Mark Antony

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For other Romans with a similar Latin name, see List of Romans named Marcus Antonius. For other people with a similar English name, see Mark Anthony.
Marcus Antonius
M Antonius modified.png
Bust of Mark Antony in Vatican City
Triumvir of the Roman Republic
In office
27 November 43 BC – 31 December 33 BC
Serving with Octavian and Marcus Lepidus
Consul of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 34 BC – 31 December 34 BC
Serving with Lucius Scribonius Libo
Preceded by Lucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
Succeeded by Octavian and Lucius Volcatius Tullus
Consul of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 44 BC – 31 December 44 BC
Serving with Julius Caesar
Preceded by Julius Caesar
Succeeded by Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
People's Tribune of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 49 BC – 7 January 49 BC
Personal details
Born 14 January 83 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died 1 August 30 BC
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt
Spouse(s)
Fadia
(dates unknown)
Antonia Hybrida Minor (?–47 BC)
Fulvia (46–40 BC)
Octavia Minor (40–32 BC)
Cleopatra (32–30 BC)
Children
Religion Roman Paganism
Military service
Allegiance Roman Military banner.svg Roman Republic
Service/branch Roman Army
Years of service 54–30 BC
Rank Proconsul
Battles/wars

Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N;[note 1] January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was an important supporter of and military commander for Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul and subsequent civil war. Caesar appointed Antony the administrator of Italy while he eliminated his political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Lepidus, one of Caesar's generals, and Caesar's adoptive son Octavian in a three-man dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirate defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC and divided government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including Rome's client kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt ruled by Queen Cleopatra, and command of Rome's war against Parthia.

Relations within the Triumvirate were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC when Antony married Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Despite his marriage, Antony continued his love affair with Cleopatra, further straining political ties to Rome. With Lepidus expelled in 36 BC, the Triumvirate finally broke up in 33 BC as disagreements between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war in 31 BC. The Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium the same year. Defeated, Antony fled with Cleopatra back to Egypt where he committed suicide.

With Antony dead, Octavian was left as the undisputed master of the Roman world. Octavian would assume the title Augustus and would reign as the first Roman Emperor.

Early life[edit]

A member of the Plebeian Antonia clan (gens), Antony was born in Rome on January 14, 83 BC.[1][2] His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the same name who had been murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–6 BC.[3] His mother was Julia Antonia, a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla's march on Rome in 82 BC.[4] [note 2]

Antony's brother Lucius, on a coin issued at Ephesus during his consulship in 41 BC

According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, and was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively.[5] In 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress.[3][5][6] The elder Antony's death left Antony and his brothers, Lucius and Gaius, in the care of their mother. Julia later married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, an eminent member of the old Patrician nobility.[7] Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was constantly in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle. He was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement.[7] His death resulted in a feud between the Antonia and the famous orator.

Antony's early life was characterized by lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling, drinking, and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs.[6] According to Cicero, he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio.[8] There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher and his street gang.[9] He may also have been involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order later in life.[10] By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 BC, where he studied philosophy and rhetoric at Athens.

Early career[edit]

Military service[edit]

In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of Aulus Gabinius, the Proconsul of Syria, as chief of the cavalry.[11] The appointment marks the beginning of his military career.[12] As Consul the previous year alongside Antony's mentor Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gabinius had exiled Cicero.

Hyrcanus II, the Roman-supported Hasmonean High Priest of Judea, fled Jerusalem to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law Alexander. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general Pompey had captured him and his father, King Aristobulus II, during his war against the remnant of the Seleucid Empire. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome’s client ruler over Judea.[13] Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus.[14] With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest.

Bust of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes.

The following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of Ptolemaic Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter Berenice IV in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey’s conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome.[15] Gabinius’ invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne. This was done against the orders of the Senate but with the approval of Pompey, then Rome’s leading politician, and only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian Plutarch records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to finally act.[14] After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced.[16] With Ptolemy XII restored as Rome’s client king, Gabinius garrisoned two thousand Roman soldiers, later known as the Gabiniani, in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy’s authority. In return for its support, Rome exercised consideration power over the kingdom’s affairs, particularly control over the kingdom’s revenues and crop yields.[17]

During the campaign in Egypt, Antony first met Cleopatra, the then 14 year old daughter of Ptolemy XII. The Roman historian Appian of Alexandria later recorded his desire for the Egyptian princess began at this meeting.[18]

While Antony was serving Gabinius in the East, the domestic political situation had changed in Rome. In 60 BC, a secret agreement (known as the "First Triumvirate") was entered into between three men to control the Republic: Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, and Gaius Julius Caesar. Crassus, Rome's wealthiest man, had defeated the slave rebellion of Spartacus in 70 BC; Pompey conquered much of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 60's BC; Caesar was Rome's Pontifex Maximus and a former general in Spain. In 59 BC, Caesar, with funding from Crassus, was elected Consul to pursue legislation favorable to Crassus and Pompey's interests. In return, Caesar was assigned the governorship of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul for five years beginning in 58 BC. Caesar used his governorship as a launch point for his conquest of free Gaul. In 55 BC, Crassus and Pompey served as Consuls while Caesar had his command extended for another five years. Rome was effectively under the absolute power of these three men.[19][20] The Triumvirate used the demagogue Publius Clodius Pulcher, Antony's patron, to exile their political rivals, notably Cicero[21] and Cato the Younger.

During his early military service, Antony married his cousin Antonia Hybrida Minor, the daughter of Gaius Antonius Hybrida. Sometime between 54 and 49 BC, the union produces a single daughter, Antonia Prima. It is unclear if this is Antony's first marriage.[note 3]

Service under Caesar[edit]

Gallic Wars[edit]

See also: Gallic Wars
The ancient Mediterranean in 50 BC at the end of Caesar's Gallic Wars, with the territory of Rome in yellow.

