giving a dowry for a young woman's marriage, her man was expected to give a larger dowry if the woman was recognized as a good weaver.[49]

Many Mapuche women continue to weave fabrics according to the customs of their ancestors and transmit their knowledge in the same way: within domestic life, from mother to daughter, and from grandmothers to granddaughters. This form of learning is based on gestural imitation, and only rarely, and when strictly necessary, the apprentice receives explicit instructions or help from their instructors. Knowledge is transmitted as fabric is woven, the weaving and transmission of knowledge go together.[49]

In Andean societies, textiles had a great importance. They were developed to be used as clothing, as tool and shelter for the home, as well as a status symbol.[50] In the Araucanía region in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as reported by various chroniclers of Chile, the Mapuche worked to have Hispanic clothing and fabrics included as a trophy of war in treaties with the Spanish. They dressed their dead in their best clothes and finest textiles for their funerals.[51]

In addition, the Mapuche used their textiles as an important surplus and an exchange trading good. Numerous 16th-century accounts describe their bartering the textiles with other indigenous peoples, and with colonists in newly developed settlements. Such trading enabled the Mapuche to obtain those goods that they did not produce or held in high esteem, such as horses. Tissue volumes made by Aboriginal women and marketed in the Araucanía and the north of the Patagonia Argentina were really considerable and constitute a vital economic resource for indigenous families.[52] The production of fabrics in the time before European settlement was clearly intended for uses beyond domestic consumption.[53]

At present, the fabrics woven by the Mapuche continue to be used for domestic purposes, as well as for gift, sale or barter. Most Mapuche women and their families now wear garments with foreign designs and tailored with materials of industrial origin, but they continue to weave ponchos, blankets, bands and belts for regular use. Many of the fabrics are woven for trade, and in many cases, are an important source of income for families.[54]

Clava hand-club[edit]

Clava is a traditional stone hand-club used by the Mapuche. It has a long flat body. Its full name is clava mere okewa; in Spanish, it's known as clava cefalomorfa. It has some ritual importance as a special sign of distinction carried by tribal chiefs. Many kinds of clavas are known.

This is an object associated with masculine power. It consists of a disk with attached handle; the edge of the disc usually has a semicircular recess. In many cases, the face portrayed on the disc carries incised designs. The handle is cylindrical, generally with a larger diameter at its connection to the disk.[55][56]

Silverwork[edit]

Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.

In the later half of the 18th century Mapuche silversmithing begun to produce large amounts of silver finery.[57] The surge of silversmithing activity may be related to the 1726 parliament of Negrete that decreased hostilities between Spaniards and Mapuches and allowed trade to increase between colonial Chile and the free Mapuches.[57] In this context of increasing trade Mapuches began in late 18th century to accept payments in silver coins for their products; usually cattle or horses.[57] These coins and silver coins obtained in political negotiations served as raw material for Mapuche metalsmiths (Mapudungun: rüxafe).[57][58][59] Old Mapuche silver pendants often included unmelted silver coins, something that has helped modern researchers to date the objects.[58] The bulk of the Spanish silver coins originated from mining in Potosí in Upper Peru.[59]

The great diversity in silver finery designs is due to the fact that designs were made to be identified with different reynma (families), lof mapu (lands) as well as specific lonkos and machis.[60] Mapuche silver finery was also subject to changes in fashion albeit designs associated with philosophical and spiritual concepts have not undergone major changes.[60]

In late 18th century and early 19th century Mapuche silversmithing activity and artistic diversity reached it climax.[61] All impontant Mapuche chiefs of the 19th century are supposed to have had at least one silversmith.[57] As of 1984 Mapuche scholar Carlos Aldunate noted that there were no silversmiths alive among contemporary Mapuches.[57]

Literature[edit]

The Mapuche culture of the 16th century had an oral tradition and lacked a writing system. Since that time, a writing system for Mapudungun was developed, and Mapuche writings in both Spanish and Mapudungun have flourished.[62] Contemporary Mapuche literature can be said to be composed of an oral tradition and Spanish-Mapudungun bilingual writings.[62] Notable Mapuche poets include Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf.[62]

Mapuche, Chileans and the Chilean state[edit]

