Top:Maragha Observatory, Middle left:The tomb of Gunbad-Kabud, Middle right:Qyrmyzy Gvnbz, Bottom left:Statue of Anahita, Bottom right:The tomb of Awhaduddin Awhadi
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Maragheh (Persian: :مراغه; Azerbaijani: ﻣﺎﺭﺍﻏﺎ ,Marağa ) also Romanized as Marāgheh; also known as Marāgha) is a city in and the capital of Maragheh County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 146,405, in 38,891 families.
Maragheh is an ancient city situated in a narrow valley running nearly north and south at the eastern extremity of a well-cultivated plain opening towards Lake Urmia, which lies 30 km to the west. The town is encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, and has four gates. Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1217-1265), who made Maragheh the capital of the Ilkhanate. Shortly thereafter it became the seat of the Church of the East Patriarch Mar Yaballaha III. The place is surrounded by extensive vineyards and orchards, all well watered by canals led from the river, and producing great quantities of fruit. The hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt.
Its marble, which is known throughout Iran as Maragha marble, is a travertine obtained at the village of Dashkasan near Azarshahr about 50 km north-west from Maragheh. It is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of about 20 cm. It is a singularly beautiful substance, being of pink, greenish, or milk-white color, streaked with reddish copper-colored veins. It is exported and sold worldwide under such names as Azarshar Red or Yellow.
Rawadid dynasty was a kurdish dynasty, ruled Maragheh from 10th to early 11th centuries.
Hamdollah Mostowfi of the 13th century A.D. mentions the language of Maragheh as "Pahlavi Mughayr" (modified Pahlavi). The 17th century A.D. Ottoman Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi who traveled to Safavid Iran also states:“The majority of the women in Maragheh converse in Pahlavi”. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam: "At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke “arabicized Pahlawi” (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."
On a hill west of the town are the remains of the famous Maragheh observatory called Rasad Khaneh, constructed under the direction the Ilkhanid king, Hülagü Khan for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. The building, which no doubt served as a citadel as well, enclosed a space of 340 by 135 meters, and the foundations of the walls were 13 to 2 meters in thickness. The observatory was constructed in the thirteenth century and was said to house a staff of at least ten astronomers and a librarian who was in charge of the library which allegedly contained over 40,000 books. This observatory was one of the most prestigious during the medieval times in the Islamic Empire during the golden age of Islamic science. The famous astronomer Ibn al-Shatir did much of his work in this observatory.
Universities in Maragheh
Famous people born in Maragheh or who lived in Maragheh
- Bar Hebraeus
- Ala'uddin Qizil Arslan (†1191), ruler of Maragha, Nizami dedicated to him the "Haft Paikar"
- Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (d. 1266), developed the Urdi lemma later used in the Copernican model
- Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, (born in Tus) developed the Tusi-couple later used in the Copernican model
- Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī (born in Qazvin) (d. 1277), described a heliocentric model
- Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311)(born in Shiraz) discussed the possibility of heliocentrism
- Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375), (born in Syria) his reformation of the geocentric model was later used in the Copernican model
- Awhadi Maraghai, Persian poet (Father settled from Isfahan to Maragha)
- Ali Qushji (d. 1474) (born in Samarqand)
- Shams al-Din al-Khafri (16th century), the last major astronomer of Maragha
- Mohammad Sa'ed (1883-1973), Prime Minister of Iran
Sister cities and twin towns
- Maragheh can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3074025" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
- "International paleontologists team up for research on fossil-rich Iranian site". Mehrnews.com. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "حمدالله مستوفی هم كه در سدههای هفتم و هشتم هجری می زیست، ضمن اشاره به زبان مردم مراغه می نویسد: "زبانشان پهلوی مغیر است مستوفی، حمدالله: "نزهةالقلوب"، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
- "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan," Encyclopaedia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by E. Yarshater. External link: 
- Source: Mohammad-Amin Riahi . “Molehaazi darbaareyeh Zabaan-I Kohan Azerbaijan”(Some comments on the ancient language of Azerbaijan), ‘Itilia’at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182. ریاحی خویی، محمدامین، «ملاحظاتی دربارهی زبان كهن آذربایجان»: اطلاعات سیاسی - اقتصادی، شمارهی 182-181 Also available at: 
- V.Minorsky, “Margha” in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online."At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke “arabicized Pahlawi” (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu’arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."
- Lindberg, David C. (1992). The Beginnings of Western Science. United States: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9780226482057.
- E. Makovicky (1992): 800-year-old pentagonal tiling from Maragha, Iran, and the new varieties of aperiodic tiling it inspired. In: I. Hargittai, editor: Fivefold Symmetry, pp. 67–86. World Scientific, Singapore-London
- Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt: Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture, Science 315 (2007) 1106-1110
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Maraghe.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maragheh.|
- Official website
- Maragheh in Enc. Britannica
- The Columbia Encyclopedia
- Photography of Gunbad-i-Qabud
- Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Center of Maragha
- Biography of A'bd alqader ibn Ghaibi al Hafiz al Maraghi
- Maragheh photos
- More photos and Information of Maragheh, Tishineh
|Capital of Ilkhanate (Persia)