|The Municipality of Marabá|
"Terra da Castanha"
[Land of the Brazil nut]
|State of Pará|
|Founded||April 5, 1913|
|• Mayor||João Salame Neto (PPS)|
|• Total||15,092.268 km2 (5,827.157 sq mi)|
|• Density||15/km2 (40/sq mi)|
|HDI (2000)||0.714 – high|
Marabá is an municipality in the state of Pará, Brazil. The reference location is the meeting point between two great rivers, forming a sort of "y" in the city as seen from above. It basically consists of six urban centers, linked by five highways.
It is the fourth most populous municipality in the state of Pará, approximately 233,462 inhabitants according to the IBGE/2010, and the fifth largest GDP in the state of Pará, with USD $ 1.697.696,19. It's the main center of political, social and economic development of southern of Pará and one of the most dynamic municipalities in Brazil.
Marabá has a strategic position, is crossed by five major highway. He also has a large logistics infrastructure, with port, airport and railway. The municipality has a growing industrial park, especially the steel industry, is important in agriculture, with a vast agricultural frontier, and also has a strong trade and services sector.
Marabá is characterized by its broad mix of peoples and cultures that do justice to the meaning of his nickname: "son of miscegenation".
The etymology of the word "Maraba" derives from an indigenous term, and means son of the foreigner, or even the son of the Indian with the white man.
A poem written by poet Gonçalves Dias inspired by the merchant Francisco Silva to its commercial name of "Casa Marabá" (Maraba House). This was located the banks of the Tocantins River, and served as a strategic business point for exchanging all kinds of products and services.
The settlement of the river basin Itacaiúnas played an important factor in shaping the city, because even though this region has been further explored by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, remained without a permanent occupation for almost 300 years. Only in 1892 is, in fact, the space was occupied by settlers. The first to participate in the colonization of the territory of Marabá, in 1892, were the political leaders who had escaped the political guerrillas in the northern province of Goiás, specifically the city of Boa Vista. The pioneer Carlos Leitão has shifted to the southeast of the province of Grão-Pará established his first camp in a small town in the river downstream Itacaiúnas. The final settlement was established on the left bank of the Tocantins, about 10 km downstream from the other camp, which he called the "Burgo do Itacayúna". After a few months of colonization began extracting latex from rubber in the region of the "Burgo do Itacayuna".
In 1894 Carlos Leitão can with the president of the province of Grão-Pará, funding for the extraction and marketing of rubber, plus get drugs to be used specifically to combat tropical diseases. Upon returning to the Burgo Itacayúna, Carlos Leitão spreading information about the rubber for the whole little colony and its surroundings. Immediately there is the first population boom of the Burgo do Itacayúna when the rubber gatherers, hunters and boaters settle in the region.
The merchant Francisco Silva would have been the first to settle in the area downstream of the river Tocantins Itacaiúnas in founding the town of Pontal. Francisco Silva's goal was to negotiate with the rubber gatherers, who were looking across the river Itacaiúnas rubber, and sold in the streets along the river Tocantins. Records attributed to Francisco Silva responsibility for the city name. He would have installed on site, a trade called "House Marabá", which years later would be used to describe the then town of Pontal.
This trading house established in the estuary of the river Itacaiúnas on the Tocantins River, was the dynamo that forms the city of Marabá. From 1908 the town of Pontal is to host the borough's Burgo do Itacayúna, setting out from then on a new name for the locale, which is now called Marabá.
On February 27, 1913, Marabá achieved political autonomy and became a municipality. The first mayor of Marabá was the military Antônio Maia, who took office as a nominee of the provincial president of the Grão-Pará.
In subsequent years the migratory flow to the region of Marabá increased considerably. During the 1920s, the migrants moved to Marabá principlamente to participate in the extraction and sale of the Brazil nut, andiroba, copaiba oils and rubber. And from the 1930s moved to Marabá in order to work in diamond mines that lay on the banks of the Tocantins River.
In 1929, Marabá becomes illuminated by a power plant that operated the base from burning wood. In November 1935 the local airport is opened and the first plane lands in this. This period was primarily composed Marabá 450 houses and 1500 inhabitants fixed.