Antony's association with Publius Clodius Pulcher allowed him to achieve greater prominence. Clodius, through the influence of his benefactor Marcus Licinius Crassus, had developed a positive political relationship with Julius Caesar. Clodius secured Antony a position on Caesar's military staff in 54 BC, joining his conquest of Gaul. Serving under Caesar, Antony demonstrated excellent military leadership. Despite a temporary alienation later in life, Antony and Caesar developed friendly relations which would continue until Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. Caesar's influence secured greater political advancement for Antony. After a years of service in Gaul, Caesar dispatched Antony to Rome to formally begin his political career, receiving election as Quaestor for 52 BC as a member of the Populares faction. Assigned to assist Caesar, Antony returned to Gaul and commanded Caesar's cavalry during the his victory at the Battle of Alesia against the Gallic High King Vercingetorix. Following his year in office, Antony was promoted by Caesar to the rank of Legate and assigned command of two legions (approximately 7,500 total soldiers).[22]

During this time, the alliance between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus had effectively ended. Caesar's daughter Julia, who had married Pompey to secure the alliance, had died in 54 BC while Crassus had been killed at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. Without the stability they provided, the divide between Caesar and Pompey grew ever larger.[23] Caesar's glory in conquering Gaul had served to further strain his alliance with Pompey,[24] who, having grown jealous of his former ally, had drifted away from Caesar's democratic Populares party towards the oligarchic Optimates faction led by Cato. The supporters of Caesar, led by Clodius, and the supporters of Pompey, led by Titus Annius Milo, routinely clashed. In 52 BC, Milo succeeded in assassinating Clodius, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of Senate meeting house, the Curia Hostilia, by Clodius' street gang. Anarchy resulted, causing the Senate to look to Pompey. Fearing the persecutions of Lucius Cornelius Sulla only thirty-years earlier, they avoided granting Pompey the dictatorship by instead naming him sole Consul for the year, giving him extraordinary but limited powers. Pompey ordered armed soldiers into the city to restore order and to eliminate the remnants of Clodius' gang.[25]

Antony remained on Caesar's military staff until 50 BC, helping mopping-up actions across Gaul to secure Caesar's conquest. With the war over, Antony was sent back to Rome to act as Caesar's protector against Pompey and the other Optimates. With the support of Caesar, who as Pontifex Maximus was head of the Roman religion, Antony was appointed the College of Augurs, an importantly priestly office responsible for interpreting the will of the Roman gods by studying the flight of birds. All public actions required a favorable auspices, granting the college considerable influence. Antony was then elected as one of the ten People's Tribunes for 49 BC. From this position, Antony could protect Caesar from his political enemies by vetoing any actions unfavorable to his patron.

Civil War[edit]

Cato the Younger, a member of the Optimates faction, was one of the chief architects of the decree which provoked Caesar into civil war.

The feud between Caesar and Pompey erupted into open confrontation by early 49 BC. The Consuls for the year, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, were firm Optimates opposed to Caesar.[26] Pompey, though remaining in Rome, was then serving as the governor of Spain and commanded several legions. Upon assuming office in January, Antony immediately summoned a meeting of the Senate to resolve the conflict: he proposed both Caesar and Pompey lay down their commands and return to the status of mere private citizens.[27] His proposal was well received by most of the senators but the Consuls and Cato vehemently opposed it. Antony then made a new proposal: Caesar would retain only two of his eight legions and the governorship of Illyrium if he was allowed to stand for the Consulship in absentia. This arrangement ensured his immunity from suit would continue, he had needed the Consulship to protect himself from prosecution by Pompey. Though Pompey found the concession satisfactory, Cato and Lentulus refused to back down, with Lentulus even expelling Antony from the Senate meeting by force. Antony fled Rome, fearing for his life, and returned to Caesar's camp on the banks of the Rubicon River, the southern limit of Caesar's lawful command.

Within days of Antony's expulsion, on 7 January 49 BCE, the Senate reconvened. Under the leadership of Cato and with the tacit support of Pompey, the Senate passed the “final decree” (senatus consultum ultimum) stripping Caesar of his command and ordering him to return to Rome and stand trial for war crimes. The Senate further declared Caesar a traitor and a public enemy if he did not immediately disband his army.[28] With all hopes of finding a peaceful solution gone after Antony's expulsion, Caesar used Antony as a pretext for marching on Rome. As Tribune, Antony's person was sacrosanct and therefor it was unlawful to harm him or refuse to recognize his veto. Three days later, on 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, starting a civil war.[29] During the southern march, Caesar placed Antony as his second in command.

Caesar's rapid advance surprised Pompey, who, along with the other chief members of the Optimates, fled Italy for Greece. After entering Rome, instead of pursuing Pompey, Caesar marched to Spain to defeat Pompeian-loyalists there. Meanwhile, Antony, with the rank of Propraetor despite never having served as Praetor, was installed as governor of Italy and commander of the army stationed in there while Marcus Lepidus, one of Caesar's staff officers, provided the provision administration of Rome itself.[30][31] Though Antony was well liked by his soldiers, most other citizens despised him for his lack of interest in the hardships they faced due to the civil war.[32]

By the end of the year 49 BC, Caesar, already the ruler of Gaul, had captured Italy, Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia out of Optimates control. In early 48 BC, prepared to sail with seven legions to Greece to face Pompey. Caesar had entrusted the defense of Illyricum to Gaius Antonius, Antony's younger brother, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella. Pompey's forces, however, defeated them and assumed control the Adriatic Sea along with it. Additionally, the two legions they commanded defected to Pompey. Without their fleet, Caesar lacked the necessary transport ships to cross into Greece with his seven legions. Instead, he sailed with only two and placed Antony in command of the remaining five at Brundisium with instructions to join him as soon as he was able. In early 48 BC, Lucius Scribonius Libo was given command of Pompey's fleet, comprising some fifty galleys.[33][34] Moving off to Brundisium, he blockaded Antony. Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo’s squadron to be trapped and attacked. Most of Libo’s fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured.[33][35] With Libo gone, Antony joined Caesar in Greece by March 48 BC.

The Battle of Pharsalus: the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army.

During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and was second to only him in reputation.[36] Antony joined Caesar in in the western Balkan Peninsula and besieged Pompey's larger army at Dyrrhachium. With food source running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault. Though an indecisive result, the victory was tactical victory for Pompey. Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him.[37] Caesar managed to retreat to Thessaly, with Pompey in pursuit.

Assuming a defensive position at the plain of Pharsalus, Caesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey, which outnumbered his own two to one. At the Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, Caesar commanded by the right wing opposite Pompey while Antony commanded the left, indicating Antony's status as Caesar's top general.[36] The resulting battle was a decisive victory for Caesar. Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic.[38] The battle gave Caesar a much needed boost in legitimacy, as prior to the battle much of the Roman world outside of Italy supported Pompey and the Optimates as the legitimate government of Rome. After his defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. Pompey himself fled to Ptolemaic Egypt, but Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator feared retribution from Caesar and had Pompey assassinated upon his arrival.

