Marcel Breuer

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Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer.png
Born Marcel Lajos Breuer
(1902-05-21)May 21, 1902
Pécs, Austria-Hungary
Died July 1, 1981(1981-07-01) (aged 79)
New York City, USA
Nationality Hungarian
Awards AIA Gold Medal (1968)
Buildings The Robinson House, UNESCO headquarters, Whitney Museum of American Art, IBM La Gaude
Design Wassily Chair

Marcel Lajos Breuer (pronounced BROY-ər ;22 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer. One of the masters of Modernism, Breuer extended the sculptural vocabulary he had developed in the carpentry shop at the Bauhaus into a personal architecture that made him one of the world’s most popular architects at the peak of 20th-Century design.

Life and work[edit]

Known to his friends and associates as Lajkó (the diminutive of his middle name and pronounced LOY-ko), Breuer left his hometown at the age of 18 in search of artistic training and was one of the first and youngest students at the Bauhaus– a radical arts and crafts school that Walter Gropius had founded in Weimar just after the first World War. He was recognized by Gropius as a significant talent and was quickly put at the head of the Carpentry Shop. (Gropius was to remain a lifelong mentor for a man who was 19 years his junior.)

After the school had moved from Weimar to Dessau in 1925, Breuer returned from a brief sojourn in Paris to join older faculty members such as Josef Albers, Wassily Kandinsky, and Paul Klee as a Master,eventually teaching in its newly established department of architecture.

First recognized for his invention of bicycle-handlebar-inspired tubular steel furniture, Breuer lived off his design fees at a time in the late 1920s and early 1930s when the architectural commissions he was looking for were few and far-between. He was known to such giants as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, whose architectural vocabulary he was later to adapt as part of his own, but hardly considered an equal by them who were his senior by 15 and 16 years. Despite the widespread popular belief that the chair was designed for Wassily Kandinsky, it was not; Kandinsky admired Breuer's finished chair design, and only then did Breuer make an additional copy for Kandinsky's use in his home. When the chair was re-released in the 1960s, it was designated "Wassily" by its Italian manufacturer, who had learned that Kandinsky had been the recipient of one of the earliest post-prototype units.

It was Gropius who assigned Breuer interiors at the 1927 Weissenhofsiedlung and led him to his first house assignment for the Harnischmachers in Wiesbaden in 1932. Sigfried Giedion extended their furniture collaboration at the Wohnbedarf in Zurich to include a furniture showroom and the great Dolderthal apartments just outside of town.

In the 1930s, at Gropius' suggestion, Breuer relocated to London. Breuer’s departure from then Nazi Germany has led some scholars to lump him with the group of Jewish architects and artists who fled the country at that time. Although Breuer’s parents were Jewish, it was only in 1981 that Christopher Wilk, preparing his Interiors book for MoMA, found his formal renunciation of the Jewish faith before the Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt in the Breuer archives at Syracuse. Breuer had declared himself as non-religious in order to marry his Bauhaus sweetheart, Marta Erps.

While in London, Breuer was employed by Jack Pritchard at the Isokon company; one of the earliest proponents of modern design in the United Kingdom. Breuer designed his Long Chair as well as experimenting with bent and formed plywood. Between 1935 and 1937 he worked in practice with the English Modernist F. R. S. Yorke with whom he designed a number of houses.

In 1937, Gropius accepted the appointment as chairman of Harvard’s Graduate School of Design and again Breuer followed his mentor to join the faculty in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The two men formed a partnership that was to greatly influence the establishment of an American way of designing modern houses – spread by their great collection of wartime students including Paul Rudolph, Eliot Noyes, I.M. Pei, Ulrich Franzen, John Johansen, and Philip Johnson. One of the most intact examples of Breuer's furniture and interior design work during this period is the Frank House in Pittsburgh, designed with Gropius as a Gesamtkunstwerk.

University of Massachusetts campus center (right), Amherst, 1965-1969

Breuer broke with his father-figure, Walter Gropius, in 1941 over a very minor issue but the major reason may have been to get himself out from under the better-known name that dominated their practice. Breuer had married their secretary, Constance Crocker Leighton, and after a few more years in Cambridge, moved down to New York City (with Harry Seidler as his chief draftsman) to establish a practice that was centered there for the rest of his life.