Following the independence of Chile in the 1810s, the Mapuche began to be perceived as Chilean by other Chileans, contrasting with previous perceptions of them as a separate people or nation.[63] Historian Gonzalo Vial claims that the Republic of Chile owes a "historical debt" to the Mapuche. The Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco has the goal of a national liberation of Mapuche, with their regaining sovereignty over their own lands.[63]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note that the Chiloé Archipelago with its large population is not included in this estimate.
  2. ^ These "cities" were often no more than forts.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2012 census". Censo.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  2. ^ ECPI, 2004-2005.
  3. ^ "''AZ Domingo 17 de Febrero de 2008''" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  4. ^ a b Mapuche o Araucano (Spanish)
  5. ^ Antecedentes históricos del pueblo araucano (Spanish)
  6. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 16–19.
  7. ^ a b Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2013). "HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile". Molecular Biology Reports 40: 4257–4267. 
  8. ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 37–38.
  9. ^ Dillehay, T.; Gordon, A. (1988). "La actividad prehispánica y su influencia en la Araucanía". In Dillehay, Tom; Netherly, Patricia. La frontera del estado Inca (in Spanish). pp. 183–196. 
  10. ^ Bengoa 2003, p. 40.
  11. ^ Otero 2006, p. 36.
  12. ^ Bengoa 2003, p. 157.
  13. ^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 91−93.
  14. ^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 96−97.
  15. ^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 250–251.
  16. ^ a b c Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 98−99.
  17. ^ a b "La Guerra de Arauco (1550-1656)". Memoria chilena (in Spanish) (Biblioteca Nacional de Chile). Retrieved January 30, 2014{{inconsistent citations}} 
  18. ^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 252–253.
  19. ^ Bengoa 2003, p. 261.
  20. ^ Dillehay 2007, p. 335.
  21. ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 320–321.
  22. ^ a b Villalobos et al. 1974, p. 109.
  23. ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 324–325.
  24. ^ http://www.elmercurio.com/blogs/2014/04/03/20755/Mi-banderita-marchita.aspx
  25. ^ "El fuerte Bulnes". Memoria chilena (in Spanish) (Biblioteca Nacional de Chile). Retrieved January 3, 2014{{inconsistent citations}} 
  26. ^ Villalobos R., Sergio; Silva G., Osvaldo; Silva V., Fernando; Estelle M., Patricio (1974). Historia de Chile (1995 ed.). Editorial Universitaria. pp. 456–458, 571–575. ISBN 956-11-1163-2. 
  27. ^ "Incorporándola al territorio chileno". Memoria chilena (in Spanish) (Biblioteca Nacional de Chile). Retrieved January 3, 2014{{inconsistent citations}} 
  28. ^ Pinto 2003, p. 153.
  29. ^ Bengoa 2000, p. 156.
  30. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 275–276.
  31. ^ Ferrando 1986, p. 547
  32. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 277–278.
  33. ^ Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide, 109.
  34. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 232–233.
  35. ^ Pinto 2003, p. 205.
  36. ^ Pinto Rodríguez, Jorge (2011). "Ganadería y empresarios ganaderos de la Araucanía, 1900-1960". Historia 44 (2): 369–400{{inconsistent citations}} 
  37. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 262–263.
  38. ^ "Redireccionando". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  39. ^ "Mapuche struggle for autonomy in Chile", Spero Forum
  40. ^ "Mapuche hunger strike in Chile highlights the real problem facing President Sebastian Pinera", Sounds and colors website
  41. ^ Dillehay, Tom, Monuments, Empires, and Resistance: The Araucanian Polity and Ritual Narratives (Cambridge University Press, Washington, 2007)
  42. ^ Pedro Mariño de Lobera, in Crónica del Reino de Chile, Cap. XXXI and XXXIII mentions copper points on the Mapuche pikes in the Battle of Andalien and Battle of Penco. Copper metallurgy was flourishing in South America, particularly in Peru, from around the beginning of the first millennium AD. Possibly the Mapuche learned copper metal working from their prior interaction with the Inca Empire or prior Peruvian cultures, or was a native craft that developed independently in the region (copper being common in Chile).
  43. ^ Ngenechen, and Don Armando Marileo
  44. ^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2004). Mariko Namba Walter, Eva Jane Neumann Fridman, ed. Shamanism: an encyclopedia of world beliefs, practices, and culture, Volume. ABC-CLIO. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-57607-645-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  45. ^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2007). Shamans of the Foye Tree: Gender, Power, and Healing among Chilean Mapuche. University of Texas Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-292-71659-9. 
  46. ^ Aladama, Arturo J (2003). Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State. Indiana University Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-253-21559-8. 
  47. ^ Brugnoli y Hoces de la Guardia, 1995; Alvarado, 2002
  48. ^ Joseph, 1931; Palermo, 1994; Méndez, 2009a.
  49. ^ a b Wilson, 1992; Mendez, 2009a.
  50. ^ Murra, 1975.
  51. ^ Palermo, 1994; Méndez, 2009b.
  52. ^ Guaravaglia, 1986; Palermo, 1994; Mendez, 2009b.
  53. ^ Méndez, 2009b.
  54. ^ Wilson, 1992; Alvarado, 2002; Mendez, 2009a.
  55. ^ Several types of clavas Tesauro Regional Patrimonial, Chile
  56. ^ Image of clava cefalomorfa Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino
  57. ^ a b c d e f Aldunate, Carlos (1984). "Refrexiones acerca de la platería mapuche". Cultura-Hombre-Sociedad 1. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  58. ^ a b Kangiser Gómez, María Fernanda (2002). "Conservación en platería mapuche: Museo Fonck, Viña del Mar". Conserva 6. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  59. ^ a b Painecura 2012, pp. 25-26.
  60. ^ a b Painecura 2012, pp. 27-28.
  61. ^ Painecura 2012, p. 30.
  62. ^ a b c Carrasco, I. 2000. Mapuche poets in Chilean literature, Estudios filológicos, 35, 139-149.
  63. ^ a b Foerster, Rolf 2001. Sociedad mapuche y sociedad chilena: la deuda histórica. Polis, Revista de la Universidad Bolivariana.

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