Governor of Italy[edit]

Instead of immediately pursuing Pompey and the remaining Optimates, Caesar returned to Rome and was appointed Dictator with Antony as his Master of the Horse and second in command.[39] Caesar presided over his own election to a second Consulship for 47 BC and then, after eleven days in office, resigned this dictatorship.[40] Caesar then sailed to Egypt, where he deposed Ptolemy XIII in favor of his sister Cleopatra in 47 BC. Cleopatra would become his mistress and the union would produce a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthen Rome control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom.[41]

While Caesar was away in Egypt, Antony remained in Rome to govern Italy and restore order.[42] Without Caesar to guide him, however, Antony quickly faced political difficulties and proved himself unpopular. The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabella, a former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts. Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: he believed Caesar would not support such massive relief and suspected Dolabella had seduced his wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman Forum, Antony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass.[43] The resulting instability, especially among Caesar's veterans who would have benefited from the law, forced Caesar to return to Italy by October 47 BC.[42]

Antony's handling of the affair with Dolabella caused a cooling of his relationship with Caesar. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader. Caesar was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella. When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead.[44] Antony again protested and, in his capacity as an Augur, declared the omens were unfavorable and Caesar again backed down.[45] Seeing the expediency of removing Dolabella from Rome, Caesar ultimately pardoned him for role in the riots and took him as one of his generals in his campaigns against the remaining Optimates resistance.[36] Antony, however, was stripped of all official positions and received no appointments for the year 46 BC or 45 BC. Instead of Antony, Caesar appointed Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to be his Consular colleague for 46 BC. While Caesar campaigned in North Africa, Antony remained in Rome as a mere private citizen. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule. When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over.

During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Fulvia had previously been married to both Publius Clodius Pulcher and Gaius Scribonius Curio, having been a widow since Curio's assassination in 52 BC. Though Antony and Fulvia were formally married in 47 BC, Cicero suggests the two had been in a relationship since at least 58 BC.[46][47] The union would produce two children: Marcus Antonius Antyllus (b. 47) and Iullus Antonius (b. 45)

Assassination of Caesar[edit]

The Ides of March[edit]

Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Antony reunited with Caesar at Narbo in 45 BC with full reconciliation coming in 44 BC when Antony was elected Consul alongside Caesar. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name. The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Trebonius, one of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar.[48][49]

Soon after assuming office together, the Lupercalia festival was held on 15 February 44 BC. The festival was held in honor of Lupa, the she-wolf which suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome.[50] The political atmosphere of Rome at the time of the festival was deeply divided. Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cult, with Antony as his high priest.[51] Additionally, the day before the festival, Caesar had been named Dictator for Life, effectively granting unlimited power. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy. During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diadem, which Caesar refused. The event presented a powerful message: a diadem was a symbol of a king. By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome. Antony's motive for such actions are not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own.[52]

The "Death of Julius Caesar", as depicted by Vincenzo Camuccini. Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC.

A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne. Chief among them were Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicide, Brutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader.[53] Cicero, though not personally involved in the conspiracy, later claimed Antony's actions sealed Caesar's fate as such an obvious display of Caesar's preeminence motivated them to act.[54] Originally, the conspirators had planned to eliminate not only Caesar but also many of his supporters, including Antony, but Brutus rejected the proposal, limiting the conspiracy to Caesar alone.[55] With Caesar preparing to depart for Parthia in late March, the conspirators prepared to act when Caesar appeared for the Senate meeting on the Ides of March (15 March).

Antony, having learned of the plot the night before, went to stop Caesar from attending the meeting. However, a group of senators intercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theater of Pompey, where the Senate was temporarily meeting, and directed him towards the meeting before Antony could reach him.[56] According to the Greek historian Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.[57] The other conspirators crowded round to offer their support. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to the Roman historian Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to the multiple stab wounds.[58][59]

Leader of the Caesarian Party[edit]

In the turmoil surrounding the assassination, Antony escaped Rome dressed as a slave, fearing Caesar's death would be the start of a bloodbath among his supporters. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores ("The Liberators"), had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classes, who became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.

Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. Calpurnia Pisonis, Caesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.[60] Caesar's Master of the Horse Marcus Aemilius Lepidus marched over 6,000 troops into Rome on 16 March to restore order and to act as the bodyguards of the Caesarian faction. Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war.[61] On 17 March, at Antony's arrangement, the Senate meet to discuss a compromise, which, due the presence of Caesar's veterans in the city, was quickly reached. Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified.[62] In particular, the offices assigned to both Brutus and Cassius by Caesar were likewise ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar.[63] Having neither troops, money, nor popular support, the Liberatores were forced to accept Antony's proposal. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, to reconcile the Senate majority, and to appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector.[64]

Octavian, Julius Caesar's adoptive son. Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination.

On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read. In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clan, changing his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" (Octavian) in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption. Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests.[65]

Shortly after the compromise was reached, as a sign of good faith, Brutus, against the advice of Cassius and Cicero, agreed Caesar would be given a public funeral and his will would be validated. Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd. Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted. Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy.[66] Under the pretext of not being able to guarantee their safety, Antony relieved Brutus and Cassius of their judicial duties in Rome and instead assigned them responsibility for procuring wheat for Rome from Sicily and Asia. Such assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and would have shifted the balance away towards Antony. Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome for Egypt, giving birth to Caesar's son on the way, whom she named Caesarion after his father.

Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating to himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian. Antony enacted the Lex Antonia, which formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the Senatorial class. He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them. Lepidus, with Antony's support, was named Pontifex Maximus to succeed Caesar. To solidify the alliance between Antony and Lepidus, Antony's daughter Antonia Prima was engaged to Lepidus's son, also named Lepidus. Surrounding himself with a bodyguard of over six thousand of Caesar's veterans, Antony presented himself as Caesar's true successor, largely ignoring Octavian.[67]

First Conflict with Octavian[edit]

Octavian arrived in Rome in May to claim his inheritance. Although Antony had amassed political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the Caesarian faction. The Senatorial Republicans increasingly viewed Antony as a new tyrant while Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.[68] When Antony refused to relinquish Caesar's vast fortune to him, Octavian borrowed heavily to fulfill the bequests in Caesar's will to the Roman people and to his veterans, as well as to establish his own bodyguard of veterans. This earned him the support of Caesarian sympathizers who hoped to use him as a means of eliminating Antony.[69] The Senate, and Cicero in particular, viewed Antony as the greater danger between the two. By summer 44 BC, Antony was in a difficult position due to his actions regarding his compromise with the Liberatores following Caesar's assassination. He could either denounce the Liberatores as murderers and alienate the Senate or he could maintain his support for the compromise and risk betraying the legacy of Caesar, strengthening Octavian's position. In either case, his position as ruler of Rome would be weakened. The Roman historian Cassius Dio later recorded that while Antony, as reigning Consul, maintained the advantage in the relationship, the general affection of the Roman people was shifting to Octavian due to his status as Caesar's son.[70][71]