The Geller House I of 1945 is one of the first to employ Breuer's concept of the 'binuclear' house, with separate wings for the bedrooms and for the living / dining / kitchen area, separated by an entry hall, and with the distinctive 'butterfly' roof (two opposing roof surfaces sloping towards the middle, centrally drained) that became part of the popular modernist style vocabulary. Breuer built two houses for himself in New Canaan, Connecticut: one from 1947 to 1948, and the other from 1951 to 1952. A demonstration house set up in the MoMA garden in 1949 caused a flurry of interest in the architect's work, and an appreciation written by Peter Blake. When the show was over, the "House in the Garden" was dismantled and barged up the Hudson River for reassembly on the Rockefeller property in Pocantico Hills near Sleepy Hollow.

His first two important institutional buildings were the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris finished in 1955 and the monastic Master Plan and Church at St John’s Abbey in Minnesota in 1954 (again, in part, on the recommendation of Gropius, a “competitor” for the job,who told the monks they needed a younger man who could finish the job.) These commissions were a turning point in Breuer's career: a move to larger projects after years of residential commissions and the beginning of Breuer's adoption of concrete as his primary medium.

Throughout the almost 30 years and nearly 100 buildings that followed, Breuer worked with a number of partners and associates with whom he openly and insistently shared design credit: Pier Luigi Nervi at UNESCO; Herbert Beckhard, Robert Gatje, Hamilton Smith and Tician Papachristou in New York, Mario Jossa and Harry Seidler in Paris. Their contribution to his life work has largely been credited properly, though the critics and public rightly recognized a “Breuer Building” when they saw one.

Breuer’s architectural vocabulary moved through at least four recognizable phases:

1-The white box and glass school of the International style that he adapted for his early houses in Europe and the USA: the Harnischmacher House, Gropius House, Frank House, and his own first house in Lincoln, Massachusetts.

2-The punctured wooden walls that characterized his famous 1948 “House in the Garden”for MoMA and a series of relatively modest houses for knowledgeable university faculty families in the 50s. This included the first of his houses in New Canaan, CT, with its balcony hung off a cantilever.

3-The modular prefabricated concrete panel façades that first enclosed his favorite IBM Laboratory in La Gaude, France and went on to be used in many of his institutional buildings plus the whole town at Flaine. Some critics spoke of repetitiveness but Breuer quoted a professional friend: “I can’t design a whole new system every Monday morning.”

4-The stone and shaped concrete that he used for unique and memorable commissions: his best-known project, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Muskegon and St John’s Abbey Churches, the Atlanta Public Library, and his second house in New Canaan.

Breuer was awarded the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects at their 100th annual convention in 1968 at Portland, OR. In an ironic timing of events, it coincided with general criticism of one of America’s favorite architects for his willingness to design a multi-story office building on top of Grand Central Station. The project was never built. It cost him many friends and supporters although its defeat by the US Supreme Court established the right of New York and other cities to protect their landmarks.During his lifetime, Breuer rarely acknowledged the influence of other architects’ work upon his own but he had certainly picked up the use of rough board-formed concrete from Le Corbusier and the noble dignity of his second New Canaan house seems to have directly descended from MiesBarcelona Pavilion. Shortly before his death, he told an interviewer that he considered his principle contribution to have been the adaptation of the work of older architects to the needs of modern society. He died in his apartment in Manhattan in 1981, leaving his wife Connie, son Tom,and daughter Cesca. His partners kept offices going in his name and with his permission in Paris and New York for several years but, with their eventual retirement, each is now closed.Breuer’s work is reflected in the memory and product of hundreds of students and associates.

Works (partial list)[edit]

Breuer donated many of his professional papers and drawings to the Special Collections Research Center at the Syracuse University library beginning in the late 1960s. The remainder of his papers, including most of his personal correspondence, were donated to the Archives of American Art between 1985 and 1999 by Breuer's wife, Constance.

