The Maratha–Mysore War was a conflict on the Indian subcontinent between the Maratha Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore. Begun in February 1785, it ended with the signing of the Treaty of Gajendragad in April 1787. In the aftermath of the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784), Mysorean ruler Tipu Sultan sought to forestall offensive moves by the Marathas, who had established a military alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad to recover territories both had lost to Mysore in previous conflicts. Much of the desired territory was subject to marches, countermarches, and sieges of fortified points. The Marathas also attempted to draw the British East India Company into the pending conflict, but a neutrality policy implemented by the new governor-general, Lord Charles Cornwallis made its participation impossible.
The treaty ending the war gave both sides some territorial gains. Mysore was also required to make one-time tribute payments.