Supporting the Senatorial faction against Antony, Octavian, in September 44 BC, encouraged the leading Senator Marcus Tullius Cicero to attack Antony in a series of speeches portraying him as a threat to the Republican order.[72][73] Risk of civil war between Antony and Octavian grew. Octavian continued to recruit Caesar's veterans to his side and away from Antony, with two of Antony's legions defecting to him in November 44 BC. At that time, Octavian, a mere private citizen, lacked the legal authority to command the Republic's armies, making his command illegal. With popular opinion in Rome turning against him and his Consular term nearing its end, Antony attempted to secure a favorable military assignment to secure an army to protect himself. The Senate, as was custom, assigned Antony and Dolabella the provinces of Macedonia and Syria, respectively, to govern in 43 BC after their Consular term expired. Antony, however, objected to the assignment, preferring to govern Cisalpine Gaul which had been assigned to Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of Caesar's assassins.[74][75] When Decimus refused to surrender his province, Antony marched north in December 44 BC with his remaining soldiers to take the province by force, besieging Decimus at Mutina.[76] The Senate, led by a fiery Cicero, denounced Antony's actions and declared him an outlaw.

Ratifying Octavian's extraordinary command on 1 January 43 BC, the Senate dispatched him along with the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa to defeat Antony and his five legions.[77][78] Antony's forces were defeated at the Battle of Mutina in April 43 BC, forcing Antony to retreat to Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies, some eight legions.[79][80]

The Second Triumvirate[edit]

Main article: Second Triumvirate

Forming the Alliance[edit]

With Antony defeated, the Senate, hoping to eliminate Octavian and the remainder of the Caesarian party, assigned command of the Republic's legions to Decimus. Sextus Pompey, son of Caesar's old rival Pompey Magnus, was given command of the Republic's fleet from his base in Sicily while Brutus and Cassius were granted the governorships of Macedonia and Syria respectively. These appointments attempted to renew the "Republican" cause.[81] However, the eight legions serving under Octavian, composed largely of Caesar's veterans, refused to follow one of Caesar's murderers, allowing Octavian to retain his command. Meanwhile, Antony recovered his position by joining forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had been assigned the governorship of Transapline Gaul and Nearer Spain.[82] Antony sent Lepidus to Rome to broker a conciliation. Though he was an ardent Caesarian, Lepdius had maintained friendly relations with the Senate and with Sextus Pompey. His legions, however, quickly joined Antony, giving him control over seventeen legions, the largest army in the West.[83]

Map of the Roman Republic in 43 BC after the establishment of the Second Triumvirate:

By mid-May, Octavian began secret negotiations to form an alliance with Antony to provide a united Caesarian party against the Liberators. Remaining in Cisalpine Gaul, Octavian dispatched emissaries to Rome in July 43 BC demanded he be appointed Consul to replace Hirtius and Pansa and that the decree declaring Antony a public enemy be rescinded.[84] When the Senate refused, Octavian marched on Rome with his eight legions and assumed control over the city in August 43 BC. Octavian proclaimed himself Consul, rewarded his soldiers, and then set about prosecuting Caesar's murderers. By the lex Pedia, all of the conspirators and Sextus Pompey were convicted in absentia and declared public enemies. Then, at the instigation of Lepidus, Octavian went to Cisalpine Gaul to meet Antony.

In November 43 BC, Octavian, Lepidus, and Antony meet near Bononia.[85] After two days of discussions, the group agreed to establish a three man dictatorship to govern the Republic for five years, known as the "Three Man for the Restoration of the Republic" (Latin: "Triumviri Rei publicae Constituendae"), known to modern historians as the Second Triumvirate. In addition, they divided upon themselves military command of the Republic's armies and provinces: Antony received Gaul, Lepidus Spain, and Octavian (as the junior partner) Africa. Government of Italy was undivided between the three. The Triumvirate would have to conquer the rest of Rome's holdings, whilst the Eastern Mediterranean remained in the hands of Brutus and Cassius and control of the Mediterranean islands rested with Sextus Pompey.[86] On 27 November 43 BC, the Triumvirate was formally established by law, the lex Titia. To finalize their alliance, Octavian married Antony's step-daughter Clodia Pulchra.

The primary objective of the Triumvirate was to avenge Caesar's death and to make war upon his murderers. Before marching against Brutus and Cassius in the East, the Triumvirs decided to eliminate their enemies at Rome. To do so, they employed a legalized form of mass murder: proscription. First used by the Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 82 BC, Sulla drew up a list of his political enemies to purge Rome of opposition to his rule. Any man whose name appeared on the list was stripped of his citizenship and excluded from all protection under law. Further, reward money was given to any informer who gave information leading to the death of a proscribed man, and any person who killed a proscribed man was entitled to keep part of his property, with the remainder going to the state. No person could inherit money or property from proscribed men, nor could any woman married to a proscribed man remarry after his death.

Like Sulla's proscription before it, the Triumvirate's proscription produced deadly results: one third of the Senate and two thousand Roman knights were killed. Among the most famous outlaws condemned was Cicero, who was executed on December 7. In addition to the political consequences of eliminating opposition, the proscription also restored the State Treasury, which had been depleted by Caesar's civil war the decade before. The fortune of a proscribed man would be confiscated by the state, giving the Triumvirate the funds they needed to pay for the coming war against Brutus and Cassius. When the proceeds from the sale of the confiscated estates of the proscribed was insufficient to finance the war, the Triumvirs imposed new taxes, especially on the wealthy. By January 42 BC the proscription officially ended. Though only lasting two months and far less bloody than that of Sulla, the episode traumatized Roman society. A number of outlaws, to avoid being killed, also fled to either Sextus Pompey in Sicily or to the Liberators in the East.[87] In order to legitimize their own rule, all Senators who survived the proscription were allowed to keep their positions if they swore allegiance to the Triumvirate. In addition, to justify their war of vengeance against the murderers of Caesar, on 1 January 42 BC, the Triumvirate officially deified Caesar as "The Divine Julius".

War against the Liberators[edit]

Due to the infighting within the Triumvirate during 43 BC, Brutus and Cassius had assumed control of much of Rome's eastern territories, including amassing a large army. Before the Triumvirate could cross the Adriatic Sea into Greece where the Liberators had stationed their army, the Triumvirate had to address the threat possessed by Sextus Pompey and his fleet. From his base in Sicily, Sextus raided the Italian coast and blockaded the Triumvirs. Octavian's friend and admiral Quintus Rufus Salvidienus thwarted an attack by Sextus against the southern Italian mainland at Rhegium, but Salvidienus was then defeated in the resulting naval battle because of the inexperience of his crews. Only when Antony arrived with his fleet was the blockade broken. Though the blockade was defeated, control of Sicily remained in Sextus's hand, but the defeat of the Liberators was the Triumvirate's first priority.