Private residential buildings (U.S.)[edit]

  • Hagerty House, Cohasset, Massachusetts, 1937–1938
  • Breuer House I, Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1938–1939
  • J. Ford House, Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1939
  • Waldenmark, Wrightstown Township, Pennsylvania (with Walter Gropius), 1939, 1948
  • Chamberlain Cottage, Wayland, Massachusetts, 1940
  • Geller House, Lawrence, Long Island, New York, 1945
  • Tompkins House. Hewlett Harbor, New York, 1945
  • Robinson House, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1946–1948
  • Breuer House I, New Canaan, Connecticut, 1947–1948
  • Breuer House II, New Canaan, Connecticut, 1951–1952
  • Neumann House, Croton on Hudson, New York, 1953
  • Robinson House. Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1947
  • Kniffin House, New Canaan, Connecticut, 1949 (w/ Eliot Noyes)(destroyed)
  • Cape Cod Cottages 1945-1963
    • Breuer Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts, 1945–1949–1961
    • Kepes Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts, 1948–1949
  • Lauck House, Princeton, New Jersey, 1950
    • Edgar Stillman Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts, 1953–1954
    • Wise Cottage, Wellfleet, Massachusetts, 1963
  • Clark House. Orange, Connecticut, 1949
  • Marshad House, Croton-on-Hudson, New York, 1949
  • Wolfson House. Pleasant Valley, New York, 1949
  • Stillman House I, Litchfield, Connecticut, 1950
  • Exhibition House in the MoMA Garden, Kykuit, Pocantico Hills, Tarrytown, New York, 1948–1949
  • Pack House, Scarsdale, New York, 1950–1951
  • Hanson House. Huntington, Long Island, New York, 1951
  • Breuer House III. New Canaan, Connecticut, 1951
  • Caesar Cottage. Lakeville, Connecticut, 1952
  • Gagarin House 1, Litchfield, Connecticut, 1955
  • Grieco House, Andover, Massachusetts, 1954–1955
  • Starkey House, Duluth, Minnesota, 1954–1955
  • Hooper House II, Baltimore County, Maryland. 1956–1959
  • Laaff House. Andover, Massachusetts, 1957 (with H. Beckhard)
  • Seymour Krieger House, Bethesda, Maryland, 1958
  • Stachelin House. Feldmeilen, Switzerland, 1958 (with H. Beckhard)
  • Stillman II, Litchfield, Connecticut, 1966
  • Soriano House. Greenwich, Connecticut, 1969 (with T. Papachristou)
  • Stillman III, Litchfield, Connecticut, 1973–74
  • Gagarin House II, Litchfield CT, 1974
  • Stillman Roman Cottage, Litchfield, Connecticut, 1974 (Breuer Wellfleet Cottage plans; Built by Rufus Stillman)

Private residential buildings (Abroad)[edit]

Public / commercial buildings[edit]

St. John's Abbey Church at the campus of Saint John's University, 1961
Pirelli Tire Building, 1969. Large portion was demolished for an IKEA parking lot in 2003.
Atlanta central library, 1980
St. Francis De Sales Catholic Church, Muskegon, MI 1966
  • Grosse Pointe Public Library, Central Branch, Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan
  • Clarksburg-Harrison County Public Library, Clarksburg, West Virginia
  • Wohnbedarf Furniture Store, Zurich.
  • Doldertal Houses (apartment blocks), Zurich.

Furniture[edit]

Marcel Breuer. Table, Model B19, ca. 1928 Brooklyn Museum
Marcel Breuer. Long Chair, ca. 1935-1936 Brooklyn Museum
  • African chair, Collaboration with the Bauhaus weaver Gunta Stölzl
  • Sun Lounge Chair, Model No. 301
  • Dressing Table & Bureau. 1922, 1925
  • Slatted chairs (wood). 1922–24
  • Wassily Chair No.B3. 1925
  • Laccio Tables, small & large. 1927
  • Wassily chair, folding. 1927
  • Cesca Chair & Armchair. 1928
  • Thornet Typist's Desk. 1928
  • Coffee Table. 1928
  • Tubular steel furniture. 1928–29
  • F 41 lounge chair on wheels. 1928–30
  • Broom Cupboard. 1930
  • Bookcase. 1931
  • Armchair, Model No.301. 1932–34
  • Aluminium chair. 1933
  • Isokon furniture 1935-36
    • Nesting tables. 1936
    • Dining Table. 1936
    • Stacking Chairs. 1936
    • Long Chair. 1935-36
  • Aluminium chaise longue. 1935–36
  • Plywood furniture (five pieces). 1936–37

