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The Marangoni number (Ma) is a dimensionless number named after Italian scientist Carlo Marangoni. The Marangoni number may be regarded as proportional to (thermal-) surface tension forces divided by viscous forces. It is – for example – applicable to bubble and foam research or calculations of cryogenic spacecraft propellant behaviour.
- γ: surface tension, (SI units: N/m);
- L: characteristic length, (SI units: m);
- : thermal diffusivity, (SI units: m2/s);
- η: dynamic viscosity, (SI units: kg/(s·m));
- ∆T: temperature difference, (SI units: K).