First Battle of Philippi - 3 October 42 BC
Second Battle of Philippi - 23 October 42 BC

In the summer of 42 BC, Octavian and Antony sailed for Macedonia to face the Liberators with nineteen legions, the vast majority of their army.[88] (approximately 100,000 regular infantry plus supporting cavalry and irregular auxiliary units), leaving Rome under the administration of Lepidus. Likewise, the army of the Liberators also commanded an army of nineteen legions; their legions, however, were not at full strength while the legions of Antony and Octavian were.[88] While the Triumvirs commanded a larger number of infantry, the Liberators commanded a larger cavalry contingent.[89] The Liberators, who controlled Macedonia, did not wish to engage in a decisive battle, but rather to attain a good defensive position and then use their naval superiority to block the Triumvirs’ communications with their supply base in Italy. They had spent the previous months plundering Greek cities to swell their war-chest and had gathered in Thrace with the Roman legions from the Eastern provinces and levies from Rome's client kingdoms.

Brutus and Cassius held a position on the high ground along both sides of the via Egnatia west of the city of Philippi. The south position was anchored to a supposedly impassable marsh, while the north was bordered by impervious hills. They had plenty of time to fortify their position with a rampart and a ditch. Brutus put his camp on the north while Cassius occupied the south of the via Egnatia. Antony arrived shortly and positioned his army on the south of the via Egnatia, while Octavian put his legions north of the road. Antony offered battle several times, but the Liberators were not lured to leave their defensive stand. Thus, Antony tried to secretly outflank the Liberators' position through the marshes in the south. This provoked a pitched battle on 3 October 42 BC. Antony commanded the Triumvirate's army due to Octavian's sickness on the day, with Antony directly controlling the right flank opposite Cassius. Because of his health, Octavian remained in camp while his lieutenants assumed a position on the left flank opposite Brutus. In the resulting first battle of Philippi, Antony defeated Cassius and captured his camp while Brutus overran Octavian's troops and penetrated into the Triumvirs' camp but was unable to capture the sick Octavian. The battle was a tactical draw but due to poor communications Cassius believed the battle was a complete defeat and committed suicide to prevent being captured.

Brutus assumed sole command of the Liberator army and preferred a war of attrition over open conflict. His officers, however, were dissatisfied with these defensive tactics and his Caesarian veterans threatened to defect, forcing Brutus to give battle at the second battle of Philippi on 23 October. While the battle was initially evenly matched, Antony's leadership routed Brutus's forces. Brutus committed suicide the day after the defeat and the remainder of his army swore allegiance to the Triumvirate. Over fifty thousand Romans died in the two battles. While Anthony treated the losers mildly, Octavian dealt cruelly with his prisoners and even beheaded Brutus's corpse.[90][91][92]

The battles of Philippi ended the civil war in favor of the Caesarian faction. With the defeat of the Liberators, only Sextus Pompey and his fleet remained to challenge the Triumvirate's control over the Republic.

Master of the Roman East[edit]

Division of the Republic[edit]

Map of the Roman Republic in 42 BC after the Battle of Philippi:

The victory at Philippi left the members of the Triumvirate as masters of the Republic, save Sextus Pompey in Sicily. Upon returning to Rome, the Triumvirate repartioned rule of Rome's provinces between themselves, with Antony as the clear senior partner. He received the largest distribution, governing all of the Eastern provinces while retaining Gaul in the West. Octavian's position improved, as he received Spain, which was taken from Lepidus. Lepdius was then reduced to holding only Africa, and he assumed a clearly tertiary role in the Triumvirate. Rule over Italy remained undivided, but Octavian was assigned the difficult and unpopular task of demobilizing their veterans and providing them with land distributions in Italy.[93][94] Antony assumed direct control of the East while he installed one of his lieutenants as the ruler of Gaul. During his absence, several of his supporters held key positions at Rome to protect his interests there.

The East was in need of reorganization after the rule of the Liberators in the previous years. In addition, Rome contended with Parthian Empire for dominance of the Near East. The Parthian threat to the Triumvirate's rule was urgent due to the fact that the Parthians supported the Liberators in the recent civil war, which aid included the supply troops at Philippi.[95] As ruler of the East, Antony also assumed responsibility for overseeing Caesar's planned invasion of Parthia to avenge the defeat of Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.

In 42 BC, the Roman East was composed of a few directly controlled provinces. The provinces included Macedonia, Asia, Bithynia, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria, and Cyrenaica. Approximately half of the Eastern territory was controlled by Rome's client kingdoms, nominally independent kingdoms subject to Roman direction. These kingdoms included:

Antony and Cleopatra[edit]

Antony and Cleopatra (1883) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Antony summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus in October 41 BC. There they formed an alliance and became lovers. Antony returned to Alexandria with her, where he spent the winter of 41 BC – 40 BC. In spring 40 BC he was forced to return to Rome following news of his wife Fulvia's involvement in civil strife with Octavian on his behalf. Fulvia died while Antony was en route to Sicyon (where Fulvia was exiled). Antony made peace with Octavian in September 40 BC and married Octavian's sister Octavia Minor.

The Parthian Empire (ancient Iran) had supported Brutus and Cassius in the civil war, sending forces which fought with them at Philippi; following Antony and Octavian's victory, the Parthians invaded Roman territory, occupying Syria, advancing into Asia Minor and installing Antigonus as puppet king in Judaea to replace the pro-Roman Hyrcanus. Antony sent his general Ventidius to oppose this invasion. Ventidius won a series of victories against the Parthians, killing the crown prince Pacorus and expelling them from the former Roman territories which they had seized.

Antony and Octavia on the obverse of a tetradrachm issued in 39 BC at Ephesus; on the reverse, twinned serpents frame a Dionysus who holds a cantharus and thyrsus and stands on a cista mystica

Antony now planned to retaliate by invading Parthia, and secured an agreement from Octavian to supply him with extra troops for his campaign. With this military purpose on his mind, Antony sailed to Greece with Octavia, where he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the Greek god Dionysus in 39 BC. But the rebellion in Sicily of Sextus Pompeius, the last of the Pompeians, kept the army promised to Antony in Italy. With his plans again disrupted, Antony and Octavian quarreled once more. This time with the help of Octavia, a new treaty was signed in Tarentum in 38 BC. The triumvirate was renewed for a period of another five years (ending in 33 BC) and Octavian promised again to send legions to the East.

