Marantaceae

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Marantaceae
Maranta leuconeura3.jpg
Maranta leuconeura
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Marantaceae
R.Br.[1]
Genera

Afrocalathea
Calathea
Cominsia
Ctenanthe
Donax
Halopegia
Haumania
Hylaeanthe
Hypselodelphys
Indianthus
Ischnosiphon
Koernickanthe
Maranta
Marantochloa
Megaphrynium
Monophrynium
Monophyllanthe
Monotagma
Myrosma
Phacelophrynium
Phrynium
Pleiostachya
Sanblasia
Saranthe
Sarcophrynium
Schumannianthus
Stachyphrynium
Stromanthe
Thalia
Thaumatococcus
Trachyphrynium

Marantaceae or arrowroot family is a family of flowering plants known for its large starchy rhizomes. It is sometimes called the prayer-plant family. Combined morphological and DNA phylogenetic analyses indicate the family originated in Africa, although this is not the center of its extant diversity.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Zingiberales in the clade commelinids in the monocots. The Marantaceae are considered the most evolved family in this group due to the extreme reduction in both stamens and carpels.

The family consists of 29 genera with 627 species, found in the tropical areas of the world except in Australia. The biggest concentration is in the Americas, with seven genera in Africa, and six in Asia.

The plants usually have underground rhizomes or tubers. The leaves are arranged in two rows with the petioles having a sheathing base. The leaf blade is narrow or broad with pinnate veins running parallel to the midrib. The petiole may be winged, and swollen into a pulvinus at the base. The inflorescence is a spike or panicle, enclosed by spathe-like bracts. The flowers are small and often inconspicuous, irregular and bisexual usually with an outer three free sepals and an inner series of three petaloid-like segments, tube-like in appearance. The fruit is either fleshy or a loculicidal capsule.

Chemistry[edit]

Rosmarinic acid can be found in plants in the family Marantaceae such as species in the genera Maranta (Maranta leuconeura, Maranta depressa) and Thalia (Thalia geniculata).[3]

Economic uses[edit]

The most well known species in the family is arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), a plant of the Caribbean, grown in parts of the Caribbean, Australasia, and Sub-Saharan Africa for its easily digestible starch known as arrowroot. It is grown commercially in the West Indies and tropical Americas.

Several species of genus Calathea are grown as houseplants for their large ornamental leaves, which are variegated in shades of green, white and pink. Other genera grown for houseplants includes Stromanthe and Maranta.

Calathea lutea has tough, durable leaves used to make waterproof baskets, and in the Caribbean and Central America, its leaves are used for roofing. Two Mexican species - C. macrosepala and C. violacea - have flowers that are cooked and used as vegetables. C. allouia, from the West Indies is known as Sweet Corn Root and has an edible tuber.

Schumannianthus dichotomus is used for weaving mats to use on floors and beds.

Prayer plant "praying", i.e., raising its leaves for the evening

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ Andersson, L; Chase MW (March 2001). "Phylogeny and classification of Marantaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (Academic Press) 135 (3): 275–287. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2001.tb01097.x. 
  3. ^ Occurrence of rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin in Marantaceae species. Yana Abdullah, Bernd Schneider and Maike Petersen, Phytochemistry Letters, 12 December 2008, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 199–203, doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2008.09.010

External links[edit]

  • Ed., V.H. Heywood, Flowering Plants of the World, Oxford Univ. Press (1978)
  • Lennart Andersson, The neotropical genera of Marantaceae. Circumscription and relationships, Nordic Journal of Botany, Volume 1 Issue 2, Pages 218 - 245 (2008)