With the construction of Highway PA-70, in 1969, Maraba is connected to the Belém-Brasília Highway. The implementation of road infrastructure was part of the Brazilian military government's strategy to integrate the Amazon region to the rest of the country. They were part of the integration strategy of the Amazon territory, especially the region of Marabá, the official plan of agricultural colonization, the construction of the Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power, the Greater Carajas project implementation, and even the discovery of large gold deposits of the Serra Pelada. All these projects were based Marabá, and contributed to the economic and population boom that occurred in the city between the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1970 the city was declared a National Security Area, a condition that lasted until the end of the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1985. In addition to having strategic importance for national integration policy, the Marabá region was the only area of Brazil where there was fighting between the army and the guerrillas of the PC do B wishing to overthrow the military regime and establish a communist regime in Brazil. Took place then, the Araguaia guerrilla movement, which forced the Brazilian government to move to Marabá a large contingent of troops of the Brazilian Army. The city has become since then one of the bases for military operations of the troops of the Brazilian army.
In the 1970s, took place the PIN (National Integration Program), which, among other measures, provided for the construction of the Trans-Amazon Highway, whose first section was opened in 1971, along with the creation of a stand of the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (Incra) in Maraba. With the completion of construction of the Trans-Amazon Highway the flow of migrants from Maraba to greatly increased, and in less than a decade, the city became a small urban center marfens the Tocantins River (Maraba at the time had only 20,000 inhabitants) a major city in the region with more than 100,000 inhabitants.
In 1980 the city was ravaged by the greatest flood in its history, when the Tocantins River rose 17.42 meters. As a result, there was a redesign of urban growth and city expansion.
In 1987 there was a conflict that became known as the Massacre of St. Boniface. The battle took place between the miners of Serra Pelada and the Para Military Police with the assistance of the Brazilian Army. The event that caused the massacre, blocked access to the Marabá Mixed Bridge and asked for the reopening of Serra Pelada in the lowering of the mining pit. Officially nine people died in the conflict.
The municipality of Maraba experienced various economic cycles. Until the early 80's economy was based on the extraction plant. At first revolved around the extraction of latex rubber, whose lucrative attracted large numbers of the Northeast. Since the late nineteenth century (1892) until the late 40s, was marked by the extraction of the rubber boom that has contributed greatly to the economy of the city and the region, however, the rubber crisis led the council to a new cycle . This time, the cycle of Brazil nuts, which for years led the municipal economy. There was also the cycle of diamonds between 1920 and 1940, which were mainly found on the river Tocantins. With the discovery of Serra Pelada and be in the world's largest mineral, Maraba also experienced the cycle of the mines, which had the greatest emphasis, the extraction of gold.
Since the early 70's the city began to experience the installation of the Grande Carajás project, and later steel industries, rather than boosted the local economy.
Today, Maraba is the economic center and a vast administrative region of the Amazon agricultural frontier ", the city has one of the most significant economic growth in the country. Livestock based on cattle ranching is an activity of great importance for the municipality, and ensure the livelihoods of the population, provides the regional and local development by creating large scale, and is marketed in different Brazilian regions and abroad. The herd area is highlighted by its superior quality, being one of the most important cattle herds of the state, a result arising from the use of advanced technology in the selection and fertilization. It has also herds of pigs, horses, sheep and poultry
The fishing sector also has a key role in local economic base by exporting its surplus for the entire north and northeast. Agriculture is diversified, with production cereals, pulses and oilseeds such as corn, rice and beans, fruits such as bananas and acai, and logging
Through the Industrial Development Company of Para - CDI, was installed at the end of the eighties, in an area of 1,300 hectares, the industrial district of Maraba - DIM, to create the base of a steel pole targeting the Carajas iron ore, exploited by the mining company Vale.
Metallurgical Industries and intense livestock activity, accounted for a large environmental devastation in the region. The activity of the steel industry requires large amounts of coal, leading to a devastation of native forests. As a result of public pressure the industries were forced to change its production model, investing in reforestation and charcoal production through the babassu coconut palm.