But by now, Antony was skeptical of Octavian's true support of his Parthian cause. Leaving Octavia pregnant with her second child Antonia in Rome, he sailed to Alexandria, where he expected funding from Cleopatra, the mother of his twins. The queen of Egypt lent him the money he needed for the army, and after capturing Jerusalem and surrounding areas in 37 BC, he installed Herod as puppet king of Judaea, replacing the Parthian appointee Antigonus.

Antony then invaded Parthian territory with an army of about 100,000 Roman and allied troops but the campaign proved a disaster. After defeats in battle, the desertion of his Armenian allies and his failure to capture Parthian strongholds convinced Antony to retreat, his army was further depleted by the hardships of its retreat through Armenia in the depths of winter, losing more than a quarter of its strength in the course of the campaign.

Meanwhile, in Rome, the triumvirate was no more. Octavian forced Lepidus to resign after the older triumvir attempted to take control of Sicily after the defeat of Sextus. Now in sole power, Octavian was occupied in wooing the traditional Republican aristocracy to his side. He married Livia and started to attack Antony in order to raise himself to power. He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Antony was accused of everything, but most of all, of "going native", an unforgivable crime to the proud Romans. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra.

A map of the Donations of Alexandria (by Mark Antony to Cleopatra and her children) in 34 BC.

Again with Egyptian money, Antony invaded Armenia, this time successfully. In the return, a mock Roman Triumph was celebrated in the streets of Alexandria. The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration. For the finale, the whole city was summoned to hear a very important political statement. Surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Antony ended his alliance with Octavian.

He distributed kingdoms among his children: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia, Media and Parthia (territories which were not for the most part under the control of Rome), his twin Selene got Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was awarded Syria and Cilicia. As for Cleopatra, she was proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Caesar, son of Cleopatra by Julius Caesar), King of Kings and King of Egypt. Most important of all, Caesarion was declared legitimate son and heir of Caesar. These proclamations were known as the Donations of Alexandria and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome.

While the distribution of nations among Cleopatra's children was hardly a conciliatory gesture, it did not pose an immediate threat to Octavian's political position. Far more dangerous was the acknowledgment of Caesarion as legitimate and heir to Caesar's name. Octavian's base of power was his link with Caesar through adoption, which granted him much-needed popularity and loyalty of the legions. To see this convenient situation attacked by a child borne by the richest woman in the world was something Octavian could not accept. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed. Another civil war was beginning.

During 33 and 32 BC, a propaganda war was fought in the political arena of Rome, with accusations flying between sides. Antony (in Egypt) divorced Octavia and accused Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar. Octavian responded with treason charges: of illegally keeping provinces that should be given to other men by lots, as was Rome's tradition, and of starting wars against foreign nations (Armenia and Parthia) without the consent of the Senate.

Antony was also held responsible for Sextus Pompeius' execution with no trial. In 32 BC, the Senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra – not Antony, because Octavian had no wish to advertise his role in perpetuating Rome's internecine bloodshed. Both consuls, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius, and a third of the Senate abandoned Rome to meet Antony and Cleopatra in Greece.

The Battle of Actium (1672) by Lorenzo Castro (National Maritime Museum, London)

In 31 BC, the war started. Octavian's loyal and talented general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa captured the Greek city and naval port of Methone, loyal to Antony. The enormous popularity of Octavian with the legions secured the defection of the provinces of Cyrenaica and Greece to his side. On September 2, the naval battle of Actium took place. Antony and Cleopatra's navy was destroyed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships.

Death[edit]

Octavian, now close to absolute power, did not intend to give them rest. In August 30 BC, assisted by Agrippa, he invaded Egypt. With no other refuge to escape to, Antony committed suicide by stabbing himself with his sword in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so. When he found out that Cleopatra was still alive, his friends brought him to Cleopatra's monument in which she was hiding, and he died in her arms.

Cleopatra was allowed to conduct Antony's burial rites after she had been captured by Octavian. Realising that she was destined for Octavian's triumph in Rome, she made several attempts to take her life and finally succeeded in mid-August. Octavian had Caesarion murdered, but he spared Antony's children by Cleopatra, who were paraded through the streets of Rome. Antony's daughters by Octavia were spared, as was his son, Iullus Antonius. But his elder son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, was killed by Octavian's men while pleading for his life in the Caesareum.

Aftermath and legacy[edit]

Cicero's son, Cicero Minor, announced Antony's death to the senate. Antony's honours were revoked and his statues removed (damnatio memoriae). Cicero Minor also made a decree that no member of the Antonii would ever bear the name Marcus again. “In this way Heaven entrusted the family of Cicero the final acts in the punishment of Antony.”[96]

When Antony died, Octavian became uncontested ruler of Rome. In the following years, Octavian, who was known as Augustus after 27 BC, managed to accumulate in his person all administrative, political, and military offices. When Augustus died in 14 AD, his political powers passed to his adopted son Tiberius; the Roman Principate had begun.

The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which one individual would achieve supreme control of the government, eliminating the Senate and the former magisterial structure as important foci of power, in these conflicts. Thus, in history, Antony appears as one of Caesar's main adherents, he and Octavian Augustus being the two men around whom power coalesced following the assassination of Caesar, and finally as one of the three men chiefly responsible for the demise of the Roman Republic.

Marriages and issue[edit]

Fragmentary portrait bust from Smyrna thought to depict Octavia, sister of Octavian and Antony's wife

Antony had been married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, Octavia and Cleopatra, and left behind him a number of children. Through his daughters by Octavia, he would be ancestor to the Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero.

  1. Marriage to Fadia, a daughter of a freedman. According to Cicero, Fadia bore Antony several children. Nothing is known about Fadia or their children. Cicero is the only Roman source that mentions Antony’s first wife.
  2. Marriage to first paternal cousin Antonia Hybrida Minor. According to Plutarch, Antony threw her out of his house in Rome because she slept with his friend, the tribune Publius Cornelius Dolabella. This occurred by 47 BC and Antony divorced her. By Antonia, he had a daughter:
  3. Marriage to Fulvia, by whom he had two sons:
  4. Marriage to Octavia the Younger, sister of Octavian, later Augustus; they had two daughters:
  5. Children with the Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, the former lover of Julius Caesar:

Descendants[edit]

Through his youngest daughters, Antony would become ancestor to most of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the very family which as represented by Octavian Augustus that he had fought unsuccessfully to defeat. Through his eldest daughter, he would become ancestor to the long line of kings and co-rulers of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest-living Roman client kingdom, as well as the rulers and royalty of several other Roman client states. Through his daughter by Cleopatra, Antony would become ancestor to the royal family of Mauretania, another Roman client kingdom, while through his sole surviving son Iullus, he would be ancestor to several famous Roman statesmen.