Legacy[edit]

In November 2007, the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. developed an exhibition dedicated to the work of Marcel Breuer. The exhibition, titled Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture,[7] was available to the public until February 2008.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smithsonian Archives of American Art. Marcel Breuer: A Centennial Celebration Exhibition. April 6, 2002. Accessed 12 December 2007.
  2. ^ Nancy A. Miller, "The Breuer Zone: At St. John’s University in Collegeville, campus planners refer to the clusters of buildings designed by modern master Marcel Breuer as “Breuer zones.” Architects, critics, and scholars around the world call them hallowed architectural ground", Architecture MN, January February 2008 (Vol.34, No. 01). Reprinted in The Minnesota Preservationist: Published by the Preservation Alliance of Minnesota “to preserve, protect, and promote Minnesota’s historic resources”, Volume 13, Number 2, March - April 2010, p.7-9.
  3. ^ Nancy A. Miller, "[The Breuer Zone: At St. John’s University in Collegeville, campus planners refer to the clusters of buildings designed by modern master Marcel Breuer as “Breuer zones.” Architects, critics, and scholars around the world call them hallowed architectural ground]", Architecture MN, January February 2008 (Vol. 34, No. 01. Reprinted in The Minnesota Preservationist: Published by the Preservation Alliance of Minnesota “to preserve, protect, and promote Minnesota’s historic resources”, Volume 13, Number 2, March - April 2010, p.7-9.
  4. ^ Begrisch Hall - A history of New York University's Bronx Campus through its architecture
  5. ^ "IKEA Threatens Breuer Icon". archweek.com. Retrieved 2014-05-09. 
  6. ^ "Pirelli Tire Building". docomomo-us.org. Retrieved 2014-05-09. 
  7. ^ http://www.nbm.org/exhibitions-collections/exhibitions/marcel-breuer.html
  • VV.AA., "4 Centenarios. Luis Barragán, Marcel Breuer, Arne Jacobsen, José Luis Sert", Valladolid, España, 2002, Universidad de Valladolid, ISBN 84-8448-199-9

Selected Bibliography[edit]