Besides, to have more than 200 industries, and the steel (pig iron) most important, second is the timber industry and the manufacture of tiles and bricks. The city's economy also relies on the production of manganese and Agribusiness. In Maraba, Agribusiness works with pulp processing, cassava flour, rice processing, milk and palm.
The installation of steel plant came boost the local economy even more, forming a metal pole-mechanical, with a view to verticalize the local mineral production. There are still projects that seen during and after the installation of steel works, among them: The gas pipeline Açailândia-Maraba and construction of new port city.
The trade and services sector also has its share of contribution. Maraba has approximately 5 000 outlets divided between trade formed by micro, small, medium and large businesses and services, Hospital, Financial, Education, Construction and Public Utilities. It is a very powerful and comes with high rates of growth. This is because the strategy of state government, to decentralize services from the state capital, Belém. The city is increasingly gaining representation in hosting numerous public institutions. The trade of the city is highlighted, because the city is a major regional commercial hub of South and Southeast of Pará.
Marabá is served by João Correa da Rocha Airport.
Culture and leisure
Maraba is a true haven of natural beauty. Bordered by two major rivers, brings an air of provincial town, but offers great opportunities to those resident and visitors.
- Beach Tucunaré (Peacock Bass)
One of the best options during the summer of Pará, the Beach Peacock Bass is the most visited tourist spot in town. Emerging from the ebb of the Tocantins River, just after the rainy season the beach occupies an area of approximately 5 km ², of which three quarters are of fine sand and one quarter of vegetation. Situated opposite the central region of Maraba, the sands of the island are sighted in mid-April, but their high season is in July, making it the main attraction of the city.
The beach provides vacationers, practice water sports and sandy, camping, fishing, and various attractions promoted by the Municipality.
Along the beach is prepared a lot of vendors that offer visitors a multitude of dishes and drinks, including the Coconut Beach, the peacock bass fry
- Beach geladinho
Located opposite the district of San Felix, also appears in the summer with the decrease in the level of the river Tocantins. Its natural beauty won a special touch with the vision of Rail/Road bridge over the river Tocantins, to transport the ore extracted from the Serra dos Carajás.
- Church of St. Felix of Valois
It was the first chapel built in Maraba. It was made by Francis Acacio, in the 20s in honor of Santa Maria. The first building was destroyed by the flooding of rivers in 1926, then another church was erected on the same site. It is the first historical heritage of the city, officially recognized on April 5, 1993. The church is located in Piazza San Felix, in the central city
- Palace Augusto Dias
Seat of the Legislature was built in the 30s to serve the City and the Forum
- Municipal Museum of Maraba
The Municipal Museum is installed at the Foundation House of Culture of Maraba and includes the following sectors: Division of Anthropology, Department of Botany, Department of Geology, Department of Archaeology and Department of Zoology. In addition to host school of Music, the municipal public archives, the Museum makes several studies on the region southeast of Pará, rescuing and preserving local history. The museum has the support and guidance of the Goeldi Museum, in relation to the training of technicians and identification of the material through an agreement with the institution. The Municipal Museum of Maraba is one of Brazil's most respected institutions in the framework of research, rescue, environmental and historical preservation.
Águia de Marabá Futebol Clube, the city's principal football club won the state championship in 2010 and reached the Copa do Brasil semi-finals in 2009. In 2010, it placed 3nd[clarification needed] on the National Championship's Serie C.
Maraba is subdivided into six urban centers:
- Cidade Nova
- Morada Nova
- Nova Marabá
- São Félix
- Velha Marabá
- Elevation: 84 m
- Climate: Equatorial hot and dry
- Average annual temperature: 32°C
- Latitude South 05° 22' 08"
- Longitude West: 49° 07' 04"
Distances from other cities:
- Araguaina: 280 km
- Belém: 485 km
- Brasília: 1.682 km
- Fortaleza: 2.225 km
- Imperatriz: 210 km
- Palmas: 801 km
- Parauapebas: 180 km
- Rio de Janeiro: 2.818 km
- São Luiz: 799 km
- São Paulo: 2.037 km