1. Antonia, born 50 BC, had 1 child
A. Pythodorida of Pontus, 30 BC or 29 BC – 38 AD, had 3 children
I. Artaxias III, King of Armenia, 13 BC – 35 AD, died without issue
II. Polemon II, King of Pontus, 12 BC or 11 BC – 74 AD, died without issue
III. Antonia Tryphaena, Queen of Thrace, 10 BC – 55 AD, had 4 children
a. Rhoemetalces II, King of Thrace, died 38 AD, died without issue
b. Gepaepyris, Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 2 children
i. Tiberius Julius Mithridates, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 68 AD, died without issue
ii. Tiberius Julius Cotys I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 90 AD, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates I, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Cotys II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, had 1 child
i. Rhoemetalces, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 153 AD, had 1 child
i. Eupator, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 174 AD, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 210 AD or 211 AD, had 2 children
i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 227 AD, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III,King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 227 AD
ii. Tiberius Julius Cotys III, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 235 AD, had 3 children
i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates III, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 232 AD
ii. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis IV, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 235 AD
iii. Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 240 AD, had 1 child
i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis V, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD, had 3 children
i. Tiberius Julius Pharsanzes, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 254 AD
ii. Synges, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD
iii. Tiberius Julius Teiranes, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 279 AD, had 2 children
i. Tiberius Julius Sauromates IV, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 276 AD
ii. Theothorses, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 309 AD, had 3 children
i. Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 342 AD
ii. Rhadamsades, King of the Bosporan Kingdom, died 323 AD
iii. Nana, Queen of Caucasian Iberia, died 363 AD
i. Rev II of Iberia
ii. Aspacures II of Iberia
c. Cotys IX, King of Lesser Armenia
d. Pythodoris II of Thrace, died without issue
2. Marcus Antonius Antyllus, 47 BC – 30 BC, died without issue
3. Iullus Antonius, 43 BC – 2 BC, had 3 children
A. Lucius Antonius, 20 BC – 34 AD, had 2 children
I. Marcus Antonius Primus, 30/35 AD – after 81 AD
II. Antonia Postuma, born 34 AD
B. Gaius Antonius
C. Iulla Antonia, born after 19 BC
4. Prince Alexander Helios of Egypt, born 40 BC, died without issue (presumably)[98]
5. Cleopatra Selene, Queen of Mauretania, 40 BC – 6 AD, had 2 children
A. Ptolemy, King of Mauretania, 1 BC – 40 AD, had 1 child
I. Drusilla, Queen of Emesa, 38 AD – 79 AD, had 1 child
a. Gaius Julius Alexio, King of Emesa, had 1 child
i. Gaius Julius Fabia Sampsiceramus III Silas, King of Emesa, had at least 1 child[99]
B. Princess Drusilla of Mauretania, born 5 AD or 8 BC
6. Antonia Major, 39 BC – before 25 AD, had 3 children
A. Domitia Lepida the Elder, c. 19 BC – 59 AD, had 1 child
I. Quintus Haterius Antoninus
B. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, 17 BC – 40 AD, had 1 child
I. Nero (see line of Antonia Minor below)
C. Domitia Lepida the Younger, 10 BC – 54 AD, had 3 children
I. Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus
II. Valeria Messalina, 17 AD or 20 AD – 48 AD, had 2 children
a. (Messalina was the mother of the two youngest children of the Roman Emperor Claudius listed below)
III. Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, 22 AD – 62 AD, had 1 child
a. a son (this child and the only child of the Claudia Antonia listed below are the same person)
7. Antonia Minor, 36 BC – 37 AD, had 3 children
A. Germanicus, 16 BC or 15 BC – 19 AD, had 6 children
I. Nero Caesar, 6 AD – 30 AD, died without issue
II. Drusus Caesar, 7 AD – 33 AD, died without issue
III. Caligula, 12 AD – 41 AD, had 1 child;
a. Julia Drusilla, 39 AD – 41 AD, died young
IV. Agrippina the Younger, 15 AD – 59, had 1 child;
a. Nero, 37 AD – 68 AD , had 1 child;
i. Claudia Augusta, January 63 AD – April 63 AD, died young
V. Julia Drusilla, 16 AD – 38 AD, died without issue
VI. Julia Livilla, 18 AD – 42 AD, died without issue
B. Livilla, 13 BC – 31 AD, had three children
I. Julia, 5 AD – 43 AD, had 4 children
a. Gaius Rubellius Plautus, 33 AD – 62 AD, had several children[100]
b. Rubellia Bassa, born between 33 AD and 38 AD, had at least 1 child[101]
i. Octavius Laenas, had at least 1 child
i. Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus
c. Gaius Rubellius Blandus
d. Rubellius Drusus
II. Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, 19AD – 37 AD or 38 AD, died without issue
III. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, 19 AD – 23 AD, died young
C. Claudius, 10 BC – 54 AD, had 4 children
I. Claudius Drusus, died young
II. Claudia Antonia, c. 30 AD – 66 AD, had 1 child
a. a son, died young
III. Claudia Octavia, 39 AD or 40 AD – 62 AD, died without issue
IV. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, 41 AD – 55 AD, died without issue
8. Prince Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, 36 BC – 29 BC, died without issue (presumably)[98]

Artistic portrayals[edit]

Works in which the character of Mark Antony plays a central role:

Novels[edit]