  • Books and Pamphlets on Breuer:
    • Abercrombie, Stanley. Koerfer House (with Herbert Beckhard), Moscia, Tessin, Switzerland 1963-6, Stillman House III (with Tician Papachristou), Litchfield, Connecticut 1972-74. Tokyo: A.D. A. Edita Tokyo, 1977.
    • Argan, Giulio Carlo. Marcel Breuer, Disegno Industriale e Architettura. Milano: Görlich, 1957.
    • Armesto, Antonio, ed. Marcel Breuer: Casas Americans. Barcelona: G. Gili, 2001.
    • Blake, Peter. Marcel Breuer: Architect and Designer. New York: 1949.
    • -------------., ed. Sun and Shadow: The Philosophy of an Architect. New York: Dodd, Mead [1955].
    • Chaljub, Benedicte. Marcel Breuer à Flaine – Portrait. Le Conseil d’Architecture, d’Urbanisme et de l’Environnement de Haute-Savoie, 2014.
    • Cobbers, Arnt. Marcel Breuer, 1902-1981: Form Giver of the Twentieth Century. London: Taschen, 2007.
    • Driller, Joachim. Marcel Breuer: das architektonische Frühwerk bis 1950. Ph.D. Thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg i.Br., 1990.
    • -------------. Breuer Houses. Translated by Mark Cole and Jeremy Verrinder. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2000.
    • -------------. Marcel Breuer: Die Wohnhäuser, 1923-1973. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1998.
    • Droste, Magdalena and Manfred Ludewig. Marcel Breuer Design. Köln: Benedikt Taschen, 1994.
    • Earles, William D. The Harvard Five in New Canaan: Midcentury Modern Houses by Marcel Breuer, Landis Gores, John Johansen, Philip Johnson, Eliot Noyes and Others. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.
    • Galema, Wijnand and Fransje Hooimeijer. Bouwen aan diplomatie: De Amerikaanse ambassade in Den Haag Marcel Breuer, 1956 – 1959. Hague: Cultuurhistorische verkenning, 2008.
    • Gatje, Robert F. Marcel Breuer: A Memoir. New York: The Monacelli Press, 2000.
    • Howard, Shirley Reiff. Marcel Breuer, Concrete and the Cross. Muskegon, MI.: Hackley Art Museum, 1978.
    • Hyman, Isabelle. Marcel Breuer, Architect. The Career and the Buildings. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001.
    • Izzo, Alberto and Camillo Gubitosi, eds. Marcel Breuer: Architettura 1921-1980. Firenze: Centro Di, 1981.
    • Jones, Cranston. Buildings and Projects, 1921-1961. New York: Praeger, 1962.
    • Kepes, Gyorgy, ed. The Man-Made Object. New York: G. Braziller, 1966.
    • Masello, David. Architecture Without Rules: The Houses of Marcel Breuer and Herbert Beckhard. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.
    • Pearson, Christopher E. M. Designing UNESCO: Art, Architecture and International Politics at Mid-Century. Burlington, VT.: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2010.
    • Papachristou, Tician. Marcel Breuer, New Buildings and Projects. New York: Praeger, 1970.
    • Schneck, Adolf G., ed. Der Stuhl: Stuhltypen aus verschiedenen Ländern und Versuche neuzeitlicher Lösungen in Ansichten und Masszeichnungen. Stuttgart: Hoffmann, 1928.
    • Stoddard, Whitney S. Adventure in Architecture: Building the New Saint John’s. New York: Longmans, Green, 1958.
    • Thimmesh, Hilary. Marcel Breuer and a Committee of Twelve Plan a Church: A Monastic Memoir. Collegeville, MN: Saint John’s University Press, 2011.
  • Exhibition Catalogues:
    • Breuer’s Whitney: an Anniversary Exhibition. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1996.
    • A Design Student’s Guide to the New York World’s Fair. New York: PM Magazine and Laboratory School of Industrial Design, 1939.
    • Marcel Breuer: an Exhibition organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, [1972].
    • Bergdoll, Barry and Leah Dickerson. Bauhaus 1919-1933: Workshops for Modernity. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2009.
    • Scheffler, Renate, ed. Marcel Breuer: Ausstellung im Bauhaus-Archiv. Berlin: Bauhaus-Archiv, [1975].
    • von Vegesack, Alexander and Mathias Remmele, eds. Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture. Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum, 2003.
    • Wilk, Christopher. Marcel Breuer: Furniture and Interiors. London: Architectural Press, 1981.
  • Journal Articles:
    • “A. & S. – Nassau Store Designed to Provide Main-Store Facilities in Outlying Area.” Architectural Record (February 1951).
    • “Air Line Office with a Lift.” Architectural Record (April 1946).
    • “Aluminum City Terrace Housing.” Architectural Forum (July 1944): 65-76.
    • “A Beach Club to Sell a View.” Architectural Record (July 1948).
    • “The Breuer House at the Museum of Modern Art New York.” The Architect and Building News (20 May 1949).
    • “La Case di Marcel Breuer nel Connecticut.” Domus, no. 233 (1949).