Poetry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In full, Marcus Antonius Marci Filius Marci Nepos; in English, "Marcus Antonius, son of Marcus, grandson of Marcus".
  2. ^ As recorded by a calendar inscription known as the Fasti Verulani (ca. 17–37 AD) for January 14 = Degrassi, Inscriptiones Italiae 13.2.397–398, as cited by Jerzy Linderski and Anna Kaminska-Linderski, "The Quaestorship of Marcus Antonius," Phoenix 28.2 (1974), p. 217, note 24. The religious prohibition placed by Augustus on the day, marked as a dies vitiosus ("defective" day), is explained by Linderski, "The Augural Law", Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16 (1986), pp. 2187–2188. January 14 is accepted as Antony's birthday also by C.B.R. Pelling, Plutarch: Life of Antony (Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 299, commentary to Plutarch, Antony 73.5; Nikos Kokkino, Antonia Augusta (Routledge, 1992), p. 11; Pat Southern, Mark Antony (Tempus, 1998), p. ii; Adrian Goldsworthy, Antony and Cleopatra (Yale University Press, 2010), n.p.. According to Suetonius (Claudius 11.3), the emperor Claudius, Antony's grandson through maternal lineage, evaded the prohibition on commemorating Antony's birthday by calculations showing that had he been born under the Julian calendar he would have shared his birthday with Drusus, the emperor's father. Drusus was born in late March or early April, based on a reference that he was born "within the third month" after his mother Livia married Augustus on January 17; G. Radke, "Der Geburtstag des älteren Drusus," Wurzburger Jahrbucher fur die Altertumswissenschaft 4 (1978), pp. 211–213, proposed that a birth date of March 28 for Drusus would resolve the chronological difficulties. Radke's proposal is summarized in English by the commentary on Suetonius's sentence by Donna W. Hurley, Suetonius: Divus Claudius (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 106, and by Marleen B. Flory, "The Symbolism of Laurel in Cameo Portraits of Livia," in Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome (University of Michigan Press, 1995), vol. 40, p. 56, note 48.
  3. ^ Cicero is the only ancient source to mention a first marriage to an otherwise unknown Fadia (Philippics, XIII, 10)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony 86.5.
  2. ^ Suerbaum 1980, 327–334.
  3. ^ a b Huzar 1978, p. 14
  4. ^ Goldsworthy, 2010, pg 39
  5. ^ a b Huzar 1978, p. 15
  6. ^ a b Scullard 1980, p. 154
  7. ^ a b Huzar 1978, p. 17
  8. ^ Eyben 1993, p. 236
  9. ^ Eyben 1993, p. 58
  10. ^ Huzar 1978, p. 25
  11. ^ Weigall, 1931, p. 102
  12. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 25
  13. ^ Rocca
  14. ^ a b Plutarch, Antony, 3
  15. ^ Siani-Davis, 1997, pg 316
  16. ^ Bradford, 2000, pg 43
  17. ^ Siani-Davis, 1997, 388
  18. ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 1
  19. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 27-31
  20. ^ Martin, 2003, pg 174-177
  21. ^ Haskell, 1964, pg 201
  22. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 33
  23. ^ Holland, Rubicon, pg 287
  24. ^ Holland, Rubicon, pg. 287
  25. ^ Gruen, 1974, pg 233-234
  26. ^ Caesar, B.G. 8.50
  27. ^ Plutarch, Anthony, 6
  28. ^ Caesar, B.C. i.5
  29. ^ Plutarch, Pompey, 56.4
  30. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 786
  31. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 39-40
  32. ^ Plutarch, Antony, 8
  33. ^ a b Broughton, pg. 281
  34. ^ Holmes, pg. 127
  35. ^ Holmes, pg. 128
  36. ^ a b c Plutarch, Antony, 10
  37. ^ Plutarch, Pompey, 65
  38. ^ Davis, 1999, pg 59
  39. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 37.2
  40. ^ Jehne, 1987, pg 15-38
  41. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 52-53
  42. ^ a b Hinard, 2000, pg 796 and 798
  43. ^ Plutarch: Antony, c. 9, in Plutarch, Roman Lives ISBN 978-0-19-282502-5
  44. ^ Dio 43.51.8.
  45. ^ Plutarch, Antony, 11.3, less clear from Dio.
  46. ^ Cicero.Phil.2.48.
  47. ^ Cicero.Phil.2.99.
  48. ^ Broughton, pg. 299
  49. ^ Bringmann, pg. 272
  50. ^ Ovid, Fasti: Lupercalia
  51. ^ Fuller, Chapter 13
  52. ^ Plutarch, Antony, 12
  53. ^ Broughton, pg 320
  54. ^ Cicero, 2nd Philippic, 34
  55. ^ Velleius Paterculus, 2.58.5; Plutarch, Brutus, 18.2-6.
  56. ^ "Theatrum Pompei". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  57. ^ Plutarch - Life of Brutus
  58. ^ Woolf
  59. ^ Suetonius, Julius, c. 82.
  60. ^ David, 2000, pg 246
  61. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 64
  62. ^ Plutarch, Antony, 14
  63. ^ Bramstedt, 2004, pg 143
  64. ^ Hinard, 2000, 827
  65. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 832
  66. ^ Eck (2003), pg 10
  67. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 248
  68. ^ Eck, 2003, pg 11.
  69. ^ Syme, 1939, pg 114–120.
  70. ^ Dio Cassius, Roman History, XLV, 11
  71. ^ Bleicken, 1998, pg 58
  72. ^ Chisholm, 1981, pg 26.
  73. ^ Rowell, 1962, pg 30
  74. ^ Eck 2003, pg 11–12.
  75. ^ Rowell, 1962, pg 21
  76. ^ Rowell, 1962, pg 24
  77. ^ Eck, 2003, pg 12
  78. ^ Syme, 1939, pg 167
  79. ^ Syme, 1939, pg 173–174
  80. ^ Scullard, 1982, pg 157.
  81. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 838
  82. ^ Syme, 1939, pg 176–186.
  83. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 839-840
  84. ^ Rowell, 1962, pg 26-27
  85. ^ Eck, 2003, pg 15
  86. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 841-842
  87. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 846-847
  88. ^ a b Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 14, CVIII
  89. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 850
  90. ^ Jallet-Huant, 2009, pg 144-153
  91. ^ Hindard, 2000, pg 850-851
  92. ^ Cosme, 2009, pg 56-57
  93. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 854
  94. ^ Hinard, 2000, pg 253
  95. ^ Bivar, 1968, pg 56–57
  96. ^ Plutarch. Fall of the Roman Republic. London: Penguin Classics, 1958.
  97. ^ a b Minto, The Heliopolis Scrolls, p.159
  98. ^ a b Roller, The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene p. 84–89
  99. ^ Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra claimed descent from Cleopatra VII of Egypt through Silas and his father Alexio
  100. ^ Their names are unknown, but it is known that all of them were killed by Nero, thus descent from this line is extinct
  101. ^ Sir Ronald Syme claims that Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus, consul in 131 under Emperor Hadrian, set up a dedication to his grandmother, Rubellia Bassa.

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Secondary sources[edit]

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Political offices
Preceded by
People's Tribune of the Roman Republic
49 BC
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar
without colleague
Consul of the Roman Republic
first with Gaius Julius Caesar,
then with Publius Cornelius Dolabella (suffectus)

44 BC
Succeeded by
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Preceded by
Lucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
Consul of the Roman Republic
first with Lucius Scribonius Libo,
then with Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (suffectus)

34 BC
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Octavian and Lucius Volcatius Tullus
Preceded by
Triumvir of the Roman Republic
alongside Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
43 BC - 33 BC
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