    • “Casa Para la Familia que Crece.” Nuestra Arquitectura 21, no. 242 (September 1949).
    • “Casa rustica,” Domus (Sep 1949): 1-4.
    • “The Case of the Aging House: How it Was Given a New Lease on Life.” House and Garden (April 1951).
    • “De Bijenkorf te Rotterdam.“ Bouwkundig Weekblad (24 April 1956).
    • “Discoveries in Living.” Science Illustrated (April 1942): 65-95.
    • “A Dollar Buys More Room.” Science Illustrated (April 1942).
    • “Dormitory Interiors.” Architectural Record (April 1946).
    • “Elementary School: Bantam, Connecticut.” Progressive Architecture (February 1957).
    • “Factory by Marcel Breuer is Bright and Handsome-All Around.” Architectural Forum (February 1955).
    • “Fireplace: House in New York.” The Architect and Building News (14 October 1949).
    • “For Practice in Housekeeping.” Architectural Record (June 1950).
    • “Four American Houses.” The Architectural Review (November 1939).
    • “A Garden City of the Future.” The Architects’ Journal (26 March 1936).
    • “Geller House, Lawrence, Long Island.” Progressive Architecture (February 1947).
    • “Guest Architect in the Netherlands.” Katholick Beowblad (vol. xxvi, no. 21).
    • “Grand magasin à Rotterdam.” [unknown publication] [French] -
    • “Habitations 50.” L’architecture d’aujourd’hui ( July 1950): 35-48.
    • “A House Fitted to the Berkshire Hills.” Architectural Record (February 1949).
    • “House for the Growing Family.” Architectural Forum (May 1949): 94-101.
    • “Houses by F.R.S. Yorke and Marcel Breuer.” Architectural Review (January 1939): 29-35.
    • “Marcel Breuer.” Interiors (September 1977): 98-109.
    • “Marcel Breuer: almacenes, en Rotterdam.“ Revista Informes de la construcción (April 1956).
    • “Marcel Breuer Builds for Himself.” Architectural Record (October 1948): 91-101.
    • “Marcel Breuer Designs in Plywood.” Upholstering (February 1947).
    • “Marcel Breuer: da Bauhaus à Casa no Jardim.“ Pilotis (February 1950).
    • “Marcel Breuer: Teacher and Architect.” House and Home (May 1952).
    • “Marcel Breuer’s Own House.” The Architectural Review (1949).
    • “Netherlands Department Store Rebuilds.” Architectural Record (May 1955).
    • “Noi pietra, essi legno: La casa di Marcel Breuer nel Connecticut.” Domus (1949): 2-7.
    • “Una Nueva Obra de Marcel Breuer.” Nuestra Arquitectura 11 (November 1948). [Spanish]
    • “Oeuvres Récentes de Marcel Breuer, Architecte.” L’architecture d’aujord’hui (July 1946): 3-26.
    • “On the Cover: The Geller House.” Empire State Architect (July/August 1947).
    • “Sulla Media de Sogni di un Cittadino Americano.” Domus (1949).
    • “Symmetrical Cantilevers on Asymmetrical Base.” House and Home (January 1952): 119-124.
    • “Theater Arts Center: The Way to Solve a Complex Problem is to the Make it Simple.” Architectural Forum (December 1952).
    • “Tomorrow’s House Today.” House and Garden (February 1947).
    • “The Tompkins House, Hewlett Harbor, Long Island.” Architectural Record (September 1947).
    • “Two Modern Summer Cottages (Blueprints for Tomorrow).” House and Garden (ca. 1948): 62.
    • “Wohnhaus mit aufgehängtem Balkon.” Bauen + Wohnen (1949). [German]
  • Journal Issues Devoted to Breuer:
    • Bouwkundig Weekblad Architectura, no. 40, 5 (October 1929).
    • Cobouw, no.12 (22 March 1957).
    • Cobouw, no.13 (29 March 1957).
    • Nuestra Arquitectura 9 (September 1947).
    • Process: Architecture 32 (September 1982).
  • Selected Writings by Breuer:
    • “Form Funktion” (lecture originally delivered at the Bauhaus in 1923).
    • “Furnishing and the Contemporary House.” [handwritten manuscript]
    • “Horizont” (the blue horizon), n.d.
    • “Das innere des hauses” [lecture originally delivered in Delft, Holland, 1931]
    • Introduction to The Work of Architects Olgyay & Olgyay. New York: Reinhold, Pub. Corp., [1952].
    • “Modern Architecture.” [typed manuscript]
    • “Must Architecture be Sterile?” [typed manuscript]
    • “On Architecture and Material.” [typed manuscript of article published in Circle, 1936].
    • “On a Design of a Binuclear House.” [typed manuscript of article published in California Arts and Architecture (Dec. 1943)]
    • “On Paul Klee.” [typed manuscript]
    • “On Reorganization of the Bauhaus in 1923.” [typed manuscript]
    • Preface to Living Architecture: Egyptian, ed. By Kenenth Martin LEake. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
    • “Stuyvesant Six: A Redevelopment Study.” Pencil Points (June 1944).
    • “Tell Me, What is Modern Architecture?” House and Garden, April 1940.
    • “Wo stehen wir?” [lecture originally delivered in Zürich, 27 Apr 1934]

External links[edit]